The celebration of Midsummer (June solstice) in Norway with a bonfire
<< June >>
Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa
01
02 03 04 05 06 07 08
09 10 11 12 13 14 15
16 17 18 19 20 21 22
23 24 25 26 27 28 29
30  
2024

June—abbreviated Jun or Jun.—is the sixth month of the year in the Julian and Gregorian calendars—the latter the most widely used calendar in the world. June is 30 days long, and comes after May and before July. June marks the start of summer in the Northern Hemisphere and contains the summer solstice, the day with the most daylight hours. In the Southern Hemisphere, June is the start of winter and contains the winter solstice, the day with the fewest hours of daylight out of the year.

The Atlantic hurricane season—when tropical or subtropical cyclones are most likely to form in the north Atlantic Ocean—begins on 1 June and lasts until 30 November. The East Asian rainy season is also generally considered to commence during this month. Multiple meteor showers occur annually in June, including the Arietids, which are among the most intense daylight meteor showers of the year, and last between 22 May and 2 July, peaking in intensity on 8 June.

Numerous observances take place in June. Midsummer, the celebration of the summer solstice in the Northern Hemisphere, commences in several countries. In Catholicism, this month is dedicated to the devotion of the Sacred Heart of Jesus, and known as the Month of the Sacred Heart. The most well-known month-long observance in the United States in June is Pride Month, which is the celebration of LGBT individuals and the advancement of their civil liberties.

Overview

June is the sixth month of the year in the Julian and Gregorian calendars—the latter the most widely used calendar in the world.[1]: 304 [2] Containing 30 days, June succeeds May and precedes July. It is one of four months to contain 30 days, alongside April, September and November; herein June lies between April, the fourth month of the year, and September—the ninth month of the year.[1]: 304  June is abbreviated as Jun, and may be spelled with or without a concluding period (full stop).[3]

Etymologically, June is ultimately derived from the Latin month of Iunius, named after the ancient Roman goddess Juno (Latin: Iūnō). The name June entered English in the 13th century via the Anglo-Norman join, junye and junie. It was also written in Middle English as Iun and Juin, while the spelling variant Iune was in use until the 17th century.[4][5]

History

Further information: Iunius (month)

See also: Adoption of the Gregorian calendar

Illustration for the month of June, based on the Calendar of Filocalus (AD 354)

June originates from the month of Iunius (also called mensis Iunius)[6] in the original Roman calendar used during the Roman Republic. The origin of this calendar is obscure.[a] Iunius, originally the fourth month, had 29 days alongside Aprilis ("April"), Sextilis (later renamed Augustus "August"), September, November and December.[1]: 377–378  It is unclear when the Romans reset the course of the year so that Ianuarius ("January") and Februarius ("February") came first—thus moving Iunius to the sixth month of the year—but later Roman scholars generally dated this to 153 BC.[10] In ancient Rome, the period from mid-May through mid-June may have been considered inauspicious for marriages. The Roman poet Ovid claimed to have consulted the flaminica Dialis, the high priestess of the god Jupiter, about setting a date for his daughter's wedding, but was advised to wait until after 15 June.[11] The Greek philosopher and writer Plutarch, however, implied that the entire month of June was more favorable for weddings than May.[12]

In 46 BC, Julius Caesar reformed the calendar, which thus became known as the Julian calendar after himself. This reform fixed the calendar to 365 days with a leap year every fourth year, and made June 30 days long; however, this reform resulted in the average year of the Julian calendar being 365.25 days long, slightly more than the actual solar year of 365.2422 days (the current value, which varies).[13] In 1582, Pope Gregory XIII promulgated a revised calendar—the Gregorian calendar—that reduced the average length of the calendar year from 365.25 days to 365.2425, correcting the Julian calendar's drift against the solar year.[14][15]

