Jiangshi
2015Halloween in Osaka(41).JPG
Two people dressed up as jiāngshī on Halloween in Osaka
Chinese name
Traditional Chinese殭屍
Simplified Chinese僵尸
Hanyu Pinyinjiāngshī
Literal meaningstiff corpse
Vietnamese name
Vietnamese alphabetcương thi
Korean name
Hangul강시
Hanja殭屍
Japanese name
Kanaキョンシー

A jiāngshī, also known as a Chinese hopping vampire,[1] is a type of reanimated corpse in Chinese legends and folklore. The characters for "jiāngshī" are read goeng-si in Cantonese, cương thi in Vietnamese, kyonshī in Japanese, and gangsi in Korean. It is also known as phi dip chin in Thai, hantu pocong in Malay, and vampir cina in Indonesia. It is typically depicted as a stiff corpse dressed in Chinese shroud which is sometimes mistaken as official garments from the Qing Dynasty, and it moves around by hopping with its arms outstretched. It kills living creatures to absorb their qi, or "life force", usually at night, while during the day, it rests in a coffin or hides in dark places such as caves.[2] Jiangshi legends have inspired a genre of jiangshi films and literature in Hong Kong and East Asia.

Origins

The Qing Dynasty scholar Ji Xiaolan mentioned in his book Yuewei Caotang Biji (閱微草堂筆記) (c. 1789 – 1798) (The Shadow Book of Ji Yun, Empress Wu Books, 2021) that the causes for a corpse to be reanimated can be classified in either of two categories: a recently deceased person returning to life, or a corpse that has been buried for a long time but does not decompose. Some causes are described below:

Appearance

Official uniform of a mandarin from Qing Dynasty, which jiangshi are usually portrayed wearing
Official uniform of a mandarin from Qing Dynasty, which jiangshi are usually portrayed wearing

Generally, a jiangshi's appearance can range from unremarkable (as in the case of a recently deceased person) to horrifying (rotting flesh, rigor mortis, as with corpses that have been in a state of decay over a period). The Chinese character for "jiang" (殭/僵) in "jiangshi" literally means "hard" or "stiff". It is believed that the jiangshi are so stiff that they cannot bend their limbs or body, so they have to move around by hopping while keeping their arms stretched out for mobility. Jiangshi are depicted in popular culture to have a paper talisman (with a sealing spell) attached onto and hanging off the forehead in portrait orientation, and wear a uniform coat-like robe and round-top tall rimmed hat characteristic of a mandarin (Chinese official from during the Qing dynasty). A peculiar feature is its greenish-white skin; one theory is that this is derived from fungus or mould growing on corpses. It is said to have long white hair all over its head[5] and may behave like animals.[6] The influence of western vampire stories brought the blood-sucking aspect to the Chinese myth in more modern times in combination with the concept of the hungry ghost, though traditionally they feed solely on the qi of a living individual for sustenance and in order to grow more powerful.

Methods and items used to counter jiangshi

Stephanie Lam in "Hop on Pop: Jiangshi Films in a Transnational Context" lays out the main methods of protecting and fending off the jiangshi.[1]

Origin stories

A supposed source of the jiangshi stories came from the folk practice of "transporting a corpse over a thousand li" (traditional Chinese: 千里行屍; simplified Chinese: 千里行尸; pinyin: qiān lǐ xíng shī). The relatives of a person who died far away from home could not afford vehicles to have the deceased person's body transported home for burial, so they would hire a Taoist priest to conduct a ritual to reanimate the dead person and teach him/her to "hop" their way home. The priests would transport the corpses only at night and would ring bells to notify others in the vicinity of their presence because it was considered bad luck for a living person to set eyes upon a jiangshi. This practice, also called Xiangxi ganshi (traditional Chinese: 湘西趕屍; simplified Chinese: 湘西赶尸; pinyin: Xiāngxī gǎn shī; lit. 'driving corpses in Xiangxi'), was popular in Xiangxi, where many people left their hometown to work elsewhere.[7][8] After they died, their bodies were transported back to their hometown because it was believed that their souls would feel homesick if they were buried somewhere unfamiliar to them. The corpses would be arranged upright in single file and be tied to long bamboo rods on the sides, while two men (one at the front and one at the back) would carry the ends of the rods on their shoulders and walk. When the bamboo flexed up and down, the corpses appeared to be "hopping" in unison when viewed from a distance away.[9][10][11]

Two oral accounts of transporting corpses are included in Liao Yiwu's The Corpse Walker. One account describes how corpses would be transported by a two-man team. One would carry the corpse on his back with a large robe covering both of them and a mourning mask on top. The other man would walk ahead with a lantern and warn his companion about obstacles ahead of him. The lantern was used as a visual guide for the corpse carrier to follow since they could not see with the robe covering them. It is speculated in the accounts in the book that corpses would be carried at night to avoid contact with people and the cooler air would be more suitable to transporting bodies.[12]

