Trends of New HIV/AIDS infections versus HIV/AIDS Annual Deaths from 1990 to 2015
Trends of New HIV/AIDS infections versus HIV/AIDS Annual Deaths from 1990 to 2015

Tanzania faces generalized HIV epidemic which means it affects all sections of the society but also concentrated epidemic among certain population groups. The prevalence of HIV/AIDS in Tanzania is characterised by substantial across age, gender, geographical location and socioeconomic status implying difference in the risk of transmission of infection.[1] In 2019, among 1.7 million people living with HIV/AIDS, the prevalence was 4.6% and 58,000 new HIV infection among 15 - 49 years old, and 6,500 new infections among children below 15 years old,[1] 50% of all new infections are between 15 - 29 years of age group.[2] Report from Tanzania PHIA of 2016/17 shows that HIV prevalence among women is higher (6.2%) than men (3.1%).[3] The prevalence of HIV is less than 2% among 15-19 years for both males and females and then increases with age for both sexes.[4]

Prevalence of HIV/AIDS has declined from 7% in 2003 to 4.8% in 2018. Burden of HIV/AIDS is higher in urban areas (7.5%) as compared to rural areas (4.5%).[5] The region with the highest prevalence is Njombe estimated to 11.4% followed by Iringa 11.3% and Mbeya (9.3%) while Lindi has the lowest HIV prevalence of less than 1% . In 2019 there were 27,000 HIV/AIDS related dealths. For children below 15 years there were 1,246 deaths and among 15 - 49 years of age there were up to 18,348 deaths.[6]

HIV/AIDS trend from 1990-2019 in Tanzania
HIV/AIDS trend from 1990-2019 in Tanzania

Origins and spread

There is a widespread conception among Tanzanians and among some health workers that the 1979 Uganda–Tanzania War contributed to the spread of AIDS across the country. AIDS was first identified in Tanzania in 1984.[7]

Progress towards 90-90-90 Target

Tanzania Progress Towards 90-90-90 Target
Tanzania Progress Towards 90-90-90 Target

In December 2013, UNAIDS supported regions and countries led efforts to establish new targets for HIV treatment which were to be scaled up beyond 2015 after the deadline of 2011 targets and commitments of Political Declaration of HIV and AIDS. It was agreed by 2020, 90% of all the people living with HIV/AIDS knows their status, 90% of all the people diagnosed with HIV/AIDS receive sustained antiretroviral therapy and 90% of all the people receiving antiretrovital therapy have viral suppression.[8]

By 2019, 83% of all people living with HIV infection know their status of which 90% (75% of all people living with HIV/AIDS) receive antiretroviral therapy and 92%(69% of all people living with HIV/AIDS) have viral suppression.[9]

HIV testing in Tanzania

An advertisement at Kigoma rail station saying Be Faithful in the Kiswahili language.
An advertisement at Kigoma rail station saying Be Faithful in the Kiswahili language.

The Tanzania Commission for AIDS (TACAIDS) and the Zanzibar AIDS Commission[10] authorized the Tanzania National Bureau of Statistics to conduct the Tanzania HIV/AIDS and Malaria Indicator Survey 2011–12. The survey was conducted in collaboration with the Office of the Chief Government Statistician (Zanzibar) and was funded by the United States Agency for International Development, TACAIDS, and the Tanzania Ministry of Health and Social Welfare. ICF International provided technical assistance during the survey.[11]: pages: xiii, xv 

The survey covered both mainland Tanzania and Zanzibar. Its objectives were to collect data on knowledge and behaviour regarding HIV/AIDS and measure HIV prevalence among women and men age 15–49.[11]: page: xv  The data was collected 16 December 2011 to 24 May 2012.[11]: page: 7 

Results for all those tested

The survey tested 9,756 women and 7,989 men[12] in the 15 to 49 age group from every administrative region of Tanzania for HIV infection.

