Hengelo
Hengel (Twents)
Twentekanaal through Hengelo
Twentekanaal through Hengelo
Flag of Hengelo
Coat of arms of Hengelo
Highlighted position of Hengelo in a municipal map of Overijssel
Location in Overijssel
Hengelo is located in Netherlands
Hengelo
Hengelo
Location within the Netherlands
Hengelo is located in Europe
Hengelo
Hengelo
Location within Europe
Coordinates: 52°15′55″N 6°47′35″E / 52.26528°N 6.79306°E / 52.26528; 6.79306
CountryNetherlands
ProvinceOverijssel
Government
 • BodyMunicipal council
 • MayorSander Schelberg (VVD)
Area
 • Total61.83 km2 (23.87 sq mi)
 • Land60.84 km2 (23.49 sq mi)
 • Water0.99 km2 (0.38 sq mi)
Elevation18 m (59 ft)
Population
 (2023)[4]
 • Total82,311
 • Density1,332/km2 (3,450/sq mi)
DemonymHengolian
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Postcode
7550–7559
Area code074
ClimateCfb
Websitewww.hengelo.nl
Dutch Topographic map of Hengelo (city), June 2014
Two of the three large cities in East Overijssel: Almelo and Hengelo

Hengelo (Dutch: [ˈɦɛŋəloː] ; Tweants: Hengel) is a city in the eastern part of the Netherlands, in the Twente region, in the province of Overijssel. It is part of a larger urban area that also includes Enschede, Borne, Almelo and Oldenzaal.

Due to its geomorphology, being situated relatively low in the landscape, Hengelo is a place where streams converge. By consequence, it became a crossroad, inhabited early on in history, which has made it into an infrastructural hub and an industrial centre today. For the 19th century industry, water was needed for bleaching textile, while factories also needed water for their steam engines, and for cooling. Over time, Hengelo became known as metaalstad, for its machine factories and electrical engineering companies. In addition, salt mining developed into an important industry too, which also led to the production of chemical derivatives.

Due to its strategical importance, Hengelo was bombed during World War II. Afterwards, a reconstruction plan was developed that made it into a modern city, partly at the cost of still remaining historical structures. Well-known Dutch planners and architects have left their traces inside and outside the city. Among their most notable efforts are several residential areas, being inspired by the principles of the garden city movement. Due to the vicinity of University of Twente and ArtEZ University of Arts, in Enschede, many students and graduates have come to live and work in Hengelo. Besides economic growth, this has also contributed to the city's development in regard to arts and culture.

Population centres

History

In what is known as the historical centre of Hengelo, archaeologists have found a camp site for hunters and gatherers, indicating that the location was inhabited during the Mesolithic, between 12,000 and 5,000 years BP.[5] The area has most likely been continuously inhabited ever since. On the same site, finds from the Iron Age and Roman times have been excavated too. Different settements, moreover, existed within the current municipality. Recent archaeological research in the north of Hengelo has led to the discovery of a prehistoric grave field,[6] as well as another settlement from Roman times, with pottery and other artefacts corresponding to the Weser–Rhine Germanic tradition.[7]

In the mid 13th century, an estate was built, called Huys Hengelo, which existed till 1826, when it was demolished. A village grew around the estate, including a church and a cemetery. During the Spanish occupation of the Netherlands, Huys Hengelo was the centre of several fights and revolts.[8]

The municipality of Hengelo was founded in 1802, which by then consisted of a few hundred farms and agricultural workers' houses.

Hengelo was never granted city rights, as it was a village until its expansion in the 19th century during the industrial revolution. In that period, however, various landmark buildings were erected, especially the Waterstaatskerk (1839), and the Lambertusbasiliek (1890),[9] a Roman Catholic basilica built in 1890 devoted to Saint Lambert.

