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Hannover 96
Full nameHannoverscher Sportverein von 1896 e.V.
Nickname(s)Die Roten (The Reds)
Short nameH96
Founded12 April 1896; 127 years ago (1896-04-12)
Capacity49,200[contradictory][citation needed]
PresidentMartin Kind[citation needed]
Head coachStefan Leitl
League2. Bundesliga
2022–232. Bundesliga, 10th of 18
WebsiteClub website
Current season

Hannoverscher Sportverein von 1896, commonly referred to as Hannover 96 (IPA: [haˈnoːfɐ ˌzɛksʔʊntˈnɔʏntsɪç]), Hannover or simply 96, is a German professional football club based in the city of Hanover, Lower Saxony. They played in the Bundesliga for a total of 30 years between 1964 and 2019 and currently play in the 2. Bundesliga, the second tier in the German football league system, having been relegated from the Bundesliga, Germany's first tier, after finishing 17th in the 2018–19 season.

Hannover 96 was founded in 1896. Hannover have won two German championships and one DFB-Pokal. Hannover's stadium is the HDI-Arena. Hannover 96 has a long-standing rivalry with Eintracht Braunschweig.


Foundation to the Second World War

The club was founded on 12 April 1896 as Hannoverscher Fußball-Club 1896, upon the suggestion of Ferdinand-Wilhelm Fricke, founder of the Deutscher FV 1878 Hannover.[1] Their initial enthusiasm was for athletics and rugby; football did not become their primary interest until 1899.[citation needed] Most of the membership of Germania 1902 Hannover became part of 96 in 1902, while others of the club formed Hannoverscher Ballspielverein. In 1913, they merged with Ballverein 1898 Hannovera (formed in the 1905 merger of Fußballverein Hannovera, 1898 Hannover, and Hannoverscher BV) to become Hannoverscher Sportverein 1896. Hannoverscher FC's colours were black-white-green, but they played in blue, while BV played in red. The newly united team kept black-white-green as the club colours, but they chose to take to the field in red, giving the team the nickname Die Roten ("The Reds").[citation needed] The team's third jersey is[when?] in the club's official colours.[citation needed] The club made regular appearances in the national playoffs through the early 1900s, but was unable to progress past Eintracht Braunschweig, planting the seeds of[tone] a rivalry that has survived to this day. HSV continued to field strong sides and make national level appearances on into the 1920s.[vague] During Nazi rule, German football was re-organized into 16 top-flight leagues in 1933 and Hannover became part of the Gauliga Niedersachsen. They appeared in the country's final rounds in 1935 and sent representatives to the national side the next year. They won their first national championship in 1938, in what was one of the biggest upsets in German football history,[according to whom?] when they beat Schalke 04, the most dominant side in the country in the era. The two sides played to a 3–3 draw before Hannover prevailed[tone] 4–3 in a tension-filled[according to whom?] re-match. In 1942, the team moved to the newly formed Gauliga Braunschweig-Südhannover.

Post-War era

Historical chart of Hannover 96 league performance

In common with most other German organizations, the club was dissolved after the Second World War by occupying Allied authorities. A combined local side was assembled[by whom?] in August 1945 and the next month a mixed group of players from Hannover 96 and Arminia Hannover played their first post-war match against a British military team.[citation needed] HSV was later formally re-established as Hannoverscher SV on 11 November 1945, before re-adopting its traditional name on 27 April 1946.[citation needed] The club resumed league play in 1947 in the first division Oberliga Nord and was relegated, but quickly returned to the top-flight in 1949. Hannover 96's next appearance in a national final would not come until 1954 when they soundly[tone] defeated 1. FC Kaiserslautern 5–1. The beaten side included five of the same players who would go on later that year to win Germany's first World Cup in a surprise[according to whom?] victory known as the Miracle of Bern. In 1963, the Bundesliga, Germany's new professional football league, began play with 16 of the nation's top teams. Hannover played in the Regionalliga Nord (II) that season, but earned promotion to the senior circuit in the following year. The club's advance to the Bundesliga in 1964 was well received,[by whom?] as they set a league attendance record in their first year, averaging 46,000 spectators a game.[citation needed] 96 played at the upper level for a decade, until they were relegated to the 2nd Bundesliga Nord for the 1974–75 season.[citation needed] They bounced[tone] right back, but again went down, this time to spend 17 of the next 20 years in the second tier.

