George Meany
President of the AFL–CIO (1955–1979)
William George Meany

(1894-08-16)August 16, 1894
DiedJanuary 10, 1980(1980-01-10) (aged 85)
OccupationLabor leader
SpouseEugenia McMahon Meany
Parent(s)Michael Meany and Anne Cullen Meany

William George Meany (August 16, 1894 – January 10, 1980) was an American labor union leader for 57 years. He was the key figure in the creation of the AFL-CIO and served as the AFL-CIO's first president, from 1955 to 1979.

Meany, the son of a union plumber, became a plumber at a young age, as well. He became a full-time union official 12 years later. As an officer of the American Federation of Labor, he represented the AFL on the National War Labor Board during World War II. He served as president of the AFL from 1952 to 1955.

He proposed its merger with the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO) in 1952 and led the negotiations until the merger was completed in 1955. He then served as president of the merged AFL-CIO for the next 24 years.

Meany had a reputation for integrity and consistent opposition to corruption in the labor movement,[1] and strong anti-communism. He was the best known union leader in the United States in the mid-20th century.[2]

Early years

Meany was born into a Roman Catholic family in Harlem,[3] New York City on August 16, 1894, the second of 10 children.[4] His parents were Michael Meany and Anne Cullen Meany, who were both American-born and of Irish descent.[2] His ancestors had immigrated to the United States in the 1850s. His father was a plumber and a strong supporter of the trade union movement and served as president of his plumber's union local.[5] Michael Meany was also a precinct level activist in the Democratic Party.[6]

Meany grew up in the Port Morris neighborhood of The Bronx, where his parents had moved when he was five years old.[6] Always called "George," he learned that his real first name was William only when he got a work permit as a teenager.[6] Following his father's career path, Meany quit high school at 16[7] to work as a plumber's helper.[4] He then served a five-year apprenticeship as a plumber and got his journeyman's certificate[5] in 1917, with Local 463 United Association of Plumbers and Steamfitters of the United States and Canada.[2]

His father died suddenly of a heart attack in 1916 after a bout of pneumonia. When Meany's older brother joined the US Army in 1917, George became the sole source of income for his mother and six younger children.[6] He supplemented his income for a while by playing as a semiprofessional baseball catcher.[6] In 1919, he married Eugenia McMahon, a garment worker and a member of the International Ladies Garment Workers Union.[2] They had three daughters.[4]

Beginning of union career in New York

In 1920, Meany was elected to the executive board of Local 463 of the Plumber's Union. In 1922, he became a full-time business agent for the local, which had 3,600 members at that time.[6] Meany later stated that he had never walked a picket line during his plumber's union days,[6][8] explaining that his original plumber's union never needed to picket, because the employers never attempted to replace the workers.[9]

In 1923, he was elected secretary of the New York City Building Trades Council, the city federation of unions to represent construction workers. He won a court injunction against a lockout in 1927, then considered an innovative tactic, opposed by many of the older leaders, for a union.[6]

In 1934, he became president of the New York State Federation of Labor, the statewide coalition of trade unions. In his first year of lobbying in Albany, the state capital, 72 bills that he supported in the state legislature were enacted into law, and he developed a close working relationship with Governor Herbert H. Lehman.[4]

He developed a reputation for honesty, diligence and the ability to testify effectively before legislative hearings and to speak clearly to the press.[6] In 1936, he cofounded the American Labor Party, a pro-union political party active in New York, along with David Dubinsky and Sidney Hillman, partly as a vehicle to organize support for the re-election that year of President Franklin D. Roosevelt and mayor Fiorello La Guardia among socialists in the union movement.[8]

National leadership in Washington, DC

Three years later, he moved to Washington, DC to become national secretary-treasurer of the American Federation of Labor,[7] where he served under AFL president William Green. During World War II, Meany was one of the permanent representatives of the AFL to the National War Labor Board.[6] During the war, he established close relationships with prominent anticommunists in the American labor movement, including David Dubinsky, Jay Lovestone and Matthew Woll.[6] In October 1945, he led the AFL boycott of the founding conference of the World Federation of Trade Unions, which welcomed participation by labor unions from the Soviet Union[6] and was later called a communist front.[10]

The strike wave of 1945-1946, which was led to a large extent by CIO unions, resulted in passage of the Taft Hartley Act in 1947, which was widely perceived as anti-union. One provision required union officials to sign loyalty oaths affirming that they were not communists. Opposition to signing the oath was led by John L. Lewis, president of the United Mine Workers Union.

