Red kite, often considered to be the national bird of Wales.[1]
Red kite, often considered to be the national bird of Wales.[1]

This list of birds of Wales includes every species of bird that has been recorded in a wild state in Wales. Compared to the avifauna of Britain as a whole, Wales has fewer breeding species, but these include a number of moorland species such as red grouse and black grouse, large numbers of seabirds (particularly on offshore islands such as Skomer, Grassholm and Bardsey) and good populations of several species typical of Welsh oak woods including redstart, pied flycatcher and wood warbler.[2][3] Among the birds of prey is the red kite, which had become extinct in other parts of Britain until being reintroduced recently.[1] In winter many wildfowl and waders are found around the coast, attracted by the mild temperatures.[2] In spring and autumn a variety of migrant and vagrant birds can be seen, particularly on headlands and islands.[2] Three-quarters of the UK population of the red-billed chough resides in Wales.

The list is based on Birds in Wales (Lovegrove et al. 1994), Birds in Wales 1992–2022 (Green 2022) and the list of the Welsh Ornithological Society (Prater & Thorpe 2006) with updates from the Welsh Records Panel's annual reports. The taxonomy and scientific names follow the official list of the British Ornithologists' Union (BOU).[4] The English names are the vernacular names used in the 7th edition of the BOU list with the standardized names from that list given in brackets where they differ.[5] The family introductions are based on The New Encyclopedia of Birds (Perrins 2004) except where otherwise stated.

Certain categories of birds are noted with the following tags:

The total number of species on the list is 463 and 10 introduced species. About 150 species breed annually.[2]


Ducks, geese and swans

A pair of mute swans, a resident bird of lowland waters[6]
A pair of mute swans, a resident bird of lowland waters[6]
Brent goose of the dark-bellied race B. b. bernicla, a winter visitor mainly to the Burry Inlet[7]
Brent goose of the dark-bellied race B. b. bernicla, a winter visitor mainly to the Burry Inlet[7]
Mallard, the commonest and most widespread duck[8]
Mallard, the commonest and most widespread duck[8]
Eider, small numbers winter around the coast and breeding was recorded for the first time in 1997.[9]
Eider, small numbers winter around the coast and breeding was recorded for the first time in 1997.[9]

Order: Anseriformes   Family: Anatidae

The swans, ducks and geese are medium to large birds that are adapted to an aquatic existence with webbed feet and bills which are flattened to a greater or lesser extent. In many ducks the male is colourful while the female is dull brown. The diet consists of a variety of animals and plants. The family is well represented in Wales, especially in winter when large numbers visit from Greenland, Scandinavia and Russia.[2]

Common name Binomial Status
Brent goose Branta bernicla
Red-breasted goose Branta ruficollis
Canada goose Branta canadensis I
Barnacle goose Branta leucopsis
Greylag goose Anser anser
Taiga bean goose Anser fabalis (A)
Pink-footed goose Anser brachyrhynchus
Tundra bean goose Anser serrirostris (A)
White-fronted goose Anser albifrons
Lesser white-fronted goose Anser erythropus (A)
Mute swan Cygnus olor
Bewick's swan Cygnus columbianus
Whooper swan Cygnus cygnus
Egyptian goose Alopochen aegyptiacus I[10]
Shelduck Tadorna tadorna
Ruddy shelduck Tadorna ferruginea (A)
Mandarin duck Aix galericulata I
Garganey Spatula querquedula
Blue-winged teal Spatula discors (A)
Shoveler Spatula clypeata
Gadwall Mareca strepera
Falcated duck Mareca falcata
Wigeon Anas penelope
American wigeon Mareca americana (A)
Mallard Anas platyrhynchos
Black duck Anas rubripes (A)
Pintail Anas acuta
Teal Anas crecca
Green-winged teal Anas carolinensis (A)
Red-crested pochard Netta rufina I
Pochard Aythya ferina
Ferruginous duck Aythya nyroca (A)
Ring-necked duck Aythya collaris (A)
Tufted duck Aythya fuligula
Scaup Aythya marila
Lesser scaup Aythya affinis (A)[11]
King eider Somateria spectabilis (A)
Eider Somateria mollissima
Surf scoter Melanitta perspicillata (A)
Velvet scoter Melanitta fusca
Common scoter Melanitta nigra
Black scoter Melanitta americana (A)
Long-tailed duck Clangula hyemalis
Goldeneye Bucephala clangula
Smew Mergellus albellus
Hooded merganser Lophodytes cucullatus (A)
Goosander Mergus merganser
Red-breasted merganser Mergus serrator
Ruddy duck Oxyura jamaicensis I

Pheasants, grouse, and allies

Order: Galliformes   Family: Phasianidae

These are terrestrial species, feeding and nesting on the ground. They are variable in size but generally plump, with broad and relatively short wings.

Common name Binomial Status
Red grouse Lagopus lagopus
Black grouse Lyrurus tetrix
Grey partridge Perdix perdix
Pheasant Phasianus colchicus I
Quail Coturnix coturnix
Red-legged partridge Alectorix rufa I

Nightjars and allies

Order: Caprimulgiformes   Family: Caprimulgidae

Nightjars are medium-sized nocturnal birds that usually nest on the ground. They have long wings, short legs and very short bills. Their soft plumage is cryptically coloured to resemble bark or leaves.

Common name Binomial Status
Common nighthawk Chordeiles minor (A)
Nightjar Caprimulgus europaeus

Swifts

Order: Apodiformes   Family: Apodidae

The swifts are small birds which spend the majority of their lives flying. These birds have very short legs and never settle voluntarily on the ground, perching instead only on vertical surfaces.

