Legislative Council of Burma
Type
Type
History
Founded1897
Disbanded1936
Preceded byHluttaw of Konbaung Dynasty
Succeeded byLegislature of Burma
Seats9 (1897-1923)
103 (1923-1936)
Elections
Last election
1932 Burmese general election
Meeting place
Rangoon, British Burma

The Legislative Council of Burma was the legislative body of British Burma from 1897 to 1936.

Establishment

It was established in 1897 as an advisory council to the British colonial governor, the Lieutenant-Governor of Burma, in drafting legislation for Burma. The Legislative Council was initially an appointed body,[1] established as a nine-member council consisting of four officials and five nominated non-officials.[2] Its membership, which increased from nine to thirty members, predominantly represented foreign commercial interests.[1] Prior to its establishment, Burmese laws were made in India, whereby laws drafted by the local administration in Burma were submitted to the Legislative Council of India for approval.[2] After the passage of such laws, they were consented to by the Governor-General-in-Council and put into effect through publication within the Burma Gazette.[2]

Restructuring

On 2 January 1923, with the enactment of the Montagu–Chelmsford Reforms (which granted British India dyarchy constitution, giving Burma a limited measure of self-rule), the Council was recast as a partially elected body.[3] The new Legislative Council consisted of 103 seats, 80 filled by election, 8 by nomination of non-officials, 13 by nomination of officials, and 2 by members of the Governor's Executive Council ex-officio.[3] The 80 elected seats were divided as follows: 22 to urban constituencies in 8 towns, with 8 of them to the Burmese Indian community; 49 to rural constituencies in 31 districts, with 5 to the Karen; and the remaining given to special constituencies like Rangoon University and various chambers of commerce.[3]

Elections were held in 1922, 1925 and 1928.[4] Burmese nationalists, organized by the General Council of Burmese Associations, boycotted elections to the Legislative Council, and under 7% of the electorate voted in the 1922 elections.[1] Turnout continued to be low: just over 16% in 1925, and 18% in 1928.[5]

Presidents of Legislative Council

Name Took office Left office Notes
Sir Frank McCarthy February 1923 1925 Died in office[6]
Sir Robert Sydney Giles 1925 1927 [7]
Sir Oscar de Glanville 1927 1930 [8]
U Pu 'Tharrawaddy' 1930 1932 [8][9]
Chit Hlaing 1932 1932 [9][10]
Sir Oscar de Glanville 1932 1935 [8][7][10]
Chit Hlaing 1935 1936 [9][10]

References

  1. ^ a b c Robert H. Taylor (2009). The State in Myanmar. NUS Press. p. 185. ISBN 978-9971-69-466-1. Retrieved 24 November 2012.
  2. ^ a b c Brown, Ian (1013). Burma's Economy in the Twentieth Century. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9781107015883.
  3. ^ a b c Maung Maung (2012). Burma's Constitution. Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 9789401188906.
  4. ^ Carl A. Trocki (1992). "Political Structures in the Nineteenth and early Twentieth Centuries". In Nicholas Tarling (ed.). The Cambridge History of Southeast Asia: Volume 2, the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries. Cambridge University Press. p. 126. ISBN 978-0-521-35506-3. Retrieved 24 November 2012.
  5. ^ R. H. Taylor (1996). The Politics of Elections in Southeast Asia: Delusion Or Necessity?. Cambridge University Press. p. 165. ISBN 978-0-521-56443-4. Retrieved 24 November 2012.
  6. ^ Maung, Maung (December 6, 2012). Burma's Constitution. Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 9789401188920 – via Google Books.
  7. ^ a b Ba U, U. (August 1, 1959). "My Burma;the autobiography of a President". New York. hdl:2027/uc1.32106000446796.
  8. ^ a b c "Burma Handbook". Manager, Government of India Press. August 1, 1944 – via Google Books.
  9. ^ a b c "The impact of political thought on Burma's struggle for independence, (1930-1948) /". Ann Arbor. August 1, 1989. hdl:2027/mdp.39015032410535.
  10. ^ a b c https://mllcru.weebly.com/uploads/2/2/8/4/22848786/25256254-chronology-of-burma-history-1404-1996.pdf[bare URL PDF]