Meany, in opposition to Lewis and other left-wing union leaders,[11] replied that he would "go further and sign an affidavit that I was never a comrade to the comrades" since he had always ostracized communists.[4] Within a year, most US union leaders unaffiliated with the Communist Party signed the affidavit, later upheld by the Supreme Court, which ruled in 1949 that the Communist Party was unique among American political parties in swearing allegiance to a foreign power.[12]

Merger of AFL and CIO

When Green's health declined in 1951, Meany gradually took over day-to-day operations of the AFL.[13] He became president of the American Federation of Labor in 1952 upon Green's death,[7] which occurred just 12 days after the death of Congress of Industrial Organizations president Philip Murray.[14] Walter Reuther of the United Auto Workers became president of the CIO.

Upon taking leadership of the AFL, Meany put forward a proposal to merge with the CIO.[15] Meany took control of the AFL upon being elected president, but it took a bit longer for Reuther to solidify his control of the CIO.[8] Reuther then became a willing partner in the merger negotiations.[8]

It took Meany three years to negotiate the merger, and he had to overcome significant opposition. John L. Lewis of the United Mine Workers called the merger a "rope of sand," and his union refused to join the AFL-CIO.[16] Jimmy Hoffa, second in command of the Teamster's Union, protested, "What's in it for us? Nothing!"[16] However, the Teamsters went along with the merger initially. Mike Quill, president of the Transport Workers Union of America also fought the merger,[16] saying that it amounted to a capitulation to the "racism, racketeering and raiding" of the AFL.[8]

Meany's efforts came to fruition in December 1955 with a joint convention in New York City that merged the two federations, creating the AFL-CIO, with Meany elected as president.[17] Called Meany's "greatest achievement" by Time magazine,[18] the new federation had 15 million members. Only two million US workers were members of unions remaining outside the AFL-CIO.[16]

Campaigns against corrupt unions

In 1953, under Meany's leadership, the International Longshoremen's Association, accused of racketeering, was expelled from the AFL, an early example of Meany's efforts against corruption and the influence of organized crime in the labor movement. After bitter internal reform, the union was readmitted[4] to the now-merged AFL-CIO, in 1959.

Meany also fought against corruption in the AFL affiliated United Textile Workers of America from 1952. In 1957, he reported that the president of that union had been stealing more than $250,000. Meany also appointed an independent monitor to oversee reform of the union.[1]

Concerns about corruption and the influence of organized crime in the International Brotherhood of Teamsters, under the leadership of Dave Beck, led Meany to begin a campaign to reform that union in 1956. In 1957, in the midst of a fight for control of the union with Jimmy Hoffa, Beck was called before the United States Senate Select Committee on Improper Activities in Labor and Management, commonly called the "McClellan Committee" after its chairman John Little McClellan, of Arkansas.[1]

Televised hearings in early 1957 exposed misconduct by both the Beck and the Hoffa factions of the Teamsters Union. Both Hoffa and Beck were indicted, but Hoffa won the battle for control of the Teamsters. In response, the AFL-CIO instituted a policy that no union official who had taken the Fifth Amendment during a corruption investigation could continue in a leadership position. Meany told the Teamsters that they could continue as members of the AFL-CIO if Hoffa resigned as president. Hoffa refused, and the Teamsters were ousted from the AFL-CIO[1][7] on December 6, 1957. Meany supported the AFL-CIO's adoption of a code of ethics, in the wake of the scandal.[19]

Meany also led campaigns against organized crime leadership and corruption in the International Jewelry Workers Union, the Laundry Workers International Union, the AFL Distillery Workers, the AFL United Auto Workers, and the Bakery and Confectionery Workers International Union.[1] He demanded the firing of corrupt union leaders and internal reorganization of the unions. When some unions resisted, he organized their expulsion from the AFL and later from the AFL-CIO, and he even set up rival unions.[1] He set up an AFL-CIO Committee on Ethical Practices to investigate misconduct and insisted for unions under investigation to co-operate with its inquiries. According to John Hutchinson, a professor at UCLA, "few American union leaders have such a public record of repeated and explicit opposition to corruption."[1]