Common name Binomial Status
Chimney swift Chaetura pelagica (A)[12]
Alpine swift Apus melba (A)
Swift Apus apus
Pallid swift Apus pallidus (A)
Little swift Apus affinis (A)

Bustards

Order: Otidiformes   Family: Otididae

Large, sturdy birds of open plains with long legs and necks and strong feet.

Common name Binomial Status
Great bustard Otis tarda (A)
Little bustard Tetrax tetrax (A)

Cuckoos

Order: Cuculiformes   Family: Cuculidae

Birds of variable size with slender bodies and long tails. Some species are known for laying their eggs in the nests of other birds.

Common name Binomial Status
Great spotted cuckoo Clamator glandarius (A)
Yellow-billed cuckoo Coccyzus americanus (A)
Cuckoo Cuculus canorus

Sandgrouse

Order: Pterocliformes   Family: Pteroclidae

Sturdy, medium-sized birds with a small head and long, pointed wings.

Common name Binomial Status
Pallas's sandgrouse Syrrhaptes paradoxus (A)

Pigeons and doves

Collared dove, first recorded in 1959 and now a common resident.[13]
Collared dove, first recorded in 1959 and now a common resident.[13]

Order: Columbiformes   Family: Columbidae

Pigeons and doves are stout-bodied birds with short necks and short slender bills with a fleshy cere.

Common name Binomial Status
Rock dove Columba livia
Stock dove Columba oenas
Woodpigeon Columba palumbus
Turtle dove Streptopelia turtur
Collared dove Streptopelia decaocto

Rails, gallinules, and coots

Order: Gruiformes   Family: Rallidae

These birds mainly occupy dense vegetation in damp environments near lakes, marshes or rivers. Many are shy and secretive birds, making them difficult to observe. Most species have strong legs and long toes which are well adapted to soft uneven surfaces.

Common name Binomial Status
Water rail Rallus aquaticus
Corncrake Crex crex (A)
Sora Porzana carolina (A)
Spotted crake Porzana porzana (A)
Moorhen Gallinula chloropus
Coot Fulica atra
Baillon's crake Porzana pusilla (A)
Little crake Porzana parva (A)

Cranes

Order: Gruiformes   Family: Gruidae

Cranes are large, long-legged and long-necked birds. Unlike the similar-looking but unrelated herons, cranes fly with necks outstretched, not pulled back. Most have elaborate and noisy courting displays or "dances".

Common name Binomial Status
Crane Grus grus (A)

Grebes

Little grebe, breeds locally on well-vegetated water bodies[14]
Little grebe, breeds locally on well-vegetated water bodies[14]

Order: Podicipediformes   Family: Podicipedidae

Grebes are small to medium-large diving birds with lobed toes and pointed bills. They are seen mainly on lowland waterbodies and coasts. They feed on aquatic animals and nest on a floating platform of vegetation.

Common name Binomial Status
Little grebe Tachybaptus ruficollis
Pied-billed grebe Podilymbus podiceps (A)
Red-necked grebe Podiceps grisegena
Great crested grebe Podiceps cristatus
Slavonian grebe Podiceps auritus
Black-necked grebe Podiceps nigricollis

Stone-curlews

Order: Charadriiformes   Family: Burhinidae

A small family of medium to large waders with strong black bills, large yellow eyes and cryptic plumage.

Common name Binomial Status
Stone-curlew Burhinus oedicnemus (A)

Oystercatchers

Oystercatcher, common in coastal areas.[15]
Oystercatcher, common in coastal areas.[15]

Order: Charadriiformes   Family: Haematopodidae

The oystercatchers are large, obvious and noisy wading birds with strong bills used for smashing or prising open molluscs.

Common name Binomial Status
Oystercatcher Haematopus ostralegus

Stilts and avocets

Order: Charadriiformes   Family: Recurvirostridae

A family of fairly large wading birds. The avocets have long legs and long up-curved bills. The stilts have extremely long legs and long, thin, straight bills.

Common name Binomial Status
Black-winged stilt Himantopus himantopus (A)
Avocet Recurvirostra avosetta

Plovers and lapwings

Lapwing, seriously declining as a breeding species.[16]
Lapwing, seriously declining as a breeding species.[16]

Order: Charadriiformes   Family: Charadriidae

Small to medium-sized wading birds with compact bodies, short, thick necks and long, usually pointed, wings.

Common name Binomial Status
Lapwing Vanellus vanellus
Sociable plover Vanellus gregarius (A)
Golden plover Pluvialis apricaria
Pacific golden plover Pluvialis fulva (A)
American golden plover Pluvialis dominica (A)
Grey plover Pluvialis squatarola
Ringed plover Charadrius hiaticula
Little ringed plover Charadrius dubius
Killdeer Charadrius vociferus (A)
Kentish plover Charadrius alexandrinus (A)
Greater sand plover Charadrius leschenaultii (A)
Dotterel Charadrius morinellus

Sandpipers and allies

Sanderling, a winter visitor and passage migrant, mainly on sandy shores[17]
Sanderling, a winter visitor and passage migrant, mainly on sandy shores[17]
Snipe, declining like many breeding waders[18]
Snipe, declining like many breeding waders[18]
Turnstone, a non-breeding species but some are present on rocky coasts all year round.[15]
Turnstone, a non-breeding species but some are present on rocky coasts all year round.[15]

Order: Charadriiformes   Family: Scolopacidae

A large, diverse family of wading birds. Different lengths of legs and bills enable multiple species to feed in the same habitat, particularly on the coast, without direct competition for food.