Some[who?] speculate that the stories about jiangshi were originally made up by smugglers who disguised their illegal activities as corpse transportation and wanted to scare off law enforcement officers.[13]

Their modern visual depiction as horrific Qing officials may have been derived by the anti-Manchu or anti-Qing sentiments of the Han Chinese population during the Qing Dynasty, as the officials were viewed as bloodthirsty creatures with little regard for humanity.[1]

It is also the conventional wisdom of feng shui in Chinese architecture that a threshold (traditional Chinese: 門檻; simplified Chinese: 门槛; pinyin: ménkǎn), a piece of wood approximately 15 cm (6 in) high, be installed along the width of the door at the bottom to prevent a jiangshi from entering the household.[14]

Literature

Main article: Jiangshi fiction

Similar practices

Archeologists have found Revenant and what appear to be deviant burials dating back to 4500–3800 BC in Cyprus.[15] Those born as illegitimate children, with abnormalities, or on inauspicious days, or who were victims of murder, drowning, suicide, curses, or the Black Death were thought to have had the potential to be a Vampire. A suspected vampire would be incinerated or dismembered to prevent their return. Other preventive methods included deep buried burial, prone burials, and tying, staking, or pinning corpses with stones.[15] These types of burials have been discovered in numerous locations, including Egypt, Greece, and Rome. Slavic folklore references vampires and preventions dating back to the 11th century with Drawsko, Poland being home to some of these burial sites and early discoveries of such practices. The three primary areas of focus upon burial to prevent vampirism were the mouth, the hands, and the feet, as the mouth is used for feeding, the hands are used for grasping victims, and the feet are used for movement.[16] Folklore and burial practices dealing with revenants can also be traced back to Norse mythology with draugr or draug(s) that closely resemble stories of jiangshis.[17] These draugr were also re-animated corpses that rose from their graves, and many of the various accounts report the draugr to be sighted far from its initial burial site.[17]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c Lam, Stephanie (2009). "Hop on Pop: Jiangshi Films in a Transnational Context". CineAction (78): 46–51.
  2. ^ "Search Results – Mythical Creatures Guide".[dead link]
  3. ^ "充滿詭異色彩 文獻記載湘南恐怖僵屍村傳說" [Full of weird colors: documenting the legend of Shonan's horrible zombie village] (in Chinese). February 2, 2009. Archived from the original on February 28, 2009. Retrieved February 21, 2021.
  4. ^ "愛上廁所的小孩" [The kid who fell in love with the toilet] (in Chinese). Archived from the original on August 13, 2011. Retrieved February 21, 2021.
  5. ^ de Groot, JJM (1892–1910). The Religious System of China. The Hague.
  6. ^ "世界上真的有僵尸吗?" [Are there really zombies in the world?] (in Chinese). Archived from the original on February 18, 2009. Retrieved February 21, 2021.
  7. ^ "湘西"赶尸"习俗". February 26, 2004. Archived from the original on 2012-02-27. Retrieved 2021-04-02.
  8. ^ "神秘骇人的湘西"赶尸"揭秘(图)". 2004-10-22. Archived from the original on 2008-05-14. Retrieved 2021-04-02.
  9. ^ 湘西赶尸骗局被揭穿 (in Chinese)[dead link]
  10. ^ 无法破译的湘西三邪:赶尸、放蛊、落花洞女! (in Chinese)[dead link]
  11. ^ "湘西"赶尸匠"后人揭秘真相 (图)". September 14, 2009. Archived from the original on 2018-01-09. Retrieved 2021-04-02.
  12. ^ Liao, Yiwu. The Corpse Walker: Real Life Stories, China from the Bottom Up. New York: Pantheon Books, 2008. OCLC 233578030.
  13. ^ 「湘西趕屍」說法和其真偽 (in Chinese)
  14. ^ "Hopping Mad: A Brief Look at Chinese Vampire Movies". Penny Blood Magazine. Archived from the original on 2007-11-21. Retrieved 2007-12-16.
  15. ^ a b Geggel, Laura (June 2015). "Ancient Greek burials prepared for zombie uprising". www.cbsnews.com.
  16. ^ Betsinger, Tracy K.; Scott, Amy B. (October 2010). "Governing from the Grave: Vampire Burials and Social Order in Post-medieval Poland". Cambridge Archaeological Journal. 24 (3): 467–476. doi:10.1017/S0959774314000754. ISSN 0959-7743.
  17. ^ a b Chadwick, N. K. (1946). "Norse Ghosts (A Study in the Draugr and the Haugbúi)". Folklore. 57 (2): 50–65. doi:10.1080/0015587X.1946.9717812. ISSN 0015-587X. JSTOR 1256952.