Vietnam War

Meany consistently defended President Lyndon B. Johnson's Vietnam War policies. He criticized labor leaders, including Walter Reuther of the United Auto Workers, who called for the US to withdraw its military forces from Vietnam, a stance that he correctly predicted would lead to a communist victory in South Vietnam.[20] In 1966, Meany insisted for AFL-CIO unions to give "unqualified support" to Johnson's war policy. AFL-CIO critics opposing Meany and the war at that time included Ralph Helstein of the United Packinghouse Workers of America, George Burdon of the United Rubberworkers and Patrick Gorman of the United Auto Workers.[21]

Charles Cogen, president of the American Federation of Teachers opposed Meany in 1967, when the AFL-CIO convention adopted a resolution pledging support for the war in Vietnam. Reuther stated that he was busy with negotiations with General Motors in Detroit and could not attend the convention. In his speech to the convention, Meany said that, in Vietnam the AFL-CIO was "neither hawk nor dove nor chicken"[20][22] but was supporting "brother trade unionists" struggling against Communism.[20]

Meany meeting with Richard Nixon in 1969

As an anticommunist who identified with the working class, Meany expressed contempt for the New Left. That movement had often criticized the labor movement for conservatism, racism, and anticommunism, and in the late 1960s and early 1970s, it included many supporters of Communist movements, such as the Viet Cong.[23][24] In the aftermath of the violence by antiwar demonstrators and police at the 1968 Democratic National Convention, Meany sided with the police by calling the protesters a "dirtynecked and dirty-mouthed group of kooks."[18]

Meany opposed the antiwar candidacy of U. S. Senator George McGovern for the presidency against incumbent Richard Nixon in 1972 despite McGovern's generally pro-labor voting record in Congress. However he declined to endorse Nixon. On Face the Nation in September 1972, Meany criticized McGovern's statements that the US should respect other peoples' rights to choose communism by pointing out that there had never been a country that had freely voted for communism. Meaney accused McGovern of being "an apologist for the Communist world."[25]

Following Nixon's landslide defeat of McGovern, Meany said that the American people had "overwhelmingly repudiated neo-isolationism" in foreign policy. Meany pointed out that the American voters had split their votes by supporting the Democrats in Congress.[26]

Meany's support for the war effort continued to the final days before Saigon fell to the North Vietnam in April, 1975. He called for President Gerald Ford to provide a US Navy "flotilla" if it was needed to ensure that hundreds of thousands of "friends of the United States" could escape before a communist regime could be established.[27]

He also appealed for the admission of the maximum possible number of Vietnamese refugees to the United States. Meany blamed Congress for "washing its hands" of the war and of weakening South Vietnam's military, damaging is "will to fight."[27] In particular, Meaney accused Congress of failing to provide adequate funding for US troops to stage an orderly withdrawal.[27]

Conflict with Reuther

Despite their co-operation in the AFL-CIO merger, Meany and Reuther had a contentious relationship for many years.[28] In 1963, Meany and Reuther disagreed about the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, a major event in the history of the civil rights movement in the United States. Meany opposed AFL-CIO endorsement of the march. In an AFL-CIO executive council meeting on August 12, Reuther's motion for a strong endorsement of the march was supported by only A. Philip Randolph of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, the titular leader of the march. The AFL-CIO endorsed a civil rights law and allowed individual unions to endorse the march.[8] When Meany heard Randolph's speech after the march, he was visibly moved. Thereafter, he supported the creation of the A. Philip Randolph Institute to strengthen labor unions among African Americans and to strengthen ties with the African American community. Randolph said that he was sure that Meany was morally opposed to racism.[4]

At the time of the 1967 AFL-CIO convention, Reuther demanded for Meany to make the AFL-CIO more democratic.[29]

After years of disagreement with Meany, Reuther resigned from the AFL-CIO executive council in February 1967.[8] In 1968, Reuther led the UAW out of the AFL-CIO,[30] and the UAW did not re-affiliate with the AFL-CIO until 1981,[31] long after Reuther's death in a 1970 plane crash.[32]