Common name Binomial Status
Upland sandpiper Bartramia longicauda (A)
Whimbrel Numenius phaeopus
Hudsonian whimbrel Numenius hudsonicus (A)
Little whimbrel Numenius minutus (A)
Curlew Numenius arquata
Bar-tailed godwit Limosa lapponica
Black-tailed godwit Limosa limosa
Turnstone Arenaria interpres
Knot Calidris canutus
Ruff Calidris pugnax
Broad-billed sandpiper Calidris falcinellus (A)
Sharp-tailed sandpiper Calidris acuminata (A)
Stilt sandpiper Calidris himantopus (A)[19]
Curlew sandpiper Calidris ferruginea
Temminck's stint Calidris temminckii (A)
Sanderling Calidris alba
Dunlin Calidris alpina
Purple sandpiper Calidris maritima
Baird's sandpiper Calidris bairdii (A)
Little stint Calidris minuta
Least sandpiper Calidris minutilla (A)
White-rumped sandpiper Calidris fuscicollis (A)
Buff-breasted sandpiper Calidris subruficollis (A)
Pectoral sandpiper Calidris melanotos (A)
Semipalmated sandpiper Calidris pusilla (A)
Long-billed dowitcher Limnodromus scolopaceus
Woodcock Scolopax rusticola
Jack snipe Lymnocryptes minimus
Great snipe Gallinago minima (A)
Snipe Gallinago gallinago
Terek sandpiper Xenus cinerea (A)
Wilson's phalarope Phalaropus tricolor (A)
Red-necked phalarope Phalaropus lobatus (A)
Grey phalarope Phalaropus fulicarius
Common sandpiper Actitis hypoleucos
Spotted sandpiper Tringa macularius (A)
Green sandpiper Tringa ochropus
Grey-tailed tattler Tringa brevipes (A)
Lesser yellowlegs Tringa flavipes (A)
Redshank Tringa totanus
Marsh sandpiper Tringa stagnatilis (A)
Wood sandpiper Tringa glareola
Spotted redshank Tringa erythropus
Greenshank Tringa nebularia
Greater yellowlegs Tringa melanoleuca (A)

Pratincoles and coursers

Order: Charadriiformes   Family: Glareolidae

A family of slender, long-winged wading birds.

Common name Binomial Status
Cream-coloured courser Cursorius cursor (A)
Collared pratincole Glareola pratincola (A)
Black-winged pratincole Glareola nordmanni (A)

Gulls, terns, and skimmers

Ring-billed gull, the first British record of this American species was in Wales in 1973. It now occurs annually.[20]
Ring-billed gull, the first British record of this American species was in Wales in 1973. It now occurs annually.[20]
Little tern, only a single colony remains in Wales at Gronant in the north-east.[21]
Little tern, only a single colony remains in Wales at Gronant in the north-east.[21]

Order: Charadriiformes   Family: Laridae

Medium to large seabirds with grey, white and black plumage, webbed feet and strong bills. Many are opportunistic and adaptable feeders.

Common name Binomial Status
Kittiwake Rissa tridactyla
Ivory gull Pagophila eburnea (A)
Sabine's gull Xema sabini
Bonaparte's gull Chroicocephalus philadelphia (A)
Black-headed gull Chroicocephalus ridibundus
Little gull Hydrocoloeus minutus
Ross's gull Rhodostethia rosea (A)
Laughing gull Leucophaeus atricilla (A)
Franklin's gull Leucophaeus pipixcan (A)
Mediterranean gull Ichthyaetus melanocephalus
Common gull Larus canus
Ring-billed gull Larus delawarensis
Great black-backed gull Larus marinus
Glaucous-winged gull Larus glaucescens (A)
Glaucous gull Larus hyperboreus
Iceland gull Larus glaucoides
Herring gull Larus argentatus
Caspian gull Larus cachinnans (A)
Yellow-legged gull Larus michahellis (A)
Lesser black-backed gull Larus fuscus
Gull-billed tern Gelochelidon nilotica (A)
Caspian tern Hydroprogne caspia (A)
Royal tern Thalasseus maximus (A)
Lesser crested tern Thalasseus bengalensis (A)
Sandwich tern Thalasseus sandvicensis
Elegant tern Thalasseus elegans (A)
Little tern Sternula albifrons
Bridled tern Onychoprion anaethetus (A)
Sooty tern Onychoprion fuscatus (A)
Roseate tern Sterna dougallii
Common tern Sterna hirundo
Arctic tern Sterna paradisaea
Forster's tern Sterna forsteri (A)
Whiskered tern Chlidonias hybrida (A)
White-winged black tern Chlidonias leucoptera (A)
Black tern Chlidonias niger

Skuas

Order: Charadriiformes   Family: Stercorariidae

Medium to large seabirds with mainly grey or brown plumage, sharp claws and a hooked tip to the bill. They chase other seabirds to force them to drop their catches.

Common name Binomial Status
South Polar skua Stercorarius maccormicki
Great skua Stercorarius skua
Pomarine skua Stercorarius pomarinus
Arctic skua Stercorarius parasiticus
Long-tailed skua Stercorarius longicaudus

Auks, murres, and puffins

Puffin, breeds on islands and headlands; the largest colonies are on Skomer and Skokholm.[22]
Puffin, breeds on islands and headlands; the largest colonies are on Skomer and Skokholm.[22]

Order: Charadriiformes   Family: Alcidae

A family of seabirds which are superficially similar to penguins with their black-and-white colours, their upright posture and some of their habits but which are able to fly. Great auks are extinct.