Overall, the survey found that 5.1 percent[13] of those tested were HIV positive.[11]: pages: 110-111  There was no statistically significant difference between this result and the result from the previous survey in 2007–08.[11]

: page: 111 

Stratified by gender, 6.2 percent[14] of women were HIV positive, which was significantly higher than the 3.8 percentage rate[15] for men. These results were not statistically different from the results of the previous survey in 2007–08.[11]: page: 111  Njombe region had the highest rate of positive women, 15.4 percent[16] (240 tested), and men, 14.2 percent[17] (200 tested).[11]: page: 110  The rate for men was higher than for women in only two of Tanzania's 30 regions.[11]: page: 110  The rate for both men and women was highest for people in the highest wealth quintile.[11]: page: 110 

The HIV positive rate for uncircumcised men was higher than for circumcised men in every five-year age group except for the 15–19 age group.[11]: page: 119  This was also true when the survey results were stratified by urban versus rural areas instead of by age group.[11]: page: 119 

Among couples living in the same household (married or not), 4.6 were serodiscordant, where one was HIV positive and the other was negative. The Njombe region had the highest rate, 16.2 percent. The only other region above 10 percent was the Dar es Salaam region.[11]: page: 121 

Rank of causes of Deaths for age group 15-49
Rank of causes of Deaths for age group 15-49

Results for the 15 to 24 age group

The survey tested 3,852 women and 3,393 men[12] in this age group from every administrative region of Tanzania for HIV infection. The survey found that 2.7 percent[18] of women were HIV positive, which was significantly higher than the 1.2 percentage rate[19] for men. Njombe region had the highest rate of positive women, 8.6 percent[20] (75 tested), while Kigoma region had the highest rate for men, 3.6 percent[21] (153 tested). The rate for men was higher than for women in only six of Tanzania's 30 regions. The rate for both men and women was highest for people in the highest wealth quintile.[11]: page: 116 

Results for the 25 to 49 age group

The survey tested 6,072 women and 4,209 men[22] in this age group from every administrative region of Tanzania for HIV infection. The survey found that 7.5 percent of women were HIV positive, which was significantly higher than the 5.2 percentage rate for men. Njombe region had the highest rate of positive women, 18.6 percent (199 tested), and men, 21.4 percent (149 tested). The rate for men was higher than for women in only four of Tanzania's 30 regions.[23]

HIV Prevention Program In Tanzania

Tanzania is implementing use of combination of preventive services to reduce HIV infection through Fourth Health Sector HIV and AIDS Strategic Plan of 2017/22. Some of the preventive services employed are Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission (PMCT), Condom Promotion, HIV awareness and Sex Education, Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision (VMMC), Cash transfer scheme such as cash plus where money are given to adolescents from poor families to empower and strengthen resilience and wellbeing. Other preventive services include harm reduction by distributing needles for people who inject drugs and use of Pre Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP).[25]

Antiretroviral Treatment (ART) in Tanzania

In 2018, 1.1million (71%) people living with HIV/AIDS received ART among which 82% were women and 57% men, this is estimated to be 20% increase from 2015. Within the same year 90% of people diagnosed with HIV infection started ART within seven days.[26]

High risk groups

Populations at high risk for HIV infection include sex workers, men who have sex with other men,people who inject drugs, prisoners, people in the transport sector, and the military. 80% of new HIV infections are accounted by heterosexual group and women are the most affected.[27]