Climate, daylight and astronomy

In the Northern Hemisphere, June marks the commencement of summer, while in the Southern Hemisphere, it is the start of winter. In the Northern Hemisphere, the beginning of the traditional astronomical summer is 21 June, while meteorological summer commences on 1 June. In the Southern Hemisphere, astronomical winter starts on 21 June while meteorological winter begins on 1 June.[16] The June solstice—known as the summer solstice in the Northern Hemisphere and winter solstice in the Southern Hemisphere—occurs for one-day between 20–22 June (often on 21 June), marking the longest day of the year in terms of daylight hours in the Northern Hemisphere and the shortest day in the Southern Hemisphere.[17][18] In places north of the Arctic Circle and south of the Antarctic Circle, this is when the midnight sun occurs, during which the Sun remains visible even at midnight.[16]

The Atlantic hurricane season—when tropical or subtropical cyclones are most likely to form in the north Atlantic Ocean—begins on 1 June, lasting until 30 November.[19] In the Indian Ocean north of the equator, around the Indian subcontinent, year-round tropical cyclones appear frequently between May and June.[20] In contrast, Mediterranean tropical-like cyclones are least likely to form in June because of the dry season of the Mediterranean having stable air.[21] The East Asian rainy season is generally considered to commence in June.[22] Certain meteor showers occur annually during this month. The Arietids—among the most intense daylight meteor showers of the year—last from 22 May until 2 July, peaking on 8 June; the Beta Taurids take place between 5 June and 18 July, peaking on 28 June; and the June Bootids commence between 22 June and 2 July, peaking on 27 June.[23][24]

Observances

In the United States, June is Pride Month

In Catholicism, June is dedicated to the devotion of the Sacred Heart of Jesus. This observance is called the Month of the Sacred Heart.[25] In Canada, June is ALS Awareness Month, a campaign to spread awareness and raise funds for a cure for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Filipino Heritage Month.[26][27] The most well-known month-long observance in the United States in June is Pride Month, which is the celebration of LGBT individuals and the advancement of their civil liberties.[28][29] Caribbean-American Heritage Month also occurs annually in June.[30] National Smile Month, the largest oral health campaign in the United Kingdom and organised by the Oral Health Foundation, commences between alternating dates from mid-May to mid-June.[31][32][33] In Barbados, June is part of the Season of Emancipation which takes place between 14 April and 23 August to commemorate the emancipation of slaves of African descent.[34][35]

Global single-day observances

Noteworthy international holidays include:

Fixed
Movable

United Nations

The following are global holidays which are formally observed by the United Nations:[53]

Religious observances

Further information: Date of Easter

As Easter is celebrated on the first Sunday after the Paschal full moon, which is the first full moon on or after 21 March (a fixed approximation of the March equinox), Ascension Day, observed 39 days after Easter, can occur in June.[54][55] Pentecost is the fiftieth day after Easter Sunday, while Trinity Sunday is the first Sunday after Pentecost.[56] The Catholic Church also observes the Feast of the Sacred Heart, which happens on the Friday following the second Sunday after Pentecost.[57] The Feast of Corpus Christi, observed by the Latin Church and certain Western Orthodox, Lutheran, and Anglican churches, takes place on the Thursday after Trinity Sunday.[56] The feast of Saints Peter and Paul, a liturgical feast observed by numerous denominations, always occurs on 29 June.[58]

In Buddhism, Vesak (Buddha Day), the most significant Buddhist festival, occurs on 2 June in Singapore and on 3 June in Thailand as of 2024.[59][60] Shavuot, one of the biblically-ordained Three Pilgrimage Festivals observed in Judaism, takes place during the month of Sivan in the Hebrew calendar, which corresponds to being between May and June in the Gregorian calendar.[61]

Symbols

In astrology, the Zodiac signs for those born between 21 May and 21 June is Gemini. For people born between 22 June and 22 July, their sign is Cancer.[62] The birthstones associated with June in the United States are pearl, moonstone and alexandrite.[63] The birth flowers of June are rose and honeysuckle.[64]