Common name Binomial Status
Little auk Alle alle
Common guillemot Uria aalge
Razorbill Alca torda
Black guillemot Cepphus grylle
Puffin Fratercula arctica

Divers

Order: Gaviiformes   Family: Gaviidae

Divers are aquatic birds the size of a large duck, to which they are unrelated. They swim well and fly adequately but are almost hopeless on land, because their legs are placed towards the rear of the body. They feed on fish and other aquatic animals. They are all non-breeding visitors in Wales.

Common name Binomial Status
Red-throated diver Gavia stellata
Black-throated diver Gavia arctica
Great northern diver Gavia immer
White-billed diver Gavia adamsii (A)

Southern storm petrels

Order: Procellariiformes   Family: Oceanitidae

The austral storm petrels are the smallest seabirds, feeding on plankton and small fish picked from the surface, typically while hovering. They nest in colonies on the ground, most often in burrows.

Common name Binomial Status
Wilson's storm petrel Oceanites oceanicus (A)

Albatrosses

Order: Procellariiformes   Family: Diomedeidae

The albatrosses are among the largest flying birds with long, narrow wings for gliding. The majority are found in the Southern Hemisphere with only vagrants occurring in the North Atlantic.

Common name Binomial Status
Black-browed albatross Thalassarche melanophris (A)

Northern storm petrels

Order: Procellariiformes   Family: Hydrobatidae

The northern storm petrels are the smallest seabirds, feeding on plankton and small fish picked from the surface, typically while hovering. They nest in colonies on the ground, most often in burrows.

Common name Binomial Status
Storm petrel Hydrobates pelagicus
Leach's petrel Hydrobates leucorrhous

Petrels and shearwaters

The fulmar first bred in Wales in the 1940s and is now common on sea cliffs.[23]
The fulmar first bred in Wales in the 1940s and is now common on sea cliffs.[23]

Order: Procellariiformes   Family: Procellariidae

These are highly pelagic birds with long, narrow wings and tube-shaped nostrils. They feed at sea on fish, squid and other marine life. They come to land to breed in colonies, nesting in burrows or on cliffs.

Common name Binomial Status
Fulmar Fulmarus glacialis
Cory's shearwater Calonectris borealis (A)
Sooty shearwater Ardenna griseus
Great shearwater Ardenna gravis (A)
Manx shearwater Puffinus puffinus
Balearic shearwater Puffinus mauretanicus
Macaronesian shearwater Puffinus baroli (A)

Storks

Order: Ciconiiformes   Family: Ciconiidae

Storks are large, heavy, long-legged, long-necked wading birds with long stout bills and wide wingspans. They fly with the neck extended.

Common name Binomial Status
Black stork Ciconia nigra (A)
White stork Ciconia ciconia (A)

Boobies and gannets

The gannet has a single major Welsh colony at Grassholm island, now with over 30,000 pairs.[24]
The gannet has a single major Welsh colony at Grassholm island, now with over 30,000 pairs.[24]

Order: Suliformes   Family: Pelecanidae

Gannets are large seabirds that plunge-dive for fish and nest in large colonies. They have a torpedo-shaped body, long, narrow, pointed wings and a fairly long tail.

Common name Binomial Status
Gannet Morus bassanus

Cormorants and shags

Order: Suliformes   Family: Phalacrocoracidae

Cormorants are medium to large aquatic birds with mainly dark plumage and areas of coloured skin on the face. The bill is long, thin and sharply hooked for catching fish and aquatic invertebrates. They nest in colonies, usually by the sea.

Common name Binomial Status
Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo
Shag Gulosus aristotelis

Ibises and spoonbills

Order: Pelecaniformes   Family: Threskiornithidae

A family of long-legged, long-necked wading birds. Ibises have long, curved bills. Spoonbils have a flattened bill, wider at the tip.

Common name Binomial Status
Glossy ibis Plegadis falcinellus (A)
Spoonbill Platalea leucorodia

Herons and bitterns

The little egret is a recent colonist that first bred in 2001.[25]
The little egret is a recent colonist that first bred in 2001.[25]

Order: Pelecaniformes   Family: Ardeidae

Herons and egrets are medium to large wading birds with long necks and legs. Bitterns tend to be shorter-necked and more secretive. They all fly with their necks retracted. The sharp bill is used to catch fish, amphibians and other animals. Many species nest in colonies, often in trees.

Common name Binomial Status
Bittern Botaurus stellaris
American bittern Botaurus lentiginosus (A)
Little bittern Ixobrychus minutus (A)
Night heron Nycticorax nycticorax (A)
Green heron Butorides virescens (A)[26]
Squacco heron Ardeola ralloides (A)
Cattle egret Bubulcus ibis
Grey heron Ardea cinerea
Purple heron Ardea purpurea (A)
Great white egret Ardea alba (A)
Little egret Egretta garzetta

Osprey

Order: Accipitriformes   Family: Pandionidae

A large fish-eating bird of prey belonging to a family of its own. It is mainly brown above and white below with long, angled wings. It is mainly a passage migrant in Wales but has recently begun to breed.

Common name Binomial Status
Osprey Pandion haliaetus

Hawks, eagles, and kites

Buzzard, a common bird of prey which reaches high population densities in some areas.[27]
Buzzard, a common bird of prey which reaches high population densities in some areas.[27]

Order: Accipitriformes   Family: Accipitridae

A family of birds of prey which includes hawks, buzzards, eagles, kites and harriers. These birds have very large powerful hooked beaks for tearing flesh from their prey, strong legs, powerful talons and keen eyesight.