Political goals

In the midst of the Great Society reforms advocated by President Johnson, Meany and the AFL-CIO in 1965 endorsed a resolution calling for "mandatory congressional price hearings for corporations, a technological clearinghouse, and a national planning agency."[33] American socialist leader Michael Harrington commented that the AFL-CIO had "initiated a programmatic redefinition that had much more in common with the defeated socialist proposal of 1894 than with the voluntarism of Gompers"[33] referring to Samuel Gompers, the founder of the AFL, who had openly opposed socialism for decades. The 1965 resolution was part of the AFL-CIO's ongoing support for industrial democracy. Despite Meany's support for reform policies that were sometimes called "socialist," he also said that "I very much agree with the free market system ""[4] Meaney pointed out, "When you don't have anything, you have nothing to lose by these radical actions. But when you become a person who has a home and has property, to some extent you become conservative."[4]

As AFL-CIO president, Meany supported raising the minimum wage, increasing public works spending, and protecting union organizing rights. He also supported universal health care. Under his leadership, the AFL-CIO lobbied vigorously for its goals.[11] He backed the two party system, and believed in "supporting your friends and punishing your enemies."[4] A cultural conservative, Meany ridiculed a 1972 proposal for same-sex marriage.[34]

Later years

By the mid-1970s, Meany was past his 80th birthday and there were increasing calls for him to retire and pass leadership of the AFL-CIO to a younger man.[35] In his final years, Meany took up amateur photography and painting as hobbies.[5]

Meany's wife of 59 years, Eugenia, died in March 1979, and he became depressed after losing her.[7] He injured his knee in a golfing mishap a few months before his death and was confined to a wheelchair.[7] In November 1979, he retired from the AFL-CIO, after a 57-year career in organized labor. He was succeeded by Lane Kirkland, who served as AFL-CIO president for the next 16 years.[36]

Meany died at George Washington University Hospital on January 10, 1980 from cardiac arrest.[4] The AFL-CIO had 14 million members at time of death. President Jimmy Carter called him "an American institution" and "a patriot."[7] He was interred at Gate of Heaven Cemetery in Silver Spring, Maryland.[37]

Awards, tributes and legacy

George Meany smoking his cigar, which also appears in the banner of the League for Industrial Democracy's "Tribute to George Meany."

President John F. Kennedy established the Presidential Medal of Freedom on February 22, 1963, but died before he could award it. Two weeks after Kennedy's assassination, President Lyndon Johnson awarded it to Meany and thirty others on December 6, 1963.[38] Johnson said the award was for Meany's service to the union movement and for advancing freedom throughout the world.[39]

On November 6, 1974, Meany dedicated the George Meany Center for Labor Studies (founded 1969), which was renamed the National Labor College in 1997.[40] From 1993 to 2013, the college housed the George Meany Memorial Archives, held at the University of Maryland since 2013.[41]

The George Meany Award was established by the Boy Scouts of America in 1974.[42]

Books published about Meany include Meany: The Unchallenged Strong Man of American Labor (1972)[43] and George Meany and His Times: A Biography (1981).[44] Meany's entry in the biographical encyclopedia American National Biography was published in 2000, authored by historian David Brody.[45]

Meany was known as a cigar smoker, and pictures of him often appeared in newspapers and magazines smoking a cigar.[8][46][47][48][49]

On the 1994 100th anniversary of his birth,[50] Meany was pictured on a United States commemorative postage stamp.[51]

In popular culture

Also in 1994, Meany was featured on an episode of The Simpsons called "Bart of Darkness." Bart, stuck indoors with a broken leg, watches a black-and-white 1961 rerun of the Krusty the Klown show featuring Krusty interviewing Meany on "collective bargaining agreements."[52]

His death was referenced by the 2012 film Argo.

