The Citadelle of Quebec is a National Historic Site of Canada,[1] and also forms part of the Fortifications of Québec National Historic Site of Canada.[1] The fortress is located within the "Historic District of Old Québec", which was designated a World Heritage Site in 1985.[2]

This is a list of forts in New France built by the French government or French chartered companies in what later became Canada, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, and the United States. They range from large European-type citadels like at Quebec City to tiny fur-trade posts.[3]


The French forts in Canada were located from the Atlantic Ocean to as far west as the confluence of the North and South Saskatchewan rivers, and as far north as James Bay. Built between the 1640s and the 1750s, a few were captured from rival British fur trading companies like Hudson's Bay Company. The forts were located on waterways to provide transport of fur back east to Montreal or Quebec City. A few have survived or been re-built, but most are ruins or simply disappeared after abandonment.

Name[4][5] Date constructed c. Location Province Image
Fort Anne 1636 Annapolis Royal  Nova Scotia
Fort Bas de la Rivière 1750 Fort Alexander  Manitoba
Fort Boishébert 1749 Grand Bay  New Brunswick
Fort Beauséjour 1751 Aulac  New Brunswick
Fort Bourbon (West) 1741 Grand Rapids  Manitoba
Fort Bourbon (North) 1697 York Factory  Manitoba
Fort Charlesbourg Royal 1541–1543 Quebec City  Quebec
Fort Chambly 1665 Chambly  Quebec
Citadelle of Quebec 1693 Quebec City  Quebec
Citadelle of Montreal 1690–1821 Montreal  Quebec
Fort Dauphin 1741 Winnipegosis  Manitoba
Fort de la Corne 1753 Fort à la Corne Provincial Forest  Saskatchewan
Fort de la Montagne 1685 Montreal  Quebec
Fort Douville 1720 Toronto  Ontario
Fort Dumoine 1730 Rapides-des-Joachims  Quebec
Fort du Moulin 1749 Trois-Rivières  Quebec
Fort du Sault Saint-Louis 1725 Kahnawake  Quebec
Fort Frontenac 1673 Kingston  Ontario
Fort Gaspareaux 1751 Strait Shores  New Brunswick
Fort Kaministiquia 1717 Thunder Bay  Ontario
Fort Lachine 1669–1695 Montréal  Quebec
Fort Laprairie 1687 La Prairie  Quebec
Fort La Reine 1738 Portage la Prairie  Manitoba
Fort La Jonquière 1751 Saskatchewan River Forks (near Prince Albert)  Saskatchewan
Fortress of Louisbourg 1719 Louisbourg  Nova Scotia
Fort Maurepas 1733 Selkirk  Manitoba
Fort Menagoueche 1751 Saint John  New Brunswick
Fort Paskoya 1741 The Pas (on Cedar Lake)  Manitoba
Fort Plaisance 1662 Placentia  Newfoundland and Labrador
Fort Pointe-aux-Trembles 1670 Montréal  Quebec
Port-Royal Habitation 1605 Annapolis Royal  Nova Scotia

Habitation Of Quebec 1608 Quebec City  Quebec
Fort Richelieu 1641 Sorel-Tracy  Quebec
Fort Rouge 1738 Winnipeg  Manitoba
Fort Rouillé 1750 Toronto  Ontario
Fort Royal (Newfoundland) 1687 Placentia  Newfoundland and Labrador
Fort Sainte Anne (Hudson Bay) 1670 (1686) Fort Albany  Ontario
Fort Sainte Anne 1629–1641 Englishtown  Nova Scotia
Fort Saint-François 1660 Trois-Rivières  Quebec
Fort Saint Jacques 1686–1693 and 1697–1713 Waskaganish  Quebec
Fort Saint-Jean c1748 Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu  Quebec Fort Saint-Jean c1748
Fort Saint Louis 1690–1713 Placentia  Newfoundland and Labrador
Fort St. Louis 1620–1834 Quebec City  Quebec
Fort St. Louis 1623–1930 Cape Sable Island  Nova Scotia
Fort St. Louis 1670s (1686) Moose Factory  Ontario
Fort St. Pierre 1731 Fort Frances (near mouth of the Rainy River meets with Rainy Lake)  Ontario
Fort Sainte Thérèse 1665 Carignan  Quebec
Fort Senneville 1671 Montreal  Quebec
Fort Témiscamingue 1679 Ville-Marie  Quebec
Tadoussac Trading Post 1600 Tadoussac  Quebec
Fort Toronto 1750 Toronto  Ontario
Fort Ville-Marie 1642–1688 Montreal  Quebec
Port-la-Joye 1720 Charlottetown  Prince Edward Island

Saint Pierre and Miquelon

Name Date constructed c. Location Communes of France Image
Pointe aux Cannon Battery[6] 1690 Saint Pierre Island Saint-Pierre

United States

The French forts built in what is now the United States, were part of a series of forts built from the Great Lakes to the Mississippi delta; as far west as the Dakotas, as far east as Maine.