Common name Binomial Status
Honey-buzzard Pernis apivorus
Golden eagle Aquila chrysaetos (A)
Sparrowhawk Accipiter nisus
Goshawk Accipiter gentilis
Marsh harrier Circus aeruginosus
Hen harrier Circus cyaneus
Pallid harrier Circus macrourus (A)
Montagu's harrier Circus pygargus (A)
Red kite Milvus milvus
Black kite Milvus migrans (A)
White-tailed eagle Haliaaetus albicilla (A)
Rough-legged buzzard Buteo lagopus (A)
Buzzard Buteo buteo

Barn owls

Barn owl, a scarce bird of farmland.[28]
Barn owl, a scarce bird of farmland.[28]

Order: Strigiformes   Family: Tytonidae

Barn owls are medium-sized to large owls with large heads and characteristic heart-shaped faces. They have long strong legs with powerful talons.

Common name Binomial Status
Barn owl Tyto alba

Owls

Order: Strigiformes   Family: Strigidae

Typical owls are small to large solitary nocturnal birds of prey. They have large forward-facing eyes and ears, a hawk-like beak and a conspicuous circle of feathers around each eye called a facial disc.

Common name Binomial Status
Little owl Athene noctua
Scops owl Otus scops (A)
Long-eared owl Asio otus
Short-eared owl Asio flammeus
Snowy owl Bubo scandiaca (A)
Tawny owl Strix aluco

Hoopoes

Order: Bucerotiformes   Family: Upupidae

A distinctive bird in its own family with a long curved bill, a crest, and black-and-white striped wings and tail.

Common name Binomial Status
Hoopoe Upupa epops

Rollers

Order: Coraciiformes   Family: Coraciidae

A small family of colourful, medium-sized, birds with a crow-like shape that feeds mainly on insects.

Common name Binomial Status
Roller Coracias garrulus (A)

Kingfishers

Kingfisher, a colourful inhabitant of lowland waters[29]
Kingfisher, a colourful inhabitant of lowland waters[29]

Order: Coraciiformes   Family: Alcedinidae

Kingfishers are medium-sized birds with large heads, long pointed bills, short legs and stubby tails. There are about 93 species worldwide, 2 in Britain and 1 in Wales.

Common name Binomial Status
Kingfisher Alcedo atthis

Bee-eaters

Order: Coraciiformes   Family: Meropidae

A group of near-passerine birds characterised by richly coloured plumage, slender bodies and usually elongated central tail feathers.

Common name Binomial Status
Bee-eater Merops apiaster (A)

Woodpeckers

A young  green woodpecker, declining in many western areas[30]
A young green woodpecker, declining in many western areas[30]

Order: Piciformes   Family: Picidae

Woodpeckers are small to medium-sized birds with chisel-like beaks, short legs, stiff tails and long tongues used for capturing insects. Many woodpeckers have the habit of tapping noisily on tree trunks with their beaks.

Common name Binomial Status
Wryneck Jynx tranquila
Lesser spotted woodpecker Dryobates minor
Great spotted woodpecker Dendrocopos major
Green woodpecker Picus viridis

Falcons and caracaras

Peregrines from Wales have been used in falconry since Medieval times.[31]
Peregrines from Wales have been used in falconry since Medieval times.[31]

Order: Falconiformes   Family: Falconidae

A family of small to medium-sized, diurnal birds of prey with pointed wings. They do not build their own nests and mainly catch prey in the air.

Common name Binomial Status
Kestrel Falco tinnunculus
Red-footed falcon Falco vespertinus (A)
Merlin Falco columbarius
Hobby Falco subbuteo
Gyr falcon Falco rusticolus (A)
Peregrine Falco peregrinus

Shrikes

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Laniidae

Shrikes are passerine birds known for their habit of catching other birds and small animals and impaling the uneaten portions of their bodies on thorns. A typical shrike's beak is hooked, like a bird of prey.

Common name Binomial Status
Red-backed shrike Lanius collurio (A)
Turkestan shrike Lanius phoenicuroides
Lesser grey shrike Lanius minor (A)
Great grey shrike Lanius excubitor
Woodchat shrike Lanius senator (A)

Vireos

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Vireonidae

The vireos are a group of small to medium-sized passerine birds restricted to the New World.

Common name Binomial Status
Red-eyed vireo Vireo olivaceus (A)

Old World orioles

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Oriolidae

Orioles are colourful, medium-sized passerine birds with far-carrying, fluting songs.

Common name Binomial Status
Golden oriole Oriolus oriolus

Crows, jays, and magpies

Raven, Wales has some of the highest densities of this species in the world.[32]
Raven, Wales has some of the highest densities of this species in the world.[32]

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Corvidae

The crows and their relatives are fairly large birds with strong bills and are usually intelligent and adaptable.

Common name Binomial Status
Jay Garrulus glandarius
Magpie Pica pica
Nutcracker Nucifraga caryocatactes (A)
Chough Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax
Jackdaw Corvus monedula
Rook Corvus frugilegus
Carrion crow Corvus corone
Hooded crow Corvus cornix
Raven Corvus corax

Waxwings

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Bombycillidae

The waxwings are a group of passerine birds characterised by soft, silky plumage and unique red tips to some of the wing feathers.

Common name Binomial Status
Waxwing Bombycilla garrulus
Cedar waxwing Bombycilla cedrorum (A)

Tits, chickadees, and titmice

Blue tit, a common woodland bird which easily adapts to parks and gardens[33]
Blue tit, a common woodland bird which easily adapts to parks and gardens[33]

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Paridae

Tits are mainly small, stocky, woodland species with short stout bills. They are adaptable birds, with a mixed diet including seeds and insects.