References

Citations

  1. ^ a b c Gyllenbok, Jan (2018). Encyclopaedia of Historical Metrology, Weights, and Measures. Vol. 1. Springer International Publishing. ISBN 978-3-319-57598-8.
  2. ^ Bahr, Ann Marie B. (2009). Christianity. Facts On File. pp. 117–118. ISBN 978-1-4381-0639-7.
  3. ^ "Jun., n.". Collins English Dictionary. HarperCollins. n.d. Retrieved 11 March 2024.
  4. ^ "June, n.". Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. September 2023. doi:10.1093/OED/4206893514.
  5. ^ Douglas, Harper (28 September 2017). "June". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 12 March 2024.
  6. ^ Hannah, Robert (2013). Greek and Roman Calendars. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 99. ISBN 978-1-84966-751-7.
  7. ^ Mommsen, Theodor (1864). Dickson, William Purdie (ed.). The History of Rome: The Period Anterior to the Abolition of the Monarchy. Vol. 1. Richard Bentley. pp. 218–219.
  8. ^ Rüpke, Jörg (2011). The Roman Calendar from Numa to Constantine: Time, History, and the Fasti. Translated by Richardson, D.M.B. Wiley. p. 23. ISBN 978-0-4706-5508-5.
  9. ^ Roman republican calendar. Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. 22 December 2023. Retrieved 30 March 2024.
  10. ^ Forsythe, Gary (2012). Time in Roman Religion: One Thousand Years of Religious History. Routledge. p. 14–15. ISBN 978-0-415-52217-5.
  11. ^ Scullard, Howard Hayes (1981). Festivals and Ceremonies of the Roman Republic. Cornell University Press. p. 126. ISBN 978-0-8014-1402-2.
  12. ^ Hersch, Karen K. (2010). The Roman Wedding: Ritual and Meaning in Antiquity. Cambridge University Press. p. 47. ISBN 978-0-521-12427-0.
  13. ^ Richards, E. G. (2013). "Calendars". In Urban, Sean E.; Seidelmann, P. Kenneth (eds.). Explanatory Supplement to the Astronomical Almanac (3rd ed.). University Science Books. pp. 593–595. ISBN 978-1-891389-85-6.
  14. ^ Mezzi, E.; Vizza, F. (2010). Luigi Lilio Medico: Astronomo e Matematico di Cirò [Luigi Lilio: Doctor, Astronomer and Mathematician from Cirò] (in Italian). Laruffa Editore. pp. 14, 52. ISBN 978-88-7221-481-7.
  15. ^ Ziggelaar, A. (1983). Coyne, G. V.; Hoskin, M. A.; Pedersen, O. (eds.). The Papal Bull of 1582 Promulgating a Reform of the Calendar. Gregorian Reform of the Calendar: Proceedings of the Vatican Conference to Commemorate its 400th Anniversary. Pontifical Academy of Sciences. p. 210.
  16. ^ a b Hund, Andrew (2012). Philander, S. George (ed.). Encyclopedia of Global Warming & Climate Change. Vol. 1 (2 ed.). Sage Publishing. pp. 1245–1246. ISBN 978-1-5063-2075-5.
  17. ^ Timberlake, Todd; Wallace, Paul (2019). Finding Our Place in the Solar System: The Scientific Story of the Copernican Revolution. Cambridge University Press. p. 36. ISBN 978-1-107-18229-5.
  18. ^ Rocher, P. (n.d.). "Solstice d'été de 1583 à 2999" [Summer solstice from 1583 to 2999] (PDF). Institut de mécanique céleste et de calcul des éphémérides (in French). Observatory of Paris. Retrieved 11 March 2024.
  19. ^ Caloiero, Tommaso (2018). Hydrological Hazard: Analysis and Prevention. Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute. p. 194. ISBN 978-3-03897-374-4.
  20. ^ National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (2006). South Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean. Sailing Directions – Planning Guides (4 ed.). ProStar Publications. pp. 126, 132. ISBN 978-1-57785-752-5.
  21. ^ Nastos, P. T.; Karavana-Papadimou, K.; Matsangouras, I. T. (September 2015). "Tropical-like Cyclones in the Mediterranean: Impacts and Composite Daily Means and Anomalies of Synoptic Conditions" (PDF). Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Environmental Science and Technology. University of Athens: 2–3. Retrieved 11 March 2024.