Reunification to present

Hannover 96 against Borussia Dortmund in September 2006

The club suffered[tone] from financial problems in the late 1970s and again in the early 1990s.[citation needed] Then, in 1992, Hannover put together a run[tone] that would lead them to the capture[tone] of their first DFB-Pokal and help to secure stable finances.[citation needed] That run included victories over Bundesliga sides Borussia Dortmund, VfL Bochum, Karlsruher SC, Werder Bremen and Borussia Mönchengladbach, as they became the first lower division side to win the competition. The team's low point came with demotion to Regionalliga Nord (III) for two years in 1996–98.

Hannover made a fresh start[tone] with a new team, many of whom went on to play for the national team – notably Gerald Asamoah, Sebastian Kehl and Fabian Ernst.[citation needed] 96 returned to tier II play in 1998, and to the Bundesliga in 2002 on the strength of a record-setting 75-point season.[citation needed] Since their promotion, the club have consolidated in the top flight, achieving a string of[tone] mid-table finishes under the command of[tone] several[quantify] managers. Coach Dieter Hecking was brought in just weeks into the 2006–07 season after a disastrous[tone] start under Peter Neururer, in which the club lost the first three matches by a combined 11 goals.[citation needed] The 2007–08 season showed some early promise,[according to whom?] with impressive[tone] pre-season wins over Rangers and Real Madrid.[vague][citation needed] However, they earned mixed results in their opening six Bundesliga matches. The team then put together a three match winning run, capped by a 2–0 win at champions VfB Stuttgart, to surge[tone] into the top six. Following the winter break, Hannover slipped after putting forth[vague] some disappointing performances which they turned around to be defeated only two times in their last 11 matches of the season.[vague] This secured a points record of 49 for Die Roten in the Bundesliga, thus ending them in eighth place.

The 2008–09 season started undesirably[tone] for Hannover with losses. However, it looked to have been rectified[according to whom?] with a 5–1 thrashing[tone] of Borussia Mönchengladbach, a shock[tone] 1–0 win over Bayern Munich at home, which had not occurred for 20 years, and a thrilling[tone] 3–0 victory over Hamburger SV. Hannover settled in the lower-mid-table until the winter break. The second half of the season consisted of inconsistent results,[vague] relying almost entirely[vague] on home form to keep Hannover in the top league. The club finally achieved an away win with a few games remaining which boosted them from trouble[vague] and stabilized them, leading to an 11th-place finish. The season was one of inconsistent form and long injuries to key players.

The 2009–10 season was launched with new optimism,[according to whom?] with a new kit being released which included traditional away and alternative kits.[vague][citation needed] Hannover also signed a new technical director in Jörg Schmadtke, who brought a new perspective to the club.[vague][citation needed] New signings were Karim Haggui and Constant Djakpa from Bayer Leverkusen, Valdet Rama from FC Ingolstadt.[citation needed] The season started undesirably[according to whom?] with a late 1–0 loss to Hertha BSC and a disappointing[tone] home draw to Mainz 05, after which coach Dieter Hecking resigned voluntarily.[citation needed] He was succeeded by former assistant Andreas Bergmann.[citation needed] As the season continued, Hannover again had many key players injured, including the majority of attacking players and key defenders, as well as this occurred the suicide of Robert Enke, Hannover's German international goalkeeper. Andreas Bergmann was removed[by whom?] as coach and replaced by Mirko Slomka shortly after the winter break.[citation needed] Arouna Koné and Elson were signed to boost the squad.[citation needed] Hannover 96 spent the majority of the year in the relegation zone, and with a few wins in the last games of the season, Hannover had to win and hope results went their way for them.[tone] Hannover won 3–0, with Arnold Bruggink, Mike Hanke and Sérgio Pinto all scoring to keep them in the Bundesliga.

In the 2010–11 season, Hannover finished in fourth place, qualifying for Europe for the first time in 19 years.[citation needed] In 2011–12, the team opened with a 2–1 win over 1899 Hoffenheim, followed by a 2–1 away win against 1. FC Nürnberg. In the play-offs to the Europa League, Hannover won against Sevilla 3–2 on aggregate to reach the group stage. Shortly before the end of the 2011–12 season, Hannover Technical Director Jörg Schmadtke resigned due to family issues.