Common name Binomial Status
Coal tit Periparus ater
Marsh tit Poecile palustris
Willow tit Poecile montana
Blue tit Cyanistes caeruleus
Great tit Parus major

Penduline tits

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Remizidae

Small birds with finely pointed bills that build purse-like nests hanging from a branch.

Common name Binomial Status
Penduline tit Remiz pendulinus (A)

Bearded tit

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Panuridae

This species, the only one in its family, is found in reed beds throughout temperate Europe and Asia.

Common name Binomial Status
Bearded tit Panurus biarmicus (A)

Larks

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Alaudidae

Larks are small terrestrial birds with often extravagant songs and display flights. Most larks are fairly dull in appearance. Their food is insects and seeds.

Common name Binomial Status
Woodlark Lullula arborea (A)
Skylark Alauda arvensis
Crested lark Galerida cristata (A)
Shore lark Eremophila alpestris (A)
Short-toed lark Calandrella brachydactyla (A)
Black lark Melanocorypha yeltoniensis (A)

Swallows

Swallow, a very widespread summer visitor breeding in every 10km square in Wales.[34]
Swallow, a very widespread summer visitor breeding in every 10km square in Wales.[34]

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Hirundinidae

The family Hirundinidae is adapted to aerial feeding. They have a slender streamlined body, long pointed wings and a short bill with a wide gape.

Common name Binomial Status
Sand martin Riparia riparia
Crag martin Ptyonoprogne rupestris (A)
Swallow Hirundo rustica
House martin Delichon urbicum
Red-rumped swallow Cecropis daurica (A)

Bush warblers and allies

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Scotocercidae

The members of this family are found throughout Africa, Asia, and Polynesia. Their taxonomy is in flux, and some authorities place some genera in other families.[35]

Common name Binomial Status
Cetti's warbler Cettia cetti

Long-tailed tits

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Aegithalidae

Small, long-tailed birds that typically live in flocks for much of the year.

Common name Binomial Status
Long-tailed tit Aegithalos caudatus

Leaf warblers

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Phylloscopidae

Leaf warblers are a family of small insectivorous birds found mostly in Eurasia and ranging into Wallacea and Africa. The species are of various sizes, often green-plumaged above and yellow below, or more subdued with grayish-green to grayish-brown colors.

Common name Binomial Status
Wood warbler Phylloscopus sibalatrix
Western Bonelli's warbler Phylloscopus bonelli (A)
Hume's warbler Phylloscopus humei (A)
Yellow-browed warbler Phylloscopus inornatus
Pallas's warbler Phylloscopus proregulus (A)
Radde's warbler Phylloscopus schwarzi (A)
Dusky warbler Phylloscopus fuscatus (A)
Willow warbler Phylloscopus trochilus
Chiffchaff Phylloscopus collybita (A)
Iberian chiffchaff Phylloscopus ibericus (A)
Greenish warbler Phylloscopus trochiloides (A)
Arctic warbler Phylloscopus borealis (A)

Reed warblers and allies

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Acrocephalidae

The members of this family are usually rather large for "warblers". Most are rather plain olivaceous brown above with much yellow to beige below. They are usually found in open woodland, reedbeds, or tall grass. The family occurs mostly in southern to western Eurasia and surroundings, but it also ranges far into the Pacific, with some species in Africa.

Common name Binomial Status
Great reed warbler Acrocephalus arundinaceus (A)
Aquatic warbler Acrocephalus paludicola (A)
Sedge warbler Acrocephalus schoenobaenus
Paddyfield warbler Acrocephalus agricola (A)
Blyth's reed warbler Acrocephalus dumetorum (A)[36]
Reed warbler Acrocephalus scirpaceus
Marsh warbler Acrocephalus palustris (A)
Booted warbler Iduna caligata (A)
Melodious warbler Hippolais polyglotta (A)
Icterine warbler Hippolais icterina (A)

Grassbirds and allies

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Locustellidae

Locustellidae are a family of small insectivorous songbirds found mainly in Eurasia, Africa, and the Australian region. They are smallish birds with tails that are usually long and pointed, and tend to be drab brownish or buffy all over.

Common name Binomial Status
Lanceolated warbler Locustella lanceolata (A)
River warbler Locustella fluviatilis (A)
Savi's warbler Locustella luscinioides (A)
Grasshopper warbler Locustella naevia

Sylviid warblers, parrotbills, and allies

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Sylviidae

A group of small, insectivorous passerine birds. Most are of generally undistinguished appearance, but many have distinctive songs.

Common name Binomial Status
Blackcap Sylvia atricapilla
Garden warbler Sylvia borin
Barred warbler Curruca nisoria (A)
Lesser whitethroat Curruca curruca
Western Orphean warbler Curruca hortensis (A)
Rüppell's warbler Curruca ruppeli (A)
Sardinian warbler Curruca melanocephala (A)
Western subalpine warbler Curruca iberiae (A)
Eastern subalpine warbler Curruca cantillans (A)
whitethroat Curruca communis
Marmora's warbler Curruca sarda (A)
Dartford warbler Curruca undata

Kinglets

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Regulidae

The kinglets, also called crests, are a small group of birds often included in the Old World warblers, but frequently given family status because they also resemble the titmice.

Common name Binomial Status
Common firecrest Regulus ignicapilla
Goldcrest Regulus regulus

Wrens

A wren at the nest. It is one of Wales' commonest birds, occurring in a wide variety of habitats.[37]
A wren at the nest. It is one of Wales' commonest birds, occurring in a wide variety of habitats.[37]

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Troglodytidae

Wrens are small and inconspicuous birds, except for their loud songs. They have short wings and thin down-turned bills.

