A map of the zoogeographical realms by Alfred Russel Wallace, which practically correspond to the biogeographic provinces developed by Miklos Udvardy. .mw-parser-output .legend{page-break-inside:avoid;break-inside:avoid-column}.mw-parser-output .legend-color{display:inline-block;min-width:1.25em;height:1.25em;line-height:1.25;margin:1px 0;text-align:center;border:1px solid black;background-color:transparent;color:black}.mw-parser-output .legend-text{}  Nearctic   Palearctic   Ethiopian (Afrotropic)   Oriental (Indomalaya)   Australian (Australasia and Oceania)   Neotropic
A map of the zoogeographical realms by Alfred Russel Wallace, which practically correspond to the biogeographic provinces developed by Miklos Udvardy.
  Ethiopian (Afrotropic)
  Oriental (Indomalaya)
  Australian (Australasia and Oceania)

This page features a list of biogeographic provinces that were developed by Miklos Udvardy in 1975,[1][2] later modified by other authors.[according to whom?] Biogeographic Province is a biotic subdivision of biogeographic realms subdivided into ecoregions, which are classified based on their biomes or habitat types and, on this page, correspond to the floristic kingdoms of botany.

The provinces represent the large areas of Earth's surface within which organisms have been evolving in relative isolation over long periods of time, separated from one another by geographic features, such as oceans, broad deserts, or high mountain ranges, that constitute barriers to migration.

Biomes are characterized by similar climax vegetation, though each realm may include a number of different biomes. A tropical moist broadleaf forest in Brazil, for example, may be similar to one in New Guinea in its vegetation type and structure, climate, soils, etc., but these forests are inhabited by plants with very different evolutionary histories.

Afrotropical Realm

Ecoregions of the Afrotropical realm, color-coded by biome. Dark green: tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests. Light brown: tropical and subtropical dry broadleaf forests. Yellow: tropical and subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands. Light green: temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands. Light blue: flooded grasslands and savannas. Light purple: montane grasslands and shrublands. Brown: Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub. Beige: deserts and xeric shrublands. Magenta: mangroves

Antarctic Realm

The Antarctic biogeographic realm (New Zealand is included in Udvardy's interpretation, which is known as Neozealandia)
The Antarctic biogeographic realm (New Zealand is included in Udvardy's interpretation, which is known as Neozealandia)

Australasian Realm

Ecoregions of the Australasian realm, color-coded by biome (Udvardy's model excludes the South Pacific islands, such as New Guinea and New Zealand). Dark green: tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests. Light brown: tropical and subtropical dry broadleaf forests. Yellow: tropical and subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands. Green: temperate broadleaf and mixed forests. Light green: temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands. Light blue: flooded grasslands and savannas. Light purple: montane grasslands and shrublands. Brown: Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub. Beige: deserts and xeric shrublands. Magenta: mangroves.

Indomalayan Realm

Ecoregions of the Indomalayan realm, color-coded by biome. Beige: deserts and xeric shrublands. Light brown: tropical and subtropical dry broadleaf forests. Green: tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests. Bright green: tropical and subtropical coniferous forests. light green: temperate broadleaf and mixed forests. Dark green: temperate coniferous forests. Light blue: flooded grasslands and savannas. Light purple: montane grasslands and shrublands. Magenta: mangroves.

Nearctic Realm

The Nearctic realm
The Nearctic realm

Neotropical Realm

The Neotropical realm and its subdivisions
The Neotropical realm and its subdivisions

Oceanian Realm

Map of Oceanian realm (Udvardy's version includes New Guinea and Melanesia).
Map of Oceanian realm (Udvardy's version includes New Guinea and Melanesia).

Palearctic Realm

The Palearctic realm
The Palearctic realm

Region coding

The hierarchy of the scheme is (with early replaced terms in parenthesis):[1]

So, for example, the Australian Central Desert province is in the Australasian realm (6), is the 9th biogeographic province in that realm, and its biome falls within "warm deserts and semideserts" (7), so it is coded 6.9.7.

The realms and provinces of the scheme are hence coded as follows:

(1) Nearctic realm
  • 1.1.2 Sitkan province
  • 1.2.2. Oregonian province
  • 1.3.3 Yukon taiga province
  • 1.4.3 Canadian taiga province
  • 1.5.5. Eastern forest province
  • 1.6.5 Austroriparian province
  • 1.7.6 Californian province
  • 1.8.7 Sonoran province
  • 1.9.7 Chihuahuan province
  • 1.10.7 Tamaulipan province
  • 1.11.8 Great Basin province
  • 1.12.9 Aleutian Islands province
  • 1.13.9 Alaskan tundra province
  • 1.14.9 Canadian tundra province
  • 1.15.9 Arctic Archipelago province
  • 1.16.9 Greenland tundra province
  • 1.17.9 Arctic desert and icecap province
  • 1.18.11 Grasslands province
  • 1.19.12 Rocky Mountains province
  • 1.20.12 Sierra-Cascade province
  • 1.21.12 Madrean-Cordilleran province
  • 1.22.14 Great Lakes province
(2) Palearctic realm
  • 2.1.2. Chinese Subtropical Forest province
  • 2.2.2 Japanese Evergreen Forest province (= Japanese Subtropical Forest)
  • 2.3.3 West Eurasian Taiga province
  • 2.4.3 East Siberian Taiga province
  • 2.5.5 Icelandian province (= Iceland)
  • 2.6.5 Subarctic Birchwoods province
  • 2.7.5 Kamchatkan province
  • 2.8.5 British Islands province (= British + Irish Forest)
  • 2.9.5 Atlantic province (West European Forest, in part)
  • 2.10.5 Boreonemoral province (Baltic Lowland, in part)
  • 2.11.5 Middle European Forest province (= East European Mixed Forest)
  • 2.12.5 Pannonian province (= Danubian Steppe)
  • 2.13.5 West Anatolian province
  • 2.14.5 Manchu-Japanese Mixed Forest province (= Manchurian + Japanese Mixed Forest)
  • 2.15.6 Oriental Deciduous Forest province
  • 2.16.6 Iberian Highlands province
  • 2.17.7 Mediterranean Sclerophyll province
  • 2.18.7 Sahara province
  • 2.19.7 Arabian Desert province (= Arabia)
  • 2.20.8 Anatolian-Iranian Desert province (= Turkish-Iranian Scrub-steppe)
  • 2.21.8 Turanian province (= Kazakh Desert Scrub-steppe)
  • 2.22.8 Takla-Makan-Gobi Desert steppe province
  • 2.23.8 Tibetan province
  • 2.24.9 Iranian Desert province
  • 2.25.9 Arctic Desert province
  • 2.26.9 Higharctic Tundra province (= Eurasian Tundra, in part)
  • 2.27.11 Lowarctic Tundra province (= Eurasian Tundra, in part)
  • 2.28.11 Atlas Steppe province (= Atlas Highlands)
  • 2.29.11 Pontian Steppe province (= Ukraine-Kazakh Steppe)
  • 2.30.11 Mongolian-Manchurian Steppe province (= Gobi + Manchurian Steppe)
  • 2.31.12 Scottish Highlands Highlands province
  • 2.32.12 Central European Highlands province
  • 2.33.12 Balkan Highlands province
  • 2.34.12 Caucaso-Iranian Highlands (= Caucasus + Kurdistan-Iran) province
  • 2.35.12 Altai Highlands province
  • 2.36.12 Pamir-Tian-Shan Highlands province
  • 2.37.12 Hindu Kush Highlands province
  • 2.38.12 Himalayan Highlands province
  • 2.39.12 Szechwan Highlands province
  • 2.40.13 Macaronesian Islands province (= 4 island provinces)
  • 2.41.13 Ryukyu Islands province
  • 2.42.14 Lake Ladoga province
  • 2.43.14 Aral Sea province
  • 2.44.14 Lake Baikal province
(3) Afrotropical realm
  • 3.1.1 Guinean Rain Forest province
  • 3.2.1 Congo Rain Forest province
  • 3.3.1 Malagasy Rain Forest province
  • 3.4.4 West African Woodland/savanna province
  • 3.5.4 East African Woodland/savanna province
  • 3.6.4 Congo Woodland/savanna province
  • 3.7.4 Miombo Woodland/savanna province
  • 3.8.4 South African Woodland/savanna province
  • 3.9.4 Malagasy Woodland/savanna province
  • 3.10.4 Malagasy Thorn Forest province
  • 3.11.6 Cape Sclerophyll province
  • 3.12.7 Western Sahel province
  • 3.13.7 Eastern Sahel province
  • 3.14.7 Somalian province
  • 3.15.7 Namib province
  • 3.16.7 Kalahari province
  • 3.17.7 Karroo province
  • 3.18.12 Ethiopian Highlands province
  • 3.19.12 Guinean Highlands province
  • 3.20.12 Central African Highlands province
  • 3.21.12 East African Highlands province
  • 3.22.12 South African Highlands province
  • 3.23.13 Ascension and St. Helena Islands province
  • 3.24.13 Comores Islands and Aldabra province
  • 3.25.13 Mascarene Islands province
  • 3.26.14 Lake Rudolf province
  • 3.27.14 Lake Ukerewe (Victoria) province
  • 3.28.14 Lake Tanganyika province
  • 3.29.14 Lake Malawi (Nyasa) province
(4) Indomalayan realm
  • 4.1.1 Malabar Rainforest province
  • 4.2.1 Ceylonese Rainforest province
  • 4.3.1 Bengalian Rainforest province
  • 4.4.1 Burman Rainforest province