Hannover finished bottom of the Bundesliga in the 2015–16 season and were relegated to the 2. Bundesliga. The club chose to keep the majority of their first-team squad together. However, after a good start[according to whom?] to the 2016–17 season, a poor run of form[vague] prompted the club's board to sack manager Daniel Stendel, and appoint Andre Breitenreiter as their new manager. He led the team to seven wins in the final 11 games, helping the 96ers secure second place behind VfB Stuttgart and bounce back[tone] to the top flight at the first attempt.

Adverse publicity resulted for the club when a large contingent of ultras travelled to England for a 2017–18 pre-season game against Burnley. They caused trouble in the town centre prior to the game. Once inside Turf Moor they responded to a brief altercation on the pitch after 40 minutes by charging the home fans, tearing out seats and using them as missiles. On police advice the game was abandoned at half-time, with Hannover 96 trailing 1–0.


Death of Robert Enke

Tributes at AWD-Arena in Hannover

On 10 November 2009, at the age of 32, Hannover's first-choice goalkeeper Robert Enke died as a result of suicide after he stood in front of a regional express train at a level crossing in Eilvese, Neustadt am Rübenberge.[2][3] Police confirmed a suicide note had been found, but did not publicise its details.[4] His widow, Teresa, revealed that her husband had been suffering from depression for six years and was treated by a psychiatrist.[5] After the death of his daughter Lara in 2006, he struggled to cope with the loss.[6]

Upon news breaking of what had happened, many fans immediately gathered at Hannover 96's AWD-Arena home, where they laid flowers, lit candles and signed a book of condolence. His former club Barcelona held a minute's silence before their game that night, and several international matches the following weekend paid the same tribute. As a mark of respect, the German national team cancelled their friendly match against Chile, which had been scheduled for 14 November.[7] A minute's silence was also held at all Bundesliga games on 21 and 22 November 2009, as well as at Benfica's game in the Taça de Portugal - Benfica was another former club of Enke's.[8] Germany also cancelled a planned training session and all interviews after his death. Oliver Bierhoff, the national team's general manager, said, "We are all shocked. We are lost for words."[6]

On 15 November 2009, nearly 40,000 attendees filled the AWD-Arena for his memorial service. Enke's coffin, covered in white roses, was carried by six of his Hannover 96 teammates.[9] He was then buried in Neustadt, outside the city of Hanover, next to his daughter's grave.[10] As a further mark of respect for their former teammate, Hannover 96 players displayed the number one in a circle on the breast of their jerseys, as approved by the German Football Association (DFL), as a subtle tribute for the rest of the 2009–10 season.[11]


Hannover 96 plays in the HDI-Arena, built in 1954 as the "Niedersachsenstadion", which now[when?] has a capacity of 49,000 spectators.[contradictory][citation needed] Before the year 2013, the arena was called "AWD-Arena".[citation needed] But after changing the sponsor the stadium name was changed to "HDI-Arena".[citation needed] During the 2006 World Cup, the stadium was the site of four first round matches and one Round of 16 match.[citation needed] The stadium had also served as a site for matches in the 1974 World Cup and UEFA Euro 1988.

European Cups history


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Season Round Club Home Away Aggregate
1992–93 European Cup Winners' Cup R1 Germany Werder Bremen 2–1 1–3 3–4
2011–12 UEFA Europa League Play-off Spain Sevilla 2–1 1–1 3–2
Group Belgium Standard Liège 0–0 0–2 0–2
Denmark Copenhagen 2–2 2–1 4–3
Ukraine Vorskla Poltava 3–1 2–1 5–2
Round of 32 Belgium Club Brugge 2–1 1–0 3–1
Round of 16 Belgium Standard Liège 4–0 2–2 6–2
Quarter-finals Spain Atlético Madrid 1–2 1–2 2–4
2012–13 UEFA Europa League Q3 Republic of Ireland St. Patrick's Athletic 2–0 3–0 5–0
Play-off Poland Śląsk Wrocław 5–1 5–3 10–4
Group Netherlands Twente 0–0 2–2 2–2
Spain Levante 2–1 2–2 4–3
Sweden Helsingborg 3–2 2–1 5–3
Round of 32 Russia Anzhi Makhachkala 1–1 1–3 2–4


The club's honours:





Current squad

As of 8 February 2024[13]

Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.