After the construction of its railway station, in 1866,[10] industrial development accelerated, with a focus on technology: Stork B.V., Hazemeyer, N.V. Heemaf (now part of France's Alstom, Brush HMA, Brush-Barclay, Eaton Corporation, Essent, Heemaf BV, Vattenfall, and Wabtec), KHZ (now AkzoNobel), and Hollandse Signaal Apparaten (now part of the Thales Group). Especially Stork played an important role in the development of Hengelo, building garden village Tuindorp 't Lansink (1910s), with housing for its personnel, while also contributing to building public facilities in the city centre, such as a library.[11]

Hengelo was also the home town of Hengelo Bier, a local brewery. Nowadays, the beer brand Twents is produced in Hengelo, brewed by De Twentse Bierbrouwerij. This brewery was founded in 2007 and was, until 2019, located in the monumental factory complex Hazemeijer.[12]

During World War II, the city was bombed by the Allies because of the presence of the railways and the war industry activities of local factories that served the occupier. The heart of the town was accidentally destroyed during the bombing of Hengelo on 6 and 7 October 1944, killing several hundreds of people.

In addition, after World War II, the synagogue that had survived the war, an entire block called De Telgen, a monastery at the Thiemsbrug, the farm dating from the 17th century where Wolter ten Cate was born, and the 19th-century town hall, were all demolished. This has also left the city without much of an historical centre. However, the reconstruction plan of Hengelo, including its town hall (1958-1963, J. F. Berghoef), received critical acclaim and is nowadays considered as an important example of post-war city planning in the Netherlands.[13] By extension, Hengelo also became a reference for modern architecture, with innovative housing designs, such as Klein Driene I & II (1945-1965, C. Pouderoyen & W.R. van Couwelaar ),[14] Housing Hengelose Es (1962-1968, Van den Broek & Bakema),[15] and De Kasbah (1969-1973, Piet Blom).[16]

Transport

Hengelo is a major transportation hub in the region, which encompasses various modalities.

Car

Train

Bus

Bike

Boat

Climate

Like most of the Netherlands, Hengelo features an oceanic climate (Cfb in the Köppen classification); however, winters tend to be less mild than the rest of the Netherlands due to its inland location. Summer is also warmer than places near the coast. Although the former military airport is derelict and plans to revive the place were canceled in 2012, the weather station of the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute is still located there.

Climate data for Twenthe (1981-2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 4.8
(40.6)
5.7
(42.3)
9.5
(49.1)
13.9
(57.0)
18.0
(64.4)
20.5
(68.9)
22.8
(73.0)
22.5
(72.5)
18.7
(65.7)
14.1
(57.4)
8.9
(48.0)
5.2
(41.4)
13.7
(56.7)
Daily mean °C (°F) 2.3
(36.1)
2.6
(36.7)
5.6
(42.1)
8.9
(48.0)
12.9
(55.2)
15.4
(59.7)
17.6
(63.7)
17.1
(62.8)
14.0
(57.2)
10.2
(50.4)
6.0
(42.8)
2.9
(37.2)
9.6
(49.3)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) −0.5
(31.1)
−0.6
(30.9)
1.5
(34.7)
3.4
(38.1)
7.1
(44.8)
9.6
(49.3)
12.0
(53.6)
11.5
(52.7)
9.2
(48.6)
6.2
(43.2)
3.0
(37.4)
0.3
(32.5)
5.2
(41.4)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 71.5
(2.81)
51.6
(2.03)
65.1
(2.56)
45.2
(1.78)
62.4
(2.46)
67.7
(2.67)
74.5
(2.93)
71.0
(2.80)
65.4
(2.57)
67.5
(2.66)
68.9
(2.71)
74.1
(2.92)
784.9
(30.90)
Mean monthly sunshine hours 52.8 82.6 114.0 169.9 202.1 184.6 202.4 184.4 137.4 112.3 58.9 46.0 1,547.3
Source: KNMI[19]

Notable events

Twin cities

Hengelo is twinned with:

Education

Hengelo has seven high schools. These high schools are the Montessori College Twente, Bataafs Lyceum, Twickel College, Avila College, Gilde College, Grundel Lyceum, and the Grundel Parkcollege.