  22. ^ Ninomiya, Kozo (2001). 豪雨と降水システム [Heavy Rain and Precipitation Systems] (in Japanese). Tokyodo Publishing. pp. 121–122. ISBN 978-4-490-20435-3.
  23. ^ Kronk, Gary W. (2013). "June Meteor Showers". Meteor Showers: An Annotated Catalog. Springer International Publishing. pp. 106, 111–112, 134. ISBN 978-1-4614-7897-3.
  24. ^ Hajdukova, Maria; Rudawska, Regina (16 August 2023). "Established meteor showers". Meteor Data Center. International Astronomical Union. Retrieved 11 March 2024.
  25. ^ Coffey, Kathy; Hynes, Mary Ellen; Laughlin, Corinna (2012). Companion to the Calendar: A Guide to the Saints, Seasons, and Holidays of the Year (2 ed.). Liturgy Training Publications. p. 79. ISBN 978-1-56854-260-7.
  26. ^ Kar, Anita (2 June 2015). "ALS Awareness Month – June". Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital. McGill University Health Centre. Retrieved 11 March 2024.
  27. ^ Cabana, Ysh (9 November 2018). "Parliament adopts June as Filipino Heritage Month". The Philippine Reporter. Retrieved 11 March 2024.
  28. ^ Kanigel, Rachele (2019). "Diversity Calendar". The Diversity Style Guide. Wiley. p. 301. ISBN 978-1-119-05515-0.
  29. ^ Oliver, David; Ali, Rasha (28 June 2019). "Why we owe Pride to black transgender women who threw bricks at cops". USA Today. Gannett. Retrieved 11 March 2024.
  30. ^ Halloran, Vivian (2020). "Circumscribed Citizenship: Caribbean American Visibility". In Birkenmaier, Anke (ed.). Caribbean Migrations: The Legacies of Colonialism. Rutgers University Press. p. 80. ISBN 978-1-9788-1449-3.
  31. ^ Grayson, Vicky (2009). "Health Promotion in Context". In Moyse, Karen (ed.). Health in Children and Young People: The Role of the Nurse. Wiley. p. 368. ISBN 978-1-4443-2265-1.
  32. ^ "National Smile Month". James Paget University Hospital. 24 May 2019. Retrieved 11 March 2024.
  33. ^ "National Smile Month 2024". Oral Health Foundation. n.d. Retrieved 11 March 2024.
  34. ^ "Barbados Season of Emancipation". Barbados (official website). n.d. Retrieved 11 March 2024.
  35. ^ Oldfield, J. R. (2007). Chords of Freedom: Commemoration, Ritual and British Transatlantic Slavery. Manchester University Press. p. 165. ISBN 978-0-7190-6665-8.
  36. ^ UNICEF (2002). The State of the World's Children. United Nations. p. 48. ISBN 978-92-1-059748-7.
  37. ^ Willett, Alexis (2019). "Milks". Drinkology: The Science of What We Drink and What It Does to Us, from Milks to Martinis. Little, Brown and Company. ISBN 978-1-4721-4246-7.
  38. ^ McGrow, Lauren (2017). Missionary Positions: A Postcolonial Feminist Perspective on Sex Work and Faith-Based Outreach from Australia. Brill Publishers. p. 50. ISBN 978-90-04-35318-3.
  39. ^ Kwan, Rhoda (5 June 2021). "Activists around the world mark 32 years since Tiananmen Massacre as Hong Kong vigil banned". Hong Kong Free Press. Retrieved 11 March 2024.
  40. ^ "Global tributes mark 34th anniversary of the Tiananmen Square Massacre". Euronews. 4 June 2023. Retrieved 11 March 2024.
  41. ^ "Global Wind Day 2023: Everything you need to know about the day". The Economic Times. 15 June 2023. Retrieved 11 March 2024.
  42. ^ Okpara, Ngozi (2019). "Child Protection and Development in Nigeria: Towards a More Functional Media Intervention". In Oyero, Olusola (ed.). Media and Its Role in Protecting the Rights of Children in Africa. IGI Global. p. 63. ISBN 978-1-7998-0331-7.
  43. ^ Trivedi, Bijal (18 June 2005). "Autistic and proud of it". New Scientist. Retrieved 11 March 2024.
  44. ^ Eschner, Kat (19 June 2017). "On World Sauntering Day, Take a Walk". Smithsonian Magazine. Retrieved 11 March 2024.