Common name Binomial Status
Wren Troglodytes troglodytes

Nuthatches

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Sittidae

Nuthatches are small woodland birds with the unusual ability to climb down trees head-first, unlike other birds which can only go upwards.

Common name Binomial Status
Nuthatch Sitta europaea

Treecreepers

Treecreeper, a common but elusive bird of woodlands[38]
Treecreeper, a common but elusive bird of woodlands[38]

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Certhiidae

Treecreepers are small woodland birds, brown above and white below. They have thin, pointed, down-curved bills, which they use to extricate insects from bark.

Common name Binomial Status
Treecreeper Certhia familiaris

Mockingbirds and thrashers

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Mimidae

Medium-sized passerine birds with long tails. Some are notable for their ability to mimic sounds such as other birds' songs.

Common name Binomial Status
Grey catbird Dumetella carolinensis (A)

Starlings

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Sturnidae

Starlings are small to medium-sized passerine birds with strong feet. Their flight is strong and direct and most are very gregarious.

Common name Binomial Status
Rose-coloured starling Pastor roseus (A)
Starling Sturnus vulgaris

Thrushes and allies

Redstart, a common summer migrant in upland woods and scrub[39]
Redstart, a common summer migrant in upland woods and scrub[39]
Ring ouzel, a scarce breeder in rocky upland areas[40]
Ring ouzel, a scarce breeder in rocky upland areas[40]

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Turdidae

The thrushes and chats are plump, soft-plumaged, small to medium-sized insectivores or sometimes omnivores, often feeding on the ground. Many have attractive songs.

Common name Binomial Status
Swainson's thrush Catharus ustulatus (A)
Grey-cheeked thrush Catharus minimus (A)
Song thrush Turdus philomelos
Mistle thrush Turdus viscivorus (A)
Redwing Turdus iliacus
Blackbird Turdus merula
Eyebrowed thrush Turdus obscurus (A)
Fieldfare Turdus pilaris
Ring ouzel Turdus torquatus
Black-throated thrush Turdus atrogularis
Red-throated thrush Turdus ruficollis (A) [41]
Dusky thrush Turdus eunomus (A)
American robin Turdus viscivorus (A)

Old World flycatchers

Pied flycatcher, a characteristic bird of sessile oak woods[42]
Pied flycatcher, a characteristic bird of sessile oak woods[42]

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Muscicapidae

The flycatchers are small birds that fly out from a perch to catch insects in the air.

Common name Binomial Status
Spotted flycatcher Muscicapa striata
Robin Erithacus rubecula
Bluethroat Luscinia svecica (A)
Thrush nightingale Luscinia luscinia (A)
Nightingale Luscinia megarhynchos (A)
White-throated robin Irania gutturalis (A)
Red-flanked bluetail Tarsiger cyanurus (A)
Red-breasted flycatcher Ficedula parva (A)
Pied flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca
Collared flycatcher Ficedula albicollis (A)
Black redstart Phoenicurus ochruros
Redstart Phoenicurus phoenicurus
Moussier's redstart Phoenicurus moussieri (A)
Rock thrush Monticola saxatilis (A)
Blue rock thrush Monticola solitarius (A)
Whinchat Saxicola rubetra
Stonechat Saxicola torquata
Wheatear Oenanthe oenanthe
Isabelline wheatear Oenanthe isabellina (A)
Desert wheatear Oenanthe deserti (A)
Western black-eared wheatear Oenanthe hispanica (A)
Pied wheatear Oenanthe pleschanka (A)

Dippers

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Cinclidae

Dippers are a group of perching birds whose habitat includes aquatic environments in the Americas, Europe and Asia. They are named for their bobbing or dipping movements.

Common name Binomial Status
Dipper 'Cinclus cinclus'

Old World sparrows

House sparrow, strongly associated with human habitation[43]
House sparrow, strongly associated with human habitation[43]

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Passeridae

Sparrows tend to be small, plump, brownish or greyish birds with short tails and short, powerful beaks. They are seed-eaters and they also consume small insects.

Common name Binomial Status
Tree sparrow Passer montanus
Spanish sparrow Passer hispaniolensis (A)
House sparrow Passer domesticus

Accentors

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Prunellidae

A small family of drab, unobtrusive, insectivorous birds with thin, pointed bills.

Common name Binomial Status
Alpine accentor Prunella collaris (A)
Dunnock Prunella modularis

Wagtails and pipits

Tree pipit, widely distributed across the country in summer.[44]
Tree pipit, widely distributed across the country in summer.[44]

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Motacillidae

Motacillidae is a family of small passerine birds with medium to long tails. They are slender, ground-feeding insectivores of open country.

Common name Binomial Status
Western yellow wagtail Motacilla flava (A)
Eastern yellow wagtail Motacilla tschutschensis (A)
Citrine wagtail Motacilla citreola (A)
Grey wagtail Motacilla cinerea
White wagtail Motacilla alba
Richard's pipit Anthus richardi
Blyth's pipit Anthus godlewskii (A)[26]
Tawny pipit Anthus campestris (A)
Meadow pipit Anthus pratensis
Tree pipit Anthus trivialis
Olive-backed pipit Anthus hodgsoni (A)
Pechora pipit Anthus gustavi (A)
Red-throated pipit Anthus cervinus (A)
Buff-bellied pipit Anthus rubescens (A)
Water pipit Anthus spinoletta
Rock pipit Anthus petrosus

Finches, euphonias, and allies

Chaffinch, one of the commonest and most widespread species in Wales[15]
Chaffinch, one of the commonest and most widespread species in Wales[15]

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Fringillidae

Seed-eating passerine birds that are small to moderately large and have a strong beak, usually conical and in some species very large.