There is also an MBO school, ROC of Twente.

The Tio Business School (HBO, University of Applied Sciences) is also located in Hengelo.

Notable residents

portrait of Theo Wolvecamp, 2013

Sport

Gert-Jan Bruggink and Andrea, 2013

Gallery

References

  1. ^ "drs. Schelberg, Sander W.J.G" (in Dutch). Gemeente Hengelo. Retrieved 29 March 2014.
  2. ^ "Kerncijfers wijken en buurten 2020" [Key figures for neighbourhoods 2020]. StatLine (in Dutch). CBS. 24 July 2020. Retrieved 19 September 2020.
  3. ^ "Postcodetool for 7551EC". Actueel Hoogtebestand Nederland (in Dutch). Het Waterschapshuis. Archived from the original on 21 September 2013. Retrieved 29 March 2014.
  4. ^ "Bevolkingsontwikkeling; regio per maand" [Population growth; regions per month]. CBS Statline (in Dutch). CBS. 1 January 2021. Retrieved 2 January 2022.
  5. ^ Benerink, Sascha (2016). Inventariserend Veldonderzoek door middel van Proefsleuven ‘Oude Algemene Begraafplaats Bornsestraat’, Bornsestraat 27, Hengelo, Gemeente Hengelo (in Dutch). Heinenoord: SOB Research, Instituut voor Archeologisch en Aardkundig Onderzoek. ISBN 9789461923820.
  6. ^ Benerink, Sascha (2011). Inventariserend Veldonderzoek door middel van Proefsleuven bestemmingsplan Broek Noord, Hengelo, Gemeente Hengelo (in Dutch). Heinenoord: SOB Research, Instituut voor Archeologisch en Aardkundig Onderzoek. ISBN 9789461920089.
  7. ^ Ufkes, Adrie (2022). "Een raadselachtige Romeinse koepeloven uit Hengelo (Ov.)". Paleo-Aktueel (32). Groningen Institute of Archaeology (RUG) & Barkhuis Publishing: 61–67.
  8. ^ "Kapitein Splinter jaagt Spanjaarden weg uit Hengelo". www.marceltettero.nl. Retrieved 2023-12-22.
  9. ^ "Enschedesestraat 3, 7551 EE te Hengelo | Rijksdienst voor het Cultureel Erfgoed". monumentenregister.cultureelerfgoed.nl. Retrieved 2023-12-12.
  10. ^ Dorman, Ewout; Pronkhorst, Annuska; (Crimson Architectural Historians) (2017). Cltuurhistorische waardestelling Station Hengelo. NS Stations, Vastgoed en Ontwikkeling.
  11. ^ "Historie". Bibliotheek Hengelo (in Dutch). Retrieved 2023-12-25.
  12. ^ nl:Twentse Bierbrouwerij
  13. ^ Ministerie van Onderwijs, Cultuur en Wetenschap (2016-01-01). "Hengelo binnenstad: een toonbeeld van wederopbouw - Publicatie - Rijksdienst voor het Cultureel Erfgoed". www.cultureelerfgoed.nl (in Dutch). Retrieved 2023-12-12.
  14. ^ Van der Hoeven, Marlijn (2016). Hengelo Klein Driene I & II: Toonbeeld van de wederopbouw (in Dutch). Amersfoort: Rijksdienst voor het Cultureel Erfgoed.
  15. ^ "architectureguide.nl - Urban Design Hengelose Es, Van den Broek & Bakema, Hengelo". www.architectureguide.nl. Retrieved 2024-01-22.
  16. ^ "architectureguide.nl - Housing De Kasbah, Piet Blom, Hengelo". www.architectureguide.nl. Retrieved 2024-01-22.
  17. ^ NS.nl
  18. ^ "Fietssnelweg F35". www.hengelo.nl. Retrieved 2023-12-22.
  19. ^ "Twenthe, long-term averages, time period 1981-2010 (in Dutch)" (PDF). Retrieved December 29, 2012.
  20. ^ Dutch Wiki, Theo Wolvecamp