See also


  1. ^ a b c d e f g Hutchinson, John (Winter 1971). "George Meany and the Wayward". California Management Review. 14 (2). University of California, Berkeley: 51–60. Retrieved May 13, 2015.
  2. ^ a b c d Meagher, Timothy J. (2005). The Columbia Guide to Irish American History. Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-12070-8.
  3. ^ "An Interview with George Meany". Black Enterprise. New York City. June 1975. p. 106. Retrieved November 17, 2011.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Flint, Jerry (January 11, 1980). "George Meany Is Dead; Pioneer in Labor Was 85". New York Times. Retrieved April 19, 2015.
  5. ^ a b c Stetson, Damon (1971). A Blunt Labor Leader: William George Meany. The New York Times Biographical Service. Vol. Volume 2. New York Times and Arno Press. p. 3637. ((cite book)): |volume= has extra text (help)
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Zieger, Robert (1987). "George Meany: Labor's organization man". In Dubofsky, Melvyn; Van Tine, Warren R. (eds.). Labor Leaders in America. University of Illinois Press. pp. 324–332. ISBN 978-0-252-01343-0. ((cite book)): Unknown parameter |editorlink2= ignored (|editor-link2= suggested) (help)
  7. ^ a b c d e f g Ullmann, Owen (January 11, 1980). "George Meany, Labor's 'Giant' Is Dead at 85". Nashua Telegraph. Nashua, New Hampshire. p. 1. Retrieved October 23, 2011.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h Lichtenstein, Nelson (1997). Walter Reuther: the most dangerous man in Detroit. University of Illinois Press. pp. 88, 323. ISBN 978-0-252-06626-9.
  9. ^ Robinson, Archie; Meany, George (1981). George Meany and His Times: A Biography. Simon & Schuster. p. 54. ISBN 978-0-671-42163-2.
  10. ^ Richelson, Jefferey T. (1997). A Century of Spies: Intelligence in the Twentieth Century. Oxford University Press. p. 252. ISBN 9780195113907.
  11. ^ a b >Smith, J.Y.; Crawford, Kenneth (January 11, 1980). "George Meany, 85, Giant of U.S. Labor Movement". Washington Post. Retrieved July 12, 2015.
  12. ^ Luff, Jennifer (2012). Commonsense Anticommunism: Labor and Civil Liberties between the World Wars. University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 9780807869895.
  13. ^ "Murray, Green Deaths Likely To Bring New Era: Top Union Official Sights Possibility Of CIO-AFL Unification". Toledo Blade. Toledo, Ohio. November 22, 1952. p. 3. Retrieved October 23, 2011.
  14. ^ "William Green Lauded By Ike and Truman". Sarasota Herald-Tribune. November 22, 1952. Retrieved July 15, 2015.
  15. ^ "Mr. Meany And Merger". Toledo Blade. November 28, 1952. Retrieved November 6, 2011.
  16. ^ a b c d "New Affluence, Unity for Labor". LIFE magazine. December 12, 1955. Retrieved November 6, 2011.
  17. ^ Walker, Norman (November 28, 1955). "Meany And AFL-CIO Merger: A Plumber's Dream". Meriden Journal. Meriden, Connecticut. Retrieved November 6, 2011.
  18. ^ a b "Labor's Voice is Stilled, George Meany: 1894-1980". Time. January 21, 1980. Retrieved May 13, 2015.
  19. ^ Cherny, Robert W.; Issel, William and Taylor, Kieran Walsh (2004). American labor and the Cold War: grassroots politics and postwar political culture. Rutgers University Press. p. 3. ISBN 978-0-8135-3403-9.((cite book)): CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  20. ^ a b c "Meany Backs Viet, Slaps at Reuther: Neither 'Hawk, Dove—Nor Chicken' AFL-Boss Says In Convention Keynote". Pittsburgh Press. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. December 7, 1967. Retrieved October 23, 2011.
  21. ^ "George Meany's on the Spot For Loyalty to the President". Miami News. Miami. February 13, 1966. pp. 18A. Retrieved October 23, 2011.
  22. ^ Dumbrell, John (1990). The making of US foreign policy: American democracy and American foreign policy. Manchester University Press. p. 199. ISBN 978-0-7190-3188-5.
  23. ^ Levy, Peter B. (1994). The New Left and Labor in the 1960s. University of Illinois Press. ISBN 9780252063671.
  24. ^ Lewy, Guenter (1990). The Cause That Failed: Communism in American Political Life. Oxford University Press. p. 268. ISBN 9780199878987.