Name[4][5] Date constructed c. Location State Image
Arkansas Post 1686 Arkansas County  Arkansas
Fort des Alibamons 1717 Wetumpka  Alabama
Fort Assumption 1739 Memphis  Tennessee
Fort de la Balise 1722 Plaquemines Parish  Louisiana
Fort Beauharnois 1727 Goodhue County  Minnesota
Fort De La Boulaye

(Fort Bayougoula,

Fort Iberville,

Fort Louisiana)

1700 Phoenix, Plaquemines Parish  Louisiana
Fort de Buade 1683 St. Ignace  Michigan
Fort Carillon 1754–57 Ticonderoga  New York
Fort Caroline 1564 Jacksonville  Florida
Fort de Cavagnal 1744 Missouri River between Kansas City and Fort Leavenworth  Kansas
Fort Charles 1562 Beaufort  South Carolina
Fort de Chartres 1720 Randolph County  Illinois
Fort Condé de la Mobille 1723 Mobile  Alabama
Fort Conti 1679 Youngstown  New York
Fort Crèvecoeur 1680 Creve Coeur  Illinois
Fort Denonville 1687 Youngstown  New York
Fort Ponchartrain du Détroit 1701 Detroit  Michigan
Fort Détour à l'Anglais 1722 Belle Chase  Louisiana
Fort Duquesne 1750 Morrison County  Minnesota
Fort Duquesne 1754 Pittsburgh  Pennsylvania
Fort Dubreuil

(Côte des Allemands)

1740 Destrehan  Louisiana
Fort St. Jean 1708 New Orleans  Louisiana
Fort Kaskaskia 1759 Kaskaskia  Illinois
Fort de La Présentation 1671 Ogdensburg  New York
Fort Le Boeuf 1753 Waterford  Pennsylvania
Fort Lévis 1759 Ogdensburg  New York
Fort Louis de la Louisiane 1702 Le Moyne  Alabama
Fort Machault 1754 Franklin  Pennsylvania
Fort Massac 1757 Massac County  Illinois
Fort Maurepas 1699 Ocean Springs  Mississippi
Fort Miami (Indiana) 1715 Fort Wayne  Indiana
Fort Miami (Michigan) 1679 St. Joseph  Michigan
Fort Michilimackinac 1715 Mackinaw City
Fort des Natchitoches 1714 Natchitoches  Louisiana
Fort Niagara 1678 Youngstown  New York
Fort Orleans 1723 Brunswick  Missouri
Fort Ouiatenon 1717 West Lafayette  Indiana
Fort Pentagouet 1638 Castine  Maine
Fort St. Philip 1761 Buras-Triumph  Louisiana
Fort Pimiteoui 1691 Peoria  Illinois
Fort Presque Isle 1753 Erie  Pennsylvania
Fort Prudhomme 1682 Memphis  Tennessee
Fort Rosalie 1716 Natchez  Mississippi
Fort Ste. Anne 1666 Isle La Motte  Vermont
Fort St. Charles 1732 Lake of the Woods County  Minnesota
Fort St. Frédéric 1729–1757 Crown Point  New York
Fort St. Joseph 1691 Niles  Michigan
Fort St. Leon 1749 Belle Chase  Louisiana
Fort Saint Louis 1685 Inez  Texas
Fort St. Louis-Le Rocher 1682 North Utica  Illinois
Fort St. Marie 1746 English Turn  Louisiana
Fort Sandoské 1745 Sandusky Bay  Ohio
Fort de Tombecbé 1735–37 Epes  Alabama
Fort Toulouse 1717 Wetumpka
Fort Vincennes 1731–32 Vincennes  Indiana

See also

Canada related
United States related


  1. ^ a b Québec Citadel. Canadian Register of Historic Places. Retrieved 16 September 2011.
  2. ^ "Historic District of Old Québec". World Heritage Convention. UNESCO. Retrieved 16 September 2011.
  3. ^ Rene Chartrand (2013). French Fortresses in North America 1535–1763: Quebec, Montreal, Louisbourg and New Orleans. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4728-0317-7.
  4. ^ a b Rene Chartrand (2013). The Forts of New France in Northeast America 1600–1763. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4728-0318-4.
  5. ^ a b René Chartrand (2010). The Forts of New France: The Great Lakes, the Plains and the Gulf Coast, 1600-1763. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84603-504-3.
  6. ^ "Landmarks and monuments Saint-Pierre and Miquelon". Archived from the original on 2010-07-25. Retrieved 2010-07-08.