No. Pos. Nation Player
1 GK Germany GER Ron-Robert Zieler (captain)
4 DF Germany GER Bright Arrey-Mbi
5 DF Germany GER Phil Neumann
6 MF Germany GER Fabian Kunze
8 MF Germany GER Enzo Leopold
9 FW Germany GER Nicolò Tresoldi
10 MF Germany GER Sebastian Ernst
11 MF Austria AUT Louis Schaub
13 MF Germany GER Max Christiansen
16 FW Norway NOR Håvard Nielsen
17 MF Germany GER Muhammed Damar (on loan from 1899 Hoffenheim)
20 DF Germany GER Jannik Dehm
21 DF Japan JPN Sei Muroya
No. Pos. Nation Player
23 DF Germany GER Marcel Halstenberg
24 MF Cyprus CYP Antonio Foti (on loan from Eintracht Frankfurt)
29 MF Sweden SWE Kolja Oudenne
30 GK Germany GER Leo Weinkauf
31 DF Germany GER Julian Börner
32 FW Germany GER Andreas Voglsammer
33 GK Germany GER Toni Stahl
34 DF Germany GER Yannik Lührs
35 GK Germany GER Leon-Oumar Wechsel
36 FW Germany GER Cedric Teuchert
37 DF Germany GER Brooklyn Ezeh
40 MF Germany GER Christopher Scott (on loan from Antwerp)

Out on loan

Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.

No. Pos. Nation Player
MF Germany GER Max Besuschkow (to Austria Klagenfurt until 30 June 2024)
MF Germany GER Marius Wörl (to Arminia Bielefeld until 30 June 2024)
No. Pos. Nation Player
FW Germany GER Thaddäus-Monju Momuluh (to Arminia Bielefeld until 30 June 2024)

Coach history

Hannover 96 Amateure (II)

Main article: Hannover 96 II

Hannover fields a successful amateur side that has three German amateur championships to its credit (1960, 1964, 1965) as well as losing appearances in the 1966 and 1967 finals. The second team has also taken part in the German Cup tournament and currently plays in the Regionalliga Nord (IV).


The team's honours:

See also


  1. ^ Die Roten – Die Geschichte von Hannover 96 Archived 1 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine (in German) Hardy Grüne website – Text samples on his book on the history of Hannover 96. Retrieved 25 January 2009
  2. ^ "Germany keeper dies in accident". BBC News. 10 November 2009. Archived from the original on 31 July 2017. Retrieved 10 November 2009.
  3. ^ "Enke death confirmed as suicide". Eurosport. 11 November 2009. Retrieved 11 November 2009.
  4. ^ "Robert Enke (24.08.1977 – 10.11.2009)" (in German). 9 November 2010. Archived from the original on 23 November 2011. Retrieved 1 April 2011.
  5. ^ "Teresa Enke: Letzte Hoffnung Liebe". Stern (in German). 11 November 2009. Archived from the original on 14 November 2009. Retrieved 11 November 2009.
  6. ^ a b "Goalkeeper suicide stuns football". BBC News. 11 November 2009. Archived from the original on 22 November 2011. Retrieved 26 October 2011.
  7. ^ "Germany call off Chile friendly". 11 November 2009. Archived from the original on 23 October 2012. Retrieved 11 November 2009.
  8. ^ "Goalkeeper suicide stuns football". BBC News. 11 November 2009. Archived from the original on 23 January 2022. Retrieved 11 November 2009.
  9. ^ "Ruhe in Frieden: Anrührender Abschied von Enke" (in German). Schweriner Volkszeitung. 15 November 2009. Archived from the original on 18 September 2012. Retrieved 18 May 2010.
  10. ^ "'Er war einer von uns' – Trauerfeier mit vielen Emotionen" (in German). Hamburger Abendblatt. 16 November 2009. Archived from the original on 24 February 2010. Retrieved 1 April 2011.
  11. ^ "Hannover pay tribute to Robert Enke with special shirt". BBC Sport. 25 November 2009. Retrieved 25 November 2009.
  12. ^ Hannover in Europe[permanent dead link]
  13. ^ "Unser Team" [Our Team]. (in German). Hannover 96. Retrieved 3 September 2023.