  25. ^ "Meany hits McGovern as red apologist". Milwaukee Sentinel. Milwaukee. September 4, 1972. Retrieved October 23, 2011.
  26. ^ "Meany's observations". Boca Raton News. Boca Raton, Florida. November 9, 1972. pp. 4a. Retrieved October 23, 2011.
  27. ^ a b c Sperling Jr., Godfrey (April 14, 1975). "Meany urges massive U.S. effort to rescue endangered Vietnam". The Beaver County Times. Beaver, Pennsylvania. Retrieved October 23, 2011.
  28. ^ Carew, Anthony (1993). Walter Reuther. Lives of the Left. Manchester University Press. p. 77.
  29. ^ "AFL-CIO Backs LBJ on Vietnam". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. December 12, 1967. Retrieved October 23, 2011.
  30. ^ Weir, Robert E. (2013). Workers in America: A Historical Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. pp. 187, 455, 680. ISBN 9781598847192.
  31. ^ Lardner, George (June 10, 1981). "Leaders of Auto Workers Vote to Rejoin AFL-CIO". Washington Post.
  32. ^ Hamilton, Neil A. (2002). American Social Leaders and Activists. Infobase Publishing. p. 319. ISBN 9781438108087., and after Meany's death.
  33. ^ a b Boyle, Kevin (1999). The UAW and the Heyday of American Liberalism, 1945–1968. Cornell University Press. p. 201. ISBN 978-0-8014-8538-1.
  34. ^ Sidey, Hugh (July 14, 1972). "The human side of discord". LIFE magazine. New York City. Retrieved October 23, 2011.
  35. ^ Dobkin, Robert A. (September 8, 1977). "Union power passing to young, better educated generation". Deseret News. Salt Lake City. Retrieved June 15, 2013.
  36. ^ Lichtenstein, Nelson (2013). State of the Union: A Century of American Labor. Princeton University Press. p. 247. ISBN 9781400848140.
  37. ^ Bredemeier, Kenneth (January 16, 1980). "Labor, Politicians Eulogize Meany". The Washington Post.
  38. ^ "President Kennedy's Executive Order 11085: Presidential Medal of Freedom". John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum, Boston. Retrieved November 19, 2011.
  39. ^ "Lyndon B. Johnson: Remarks With Under Secretary of State George W. Ball at the Presentation of the Medal of Freedom Awards, December 6, 1963". The American Presidency Project, University of California, Santa Barbara. Retrieved November 19, 2011.
  40. ^ "History of the National Labor College". George Meany Legacy Website. Retrieved 12 August 2016.
  41. ^ "George Meany Memorial Archives". National Labor College. Retrieved 12 August 2016.
  42. ^ "The George Meany Award". Boy Scouts of America. Retrieved 12 August 2016.
  43. ^ Godson, Roy (Spring 1973). "Meany: The Unchallenged Strong Man of American Labor by Joseph C. Goulden". World Affairs. 135 (4): 353–356. JSTOR 20671397.
  44. ^ Kheel, Theodore W. (Winter 1983–1984). "George Meany and His Times: A Biography by Archie Robinson". Political Science Quarterly. 98 (4): 712–714. doi:10.2307/2149744. JSTOR 2149744.
  45. ^ Brody, David (February 2000). "Meany, George". American National Biography Online. Oxford University Press and American Council of Learned Societies. Retrieved 12 August 2016. ((cite encyclopedia)): Unknown parameter |subscription= ignored (|url-access= suggested) (help)
  46. ^ Freeman, Joshua B. (2008). A Companion to Post-1945 America. John Wiley and Sons. p. 201. ISBN 9781405123198.
  47. ^ Sidey, Hugh (November 19, 1971). "For George Meany, life begins at 77". LIFE magazine. New York City. Retrieved November 15, 2011.
  48. ^ "A.F.L.'s George Meany". TIME. New York City. March 21, 1955. Retrieved November 15, 2011.
  49. ^ "Labor in the Freeze: George Meany". TIME. New York City. September 6, 1971. Retrieved November 15, 2011.
  50. ^ Kronish, Syd (August 29, 1994). "Stamp Honors Labor Leader Meany on 100th Birthday". Deseret News. Salt Lake City. Retrieved November 15, 2011.
  51. ^ Sine, Richard L.; Galpin, Jonathan. "Commemorative issue: George Meany". U.S. Stamp Gallery. Retrieved November 15, 2011.
  52. ^ Alberti, John; Arnold, David L.G. (2004). Leaving Springfield: The Simpsons and the Possibility of Oppositional Culture. Detroit: Wayne State University Press. p. 12. ISBN 0814328490.
Business positions Preceded byWilliam Green AFL President 1952–1955 Merged into AFL-CIO New titleAFL-CIO founded AFL-CIO President 1955–1979 Succeeded byLane Kirkland