Hmong bobtail dog
Other names
  • Chó H'Mông Cộc đuôi
  • Hmong Stumpy Tail Dog
Height Males 48-54 cm
Females 46-52 cm
Weight Males 18-26 kg
Females 16-24 kg
Kennel club standards
Vietnam Kennel Association standard
Dog (domestic dog)

The Hmong bobtail dog (Vietnamese: Chó H'Mông Cộc đuôi), is an ancient medium size spitz dog breed and one of Vietnam's Four Great National Dogs (Vietnamese: tứ đại quốc khuyển).[1][2] This dog is primarily used as a hunter, herder and guard dog by the Hmong people in northern Vietnam and today they are also used as border police and military dogs.[3][2][4] While not recognized by the Fédération Cynologique Internationale, the Hmong bobtail dog is recognized by the Vietnam Kennel Association.[5]


Hmong Migration Routes

While much of the Hmong bobtail dog's history is speculative, they are thought to be descended from natural bobtails of southern China who accompanied the Hmong in their migration to Vietnam where they were crossed with native Vietnamese jackals.[6][2][3][7] Hmong traditions and legends indicate that they originated near the Yellow River region of China.[8] The Hmong people were subjected to persecution and genocide by the Qing dynasty in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, and many fled to the mountains of northern Vietnam.[6] Today the Hmong bobtail can be found in the northern Vietnamese provinces of Hà Giang, Tuyên Quang, Lào Cai, and Yên Bái.[4]


Hmong bobtail profile


Hmong bobtail dogs are square, muscular, medium sized dogs.[7][2] Their double coat is short and hard, without any feathering.[2]


Hmong bobtail dogs are natural bobtails, no docking is performed.[2] Tail lengths may range from tailless to full tail but the standard size is 3–15 cm (1.2–5.9 in) in length.[2]

Hmong bobtail laying down


Hmong bobtail dogs are highly intelligent dogs and are prized for their ability to guide their owners along complex routes through the mountains.[3][7] While Hmong bobtail dogs are loyal and friendly with their owner, they are aloof towards strangers and protective of their territory. [2]


Hmong bobtail puppy with full tail

Hmong bobtail dogs are renowned for their excellent health, resistance to disease and extreme temperature.[7][3] Their average lifespan is 15–20 years.[3]


  1. ^ TÔ THẾ, HOÀI ANH (2020-11-07). "4 giống chó quý của Việt Nam được gọi là "quốc khuyển"" [Four precious dog breeds of Vietnam are called "national dogs"]. Lao Dong (in Vietnamese). Retrieved 2022-08-21.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h "Hmong Bobtail Dog". The Native Vietnamese Breed Preservation Society. Retrieved 2022-08-21.
  3. ^ a b c d e Tatarski, Michael (2021-10-10). "Chó: The Four National Breeds of Vietnamese Doggos | Saigoneer". The Saigoneer. Retrieved 2022-08-21.
  4. ^ a b Vlasenko, Alexander (2013-11-01). "On the problem of the origin of the domesticated dog and the incipient (aboriginal) formation of breeds" (PDF). Journal of the International Society for Preservation of Primitive Aboriginal Dogs. 36.
  5. ^ "BẢNG TIÊU CHUẨN CHÓ H'MÔNG CỘC ĐUÔI" [TABLE OF STANDARDS LEADED H'Mong Dogs]. Vietnam Kennel Association (in Vietnamese). 2020-07-11. Retrieved 2022-08-21.
  6. ^ a b Lee, Mai Na M. (2015). Dreams of the Hmong kingdom : the quest for legitimation in French Indochina, 1850-1960. Madison, Wisconsin: The University of Wisconsin Press. ISBN 978-0-299-29883-8. OCLC 909840030.
  7. ^ a b c d ""Tứ đại quốc khuyển" của Việt Nam gồm những giống chó quý hiếm nào?" [What are the rare breeds of dogs in Vietnam's "Four Great National Dogs"?]. Dan Viet (in Vietnamese). 2020-08-30. Retrieved 2022-08-21.
  8. ^ Keown-Bomar, Julie (2004). Kinship networks among Hmong-American refugees. New York: LFB Scholarly Pub. ISBN 1-59332-117-1. OCLC 58720533.