King Ping of Zhou
King of China
Reign770–16 April 720 BC
PredecessorKing You of Zhou
SuccessorKing Huan of Zhou
Died16 April 720 BC[1]
IssueCrown Prince Xiefu
Prince Hu
Ruizu of Zhou 周睿祖
Ancestral name: (姬)
Given name: Yíjiù (宜臼)
HouseZhou Dynasty
FatherKing You of Zhou[2]
MotherQueen Shen
King Ping of Zhou
Posthumous name
Literal meaningThe Peaceful King of Zhou

King Ping of Zhou (Chinese: 周平王; pinyin: Zhōu Píng Wáng; died 16 April 720 BC), personal name Ji Yijiu,[3] was the thirteenth king of the Zhou dynasty and the first of the Eastern Zhou dynasty.[4]


He was the son of King You of Zhou and Queen Shen (申后).

King You had exiled Queen Shen and Ji Yijiu after the king became enamoured with his concubine Bao Si and made her queen and his son Bofu his heir.[5] As a result, Queen Shen’s father, the Marquess of Shen, teamed with the Quanrong nomads and local satellite states to overthrow King You.[4][6] In the Battle of Mount Li King You and Bofu were killed, and Bao Si captured. Ji Yijiu ascended the throne. At about the same time, Jī Hàn (姬翰), Duke of Guó (虢公), elevated Jī Yúchén (姬余臣) to the throne as King Xie of Zhou (周携王), and the Zhou Dynasty saw a period of two parallel kings until King Xie was killed by Marquis Wen of Jin (晋文侯) in 750 BCE.

King Ping moved the Western Zhou dynasty's capital east from Haojing to Luoyang,[7] thus ending the Western Zhou[citation needed] and beginning the Eastern Zhou dynasty and the Spring and Autumn period. He is the first Zhou king to be mentioned in the chronological account of the Zuo Zhuan.

Over 14 centuries after King Ping’s death, Tang dynasty Empress regnant Wu Zetian claimed ancestry from King Ping through his son Prince Wu, and changed the dynastic name to Zhou, which was reverted to Tang after her death.[8]




King Yi of Zhou (d. 878 BC)
King Li of Zhou (890–828 BC)
Wang Ji of E
King Xuan of Zhou (d. 782 BC)
Shen Jiang of Shen
King You of Zhou (d. 771 BC)
Duke Xian of Qi (d. 850 BC)
Duke Wu of Qi
Queen Jiang of Qi
King Ping of Zhou (d. 720 BC)
Marquis of Shen
Queen Shen of Shen

See also


  1. ^ 左丘明. 《春秋左氏傳‧隱公三年》 (in Chinese). 三年,春,王三月,壬戌,平王崩,赴以庚戌,故書之。
  2. ^ Chinese Text Project, Rulers of the Zhou states – with links to their occurrences in pre-Qin and Han texts.
  3. ^ Michael Loewe and Edward Shaughnessy, ed. (1999), The Cambridge History of Ancient China, Cambridge University Press
  4. ^ a b Sima Qian. Records of the Grand Historian, "Zhou Dynasty Annals".
  5. ^ Giles, Herbert A. (1912). The Civilization of China. Tutis Digital Publishing. ISBN 81-320-0448-5. Chapter 1
  6. ^ Bamboo Annals
  7. ^ Zheng Zhu (郑注), "Classic of Rites · Unified Sacrifices (礼记·祭统》)
  8. ^ Paludan, 101

King Ping of Zhou Zhou Dynasty Died: 720 BC Regnal titles Preceded byKing You of Zhou King of China 770–16 April 720 BC Succeeded byKing Huan of Zhou