  45. ^ Borden, Iain (2019). Skateboarding and the City: A Complete History. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 62. ISBN 978-1-4725-8348-2.
  46. ^ Lang, Kenneth R. (2011). The Cambridge Guide to the Solar System. Cambridge University Press. p. 4. ISBN 978-1-139-49417-5.
  47. ^ "World Hydrology Day". The Hydrographic Journal (123–126). The Hydrographic Society: UK & Ireland: 48. 2006. Thursday 21 June marks the second World Hydrography Day following its inaugural at the same time last year.
  48. ^ "A look at the history and significance behind World Music Day". Deccan Herald. 21 June 2023. Retrieved 11 March 2024.
  49. ^ Gopal, B. Madhu (25 June 2020). "'Time to dispel fears over vitiligo'". The Hindu. Retrieved 11 March 2024.
  50. ^ Niilenge, Taati (3 July 2023). "Refrigeration taken for granted". The Namibian. Retrieved 11 March 2024.
  51. ^ "Hit the streets for Global Running Day, June 3". Student Affairs. University of Nebraska–Lincoln. 29 May 2020. Retrieved 11 March 2024.
  52. ^ a b Booth, Nigel (12 June 2022). "Global Father's Day celebrations - Celebration of Father's Day around the world". Yorkshire Evening Post. Retrieved 11 March 2024.
  53. ^ "International Days and Weeks". United Nations. n.d. Retrieved 11 March 2024.
  54. ^ Bede (1999). The Reckoning of Time. Translated by Faith Wallis. Liverpool University Press. pp. xviii–xx. ISBN 978-0-85323-693-1.
  55. ^ Bednarek, M. (n.d.). "Easter Dates from 1600 to 2099". X-13ARIMA-SEATS. census.gov. Retrieved 12 March 2024.
  56. ^ a b Dershowitz, Nachum; Reingold, Edward M. (2008). Calendrical Calculations (3 ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 119. ISBN 978-0-521-88540-9.
  57. ^ Hoffner, Helen (2018). Catholic Traditions and Treasures: An Illustrated Encyclopedia. Illustrated by Folles, Deirdre. Sophia Institute Press. p. 26. ISBN 978-1-62282-484-7.
  58. ^ Bishop, Paul (2023). Discourses of Philology and Theology in Nietzsche: From the "Untimelies" to The Anti-Christ. Springer International Publishing. p. 26. ISBN 978-3-031-42272-0.
  59. ^ "Vesak Day revised to fall on June 2 next year; Singapore to have 7 long weekends in 2023". The Straits Times. 19 January 2023 [Originally published 29 September 2022]. Retrieved 12 March 2024.
  60. ^ Fronde, Neill (31 December 2022). "Thai holidays in 2023". The Thaiger. Retrieved 12 March 2024.
  61. ^ Steinberg, Paul (2007). Potter, Janet Greenstein (ed.). Celebrating the Jewish Year: The Spring and Summer Holidays. Vol. 3 (1 ed.). Jewish Publication Society. p. 136. ISBN 978-0-8276-0850-4.
  62. ^ Williams, William F. (2013). "Astrology". Encyclopedia of Pseudoscience: From Alien Abductions to Zone Therapy. Taylor & Francis. pp. 18–19. ISBN 978-1-135-95522-9.
  63. ^ "Birthstones For Each Month". Gemological Institute of America. n.d. Retrieved 12 March 2024.
  64. ^ Binney, Ruth (2019). Plant Lore and Legend: The Wisdom and Wonder of Plants and Flowers Revealed. Dover Publications. p. 17. ISBN 978-0-486-82874-9.

Explanatory notes

  1. ^ The Romans usually described their first calendar as one with ten fixed months—four "full months" (pleni menses) with 31 days and six "hollow months" (cavi menses) of 30 days, the latter including Iunius.[7] Later Roman writers usually credited this calendar to Romulus, their legendary first king, around 738 BC. Nevertheless, this early version of the Roman calendar has not been attested, and a number of scholars doubt the existence of this calendar at all.[8][9]
  2. ^ Most common date; many countries observe Father's Day at different dates in June.[52]

External links