Health sector challenges

The greatest challenge facing the health sector is inadequate human resources to deliver quality health services to the Tanzanian population. Since the 1990s, structural adjustment policies and HIV/AIDS have greatly reduced the health-sector workforce. A second challenge is poverty, important because the cost of drugs and health services has constituted a financial barrier to access. Tanzania has formulated its second "Poverty Reduction Strategy" paper to reinforce its commitment to overcoming poverty. Tanzania also continues to struggle with the issue of corruption, with the health care sector being ranked as the second most corrupt sector in the country by the country's Economic and Social Research Foundation. Due in part to the vast size of the country, health services do not currently meet acceptable quality standards, and access to voluntary counseling and testing services varies greatly. Overall, while services may be available, the human and physical infrastructure is in need of improvement to allow for better quality patient care.[28]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "A Wikipedia Writing Assignment for the Composition Classroom", Lazy Virtues, Vanderbilt University Press, pp. 53–87, 2009-03-27, doi:10.2307/j.ctv17vf78x.6, retrieved 2021-09-13
  2. ^ "HIV and AIDS in Tanzania". Avert. 2015-07-21. Retrieved 2021-09-13.
  3. ^ "PHIA Project - Guiding the Global HIV Response". PHIA Project. Retrieved 2021-09-13.
  4. ^ "A Wikipedia Writing Assignment for the Composition Classroom", Lazy Virtues, Vanderbilt University Press, pp. 53–87, 2009-03-27, doi:10.2307/j.ctv17vf78x.6, retrieved 2021-09-13
  5. ^ "A Wikipedia Writing Assignment for the Composition Classroom", Lazy Virtues, Vanderbilt University Press, pp. 53–87, 2009-03-27, doi:10.2307/j.ctv17vf78x.6, retrieved 2021-09-13
  6. ^ "GBD Compare | IHME Viz Hub". vizhub.healthdata.org. Retrieved 2021-09-13.
  7. ^ Francis 1994, pp. 210–213.
  8. ^ "90-90-90: treatment for all". www.unaids.org. Retrieved 2021-09-14.
  9. ^ "HIV and AIDS in Tanzania". Avert. 2015-07-21. Retrieved 2021-09-14.
  10. ^ Homepage, Zanzibar AIDS Commission
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Tanzania HIV/AIDS and Malaria Indicator Survey 2011-12, authorized by the Tanzania Commission for AIDS (TACAIDS) and the Zanzibar Commission for AIDS; implemented by the Tanzania National Bureau of Statistics in collaboration with the Office of the Chief Government Statistician (Zanzibar); funded by the United States Agency for International Development, TACAIDS, and the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, with support provided by ICF International; data collected 16 December 2011 to 24 May 2012; report published in Dar es Salaam in March 2013 Archived 20 October 2014 at the Wayback Machine
  12. ^ a b These are weighted numbers, not actual numbers.
  13. ^ At a 95 percent confidence level, the rate was 4.6 to 5.6 percent. Refer to page 202 of the survey.
  14. ^ At a 95 percent confidence level, the rate was 5.5 to 6.8 percent. Refer to page 202 of the survey.
  15. ^ At a 95 percent confidence level, the rate was 3.2 to 4.5 percent. Refer to page 202 of the survey.
  16. ^ At a 95 percent confidence level, the rate was 10.8 to 19.9 percent. Refer to page 221 of the survey.
  17. ^ At a 95 percent confidence level, however, the rate was 7.6 to 20.7 percent. Refer to page 221 of the survey.
  18. ^ At a 95 percent confidence level, the rate was 2.0 to 3.3 percent. Refer to page 202 of the survey.
  19. ^ At a 95 percent confidence level, the rate was 0.7 to 1.7 percent. Refer to page 202 of the survey.
  20. ^ At a 95 percent confidence level, however, the rate was 1.4 to 15.9 percent. Refer to page 221 of the survey.
  21. ^ At a 95 percent confidence level, however, the rate was 0.0 to 9.4 percent. Refer to page 218 of the survey.
  22. ^ These are actual numbers, not weighted numbers.
  23. ^ The statistics presented for this age group are derived from the data presented in Appendix B of the Tanzania HIV/AIDS and Malaria Indicator Survey 2011-12.
  24. ^ "HIV and AIDS in Tanzania". Avert. 2015-07-21. Retrieved 2021-09-14.
  25. ^ "HIV and AIDS in Tanzania". Avert. 2015-07-21. Retrieved 2021-09-14.
  26. ^ "HIV and AIDS in Tanzania". Avert. 2015-07-21. Retrieved 2021-09-14.
  27. ^ "HIV and AIDS in Tanzania". Avert. 2015-07-21. Retrieved 2021-09-14.
  28. ^ "2008 Country Profile: Tanzania". U.S. Department of State (2008). Accessed August 25, 2008. Public Domain This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.

Works cited