  • 4.5.1 Indochinese Rainforest province
  • 4.6.1 South Chinese Rainforest province
  • 4.7.1 Malayan Rainforest province
  • 4.8.4 Indus-Ganges Monsoon Forest province
  • 4.9.4 Burma Monsoon Forest province
  • 4.10.4 Thailandian Monsoon Forest province
  • 4.11.4 Mahanadian province
  • 4.12.4 Coromandel province
  • 4.13.4 Ceylonese Monsoon Forest province
  • 4.14.4 Deccan Thorn Forest province
  • 4.15.7 Thar Desert province
  • 4.16.12 Seychelles and Amirantes Islands province
  • 4.17.12 Laccadives Islands province
  • 4.18.12 Maldives and Chagos Islands province
  • 4.19.12 Cocos-Keeling and Christmas Islands province
  • 4.20.12 Andaman and Nicobar Islands province
  • 4.21.12 Sumatra province
  • 4.22.12 Java province
  • 4.23.12 Lesser Sunda Islands province
  • 4.24.12 Celebes province
  • 4.25.12 Borneo province
  • 4.26.12 Philippines province
  • 4.27.12 Taiwan province
(5) Oceanian realm
  • 5.1.13 Papuan province
  • 5.2.13 Micronesian province
  • 5.3.13 Hawaiian province
  • 5.4.13 Southeastern Polynesian province
  • 5.5.13 Central Polynesian province
  • 5.6.13 New Caledonian province
  • 5.7.13 East-Melanesian province
(6) Australasian realm
  • 6.1.1 Queensland Coastal province
  • 6.2.2 Tasmanian province
  • 6.3.4 Northern Coastal province
  • 6.4.6 Western Sclerophyll province
  • 6.5.6 Southern Sclerophyll province
  • 6.6.6 Eastern Sclerophyll province≠
  • 6.7.6 Brigalow province
  • 6.8.7 Western Mulga province
  • 6.9.7 Central Desert province
  • 6.10.7 Southern Mulga/Saltbush province
  • 6.11.10 Northern Savanna province
  • 6.12.10 Northern Grasslands province
  • 6.13.11 Eastern Grasslands and Savannas province
(7) Antarctic realm
  • 7.1.2 Neozealandia province
  • 7.2.9 Maudlandia province
  • 7.3.9 Marielandia province
  • 7.4.9 Insulantarctica province
(8) Neotropical realm
  • 8.1.1 Campechean province (= Campeche)
  • 8.2.1 Panamanian province
  • 8.3.1 Colombian Coastal province
  • 8.4.1. Guyanese province
  • 8.5.1 Amazonian province
  • 8.6.1. Madeiran province
  • 8.7.1 Serra do mar province (= Bahian coast)
  • 8.8.2 Brazilian Rain Forest province (= Brazilian Deciduous Forest)
  • 8.9.2 Brazilian Planalto province (= Brazilian Araucaria Forest)
  • 8.10.2 Valdivian Forest province (= Chilean Temperate Rain Forest, in part)
  • 8.11.2 Chilean Nothofagus province (= Chilean Temperate Rain Forest, in part)
  • 8.12.4 Everglades province
  • 8.13.4 Sinaloan province
  • 8.14.4 Guerreran province
  • 8.15.4 Yucatecan province (= Yucatán)
  • 8.16.4 Central American province (= Carib-Pacific)
  • 8.17.4 Venezuelan Dry Forest province
  • 8.18.4 Venezuelan Deciduous Forest province
  • 8.19.4 Ecuadorian Dry Forest province
  • 8.20.4 Caatinga province
  • 8.21.4 Gran Chaco province
  • 8.22.5 Chilean Araucaria Forest province
  • 8.23.6 Chilean Sclerophyll province
  • 8.24.7 Pacific Desert province (= Peruvian + Atacama Desert)
  • 8.25.7 Monte (= Argentinian Thorn-scrub) province
  • 8.26.8 Patagonian province
  • 8.27.10 Llanos province
  • 8.28.10 Campos Limpos province (= Guyana highlands)
  • 8.29.10 Babacu province
  • 8.30.10 Campos Cerrados province (= Campos)
  • 8.31.11 Argentinian Pampas province (= Pampas)
  • 8.32.11 Uruguayan Pampas province
  • 8.33.12 Northern Andean province (= Northern Andes)
  • 8.34.12 Colombian Montane province
  • 8.35.12 Yungas province (= Andean cloud forest)
  • 8.36.12 Puna province
  • 8.37.12 Southern Andean province (= Southern Andes)
  • 8.38.13 Bahamas-Bermudan province (= Bahamas + Bermuda)
  • 8.39.13 Cuban province
  • 8.40.13 Greater Aritillean province (= Jamaica + Hispaniola + Puerto Rico)
  • 8.41.13 Lesser Antillean province (= Lesser Antilles)
  • 8.42.13 Revilla Gigedo Island province
  • 8.43.13 Cocos Island province
  • 8.44.13 Galapagos Islands province
  • 8.45.13 Fernando de Noronja Island province
  • 8.46.13 South Trinidade Island province
  • 8.47.14 Lake Titicaca province

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Udvardy, M. D. F. (1975). A classification of the biogeographical provinces of the world. IUCN Occasional Paper no. 18. Morges, Switzerland: IUCN.
  2. ^ Udvardy, Miklos D. F. (1975) World Biogeographical Provinces (Map). The CoEvolution Quarterly, Sausalito, California. link.

Bibliography