.mw-parser-output .hidden-begin{box-sizing:border-box;width:100%;padding:5px;border:none;font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .hidden-title{font-weight:bold;line-height:1.6;text-align:left}.mw-parser-output .hidden-content{text-align:left}@media all and (max-width:500px){.mw-parser-output .hidden-begin{width:auto!important;clear:none!important;float:none!important))You can help expand this article with text translated from the corresponding article in Japanese. (February 2018) Click [show] for important translation instructions. View a machine-translated version of the Japanese article. Machine translation, like DeepL or Google Translate, is a useful starting point for translations, but translators must revise errors as necessary and confirm that the translation is accurate, rather than simply copy-pasting machine-translated text into the English Wikipedia. Consider adding a topic to this template: there are already 3,684 articles in the main category, and specifying|topic= will aid in categorization. Do not translate text that appears unreliable or low-quality. If possible, verify the text with references provided in the foreign-language article. You must provide copyright attribution in the edit summary accompanying your translation by providing an interlanguage link to the source of your translation. A model attribution edit summary is Content in this edit is translated from the existing Japanese Wikipedia article at [[:ja:合略仮名]]; see its history for attribution. You may also add the template ((Translated|ja|合略仮名)) to the talk page. For more guidance, see Wikipedia:Translation.

In the Japanese writing system kana ligatures (Japanese: 合略仮名, Hepburn: gōryaku-gana) are ligatures in the kana writing system, both hiragana and katakana. Kana such as koto (, from 事) and shite (𬼀, from 為) are not kana ligatures, but polysyllabic kana.

Hardly any kana ligatures or polysyllabic kana are represented in standard character encodings.


Nobori banners in sumo, using the yori ligature ゟ
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These characters were widely used until a spelling reform of 1900 decreed that each sound (mora) would be represented by one (kana) character. They were not represented in computer character encodings until JIS X 0213:2000 (JIS2000) added yori and koto.


Hiragana ligature

historical/Hepburn image character Unicode origin
かしこ/kashiko - - 𛀚しこ
こと/koto - - こと[1][2]
ごと/goto - - ごと[1][2]
さま/sama - - さ𛃅[3][4]
- -
まゐらせさうらふ/mairasesōrō - - 参らせ候ふ
- -
より/yori U+309F より[3][4][2]

Polysyllabic hiragana

historical/Hepburn image character Unicode origin
なり/nari 𬼂 U+2CF02 [3][2][5][6]

Katakana ligature

historical/Hepburn image character Unicode origin
トイフ/toyū - - ト云[3][7][8][9]
トキ/toki - - トキ[3][7][8][1][2][9]
トテ/tote - - トテ[3]
トモ/tomo 𪜈 U+2A708 トモ[3][7][8][1][2]
ドモ/domo - - ドモ
ヨリ/yori - - ヨリ[7][8][9]

Polysyllabic katakana

historical/Hepburn image character Unicode origin
イフ/yū - -
コト/koto U+30FF [3][7][8]
シテ/shite 𬼀 U+2CF00 [7][8]
トキ/toki - - [7][8][9]
ナリ/nari 𬻿 U+2CEFF [7][8][9]

In Unicode

Character information
Encodings decimal hex dec hex dec hex dec hex dec hex dec hex
Unicode 12447 U+309F 12543 U+30FF 173832 U+2A708 184063 U+2CEFF 184064 U+2CF00 184066 U+2CF02
UTF-8 227 130 159 E3 82 9F 227 131 191 E3 83 BF 240 170 156 136 F0 AA 9C 88 240 172 187 191 F0 AC BB BF 240 172 188 128 F0 AC BC 80 240 172 188 130 F0 AC BC 82
UTF-16 12447 309F 12543 30FF 55401 57096 D869 DF08 55411 57087 D873 DEFF 55411 57088 D873 DF00 55411 57090 D873 DF02
Numeric character reference ゟ ゟ ヿ ヿ 𪜈 𪜈 𬻿 𬻿 𬼀 𬼀 𬼂 𬼂

See also


  1. ^ a b c d 普通日本文典 落合直文ほか 1893年
  2. ^ a b c d e f 和漢の文典 : 雅俗対照
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h 日本大文典. 第1編 P.42-45 落合直文 1894年
  4. ^ a b ことばの泉 : 日本大辞典 (21版) P.3 落合直文 1904年
  5. ^ 児玉幸多『くずし字解読辞典〔普及版〕』東京堂出版 1993年 ほか
  6. ^ 田島毓堂「法華経為字和訓考—資料編(三)—」名古屋大学文学部研究論集 1990年
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h 國語學大系 第七巻 文字(一) P.302-303 福井久蔵 1939年
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h 仮字本末 伴信友 1850年
  9. ^ a b c d e 操觚便覧藤井乙男編 1899年