Common name Binomial Status
Chaffinch Fringilla coelebs
Brambling Fringilla montifringilla
Hawfinch Coccothraustes coccothraustes
Bullfinch Pyrrhula pyrrhula
Common rosefinch Carpodacus erythrinus (A)
Greenfinch Chloris chloris
Twite Linaria flavirostris
Linnet Linaria cannabina
Common redpoll Acanthis flammea (A)
Lesser redpoll Acanthis cabaret
Arctic redpoll Acanthis hornemanni (A)
Common crossbill Loxia curvirostra
Two-barred crossbill Loxia leucoptera (A)
Goldfinch Carduelis carduelis
Serin Serinus serinus (A)
Siskin Spinus spinus

Longspurs and arctic buntings

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Calcariidae

The Calcariidae are a family of birds that had been traditionally grouped with the New World sparrows, but differ in a number of respects and are usually found in open grassy areas.

Common name Binomial Status
Lapland bunting Calcarius lapponicus
Snow bunting Plectrophenax nivalis

Old World buntings

Yellowhammer, a declining species but still the commonest bunting in Wales[45]
Yellowhammer, a declining species but still the commonest bunting in Wales[45]

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Emberizidae

The Emberizidae are a large family of seed-eating passerine birds with a distinctively shaped bill.

Common name Binomial Status
Corn bunting Emberiza calandra (A)
Yellowhammer Emberiza citrinella
Pine bunting Emberiza leucocephalos (A)
Rock bunting Emberiza cia (A)
Ortolan bunting Emberiza hortulana (A)
Cretzschmar's bunting Emberiza caesia (A)
Cirl bunting Emberiza cirlus (A)
Little bunting Emberiza pusilla (A)
Rustic bunting Emberiza rustica (A)
Yellow-breasted bunting Emberiza aureola (A)
Black-headed bunting Emberiza melanocephala (A)
Reed bunting Emberiza schoeniclus

New World sparrows

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Passerellidae

Until 2017, these species were considered part of the family Emberizidae. Most of the species are known as sparrows, but these birds are not closely related to the Old World sparrows which are in the family Passeridae. Many of these have distinctive head patterns.

Common name Binomial Status
Dark-eyed junco Junco hyemalis (A)
White-throated sparrow Zonotrichia albicollis (A)
Song sparrow Melospiza melodia (A)

Troupials and allies

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Icteridae

A group of small to medium-sized, often colourful passerine birds restricted to the New World.

Common name Binomial Status
Bobolink Dolichonyx oryzivorus (A)
Baltimore oriole Icterus galbula (A)
Brown-headed cowbird Molothrus ater (A)

New World warblers

Yellow warbler, one on Bardsey Island in 1964 was the first European record of this North American species.[46]
Yellow warbler, one on Bardsey Island in 1964 was the first European record of this North American species.[46]

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Panuridae

A group of small, often colourful passerine birds restricted to the New World. Most are arboreal and insectivorous.

Common name Binomial Status
Black-and-white warbler Mniotilta varia (A)
Common yellowthroat Geothlypas trichas (A)
Blackburnian warbler Setophaga fusca (A)
Yellow warbler Setophaga petechia (A)
Blackpoll warbler Setophaga striata (A)
Yellow-rumped warbler Setophaga coronata (A)

Cardinals and allies

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Cardinalidae

The cardinals are a family of robust, seed-eating birds with strong bills. They are typically associated with open woodland. The sexes usually have distinct plumages.

Common name Binomial Status
Summer tanager Piranga rubra (A)
Rose-breasted grosbeak Pheucticus ludovicianus (A)
Indigo bunting Passerina cyanea (A)

See also

Footnotes

  1. ^ a b Pugh (2005)
  2. ^ a b c d e O'Shea (2000)
  3. ^ Tipling (1996)
  4. ^ British Ornithologist's Union (2008)
  5. ^ Dudley et al. (2006)
  6. ^ Lovegrove et al. (1994), p63
  7. ^ Lovegrove et al. (1994), p75
  8. ^ Lovegrove et al. (1994), p85
  9. ^ Green (2002), p86
  10. ^ Many or all records of Egyptian goose and ring-necked parakeet may refer to escapes from captivity rather than feral wanderers from England (Prater & Thorpe 2006).
  11. ^ Rogers & the BBRC (2004)
  12. ^ First recorded November 2005 (WRP 2006)
  13. ^ Green (2002), p172
  14. ^ Lovegrove et al. (1994), p38
  15. ^ a b c Lovegrove et al. (1994)
  16. ^ Green (2002), p119
  17. ^ Lovegrove et al. (1994), p160
  18. ^ O'Shea (2000), p89
  19. ^ First recorded July 2006 (WRP2007)
  20. ^ Lovegrove et al. (1994), p190
  21. ^ Green (2002), p164
  22. ^ Green (2002), p171
  23. ^ Lovegrove et al. (1994), p44
  24. ^ Green (2002), p61
  25. ^ Evans (2003)
  26. ^ a b First recorded October 2005 (WRP 2006)
  27. ^ Lovegrove et al. (1994), p119-121
  28. ^ O'Shea (2000), p129
  29. ^ Lovegrove et al. (1994), p236
  30. ^ Green (2002), p181
  31. ^ Lovegrove et al. (1994), p128
  32. ^ Green (2002), p226
  33. ^ Lovegrove et al. (1994), p307
  34. ^ Green (2002), p185
  35. ^ Gill, F. and D. Donsker (Eds). 2019. IOC World Bird List (v 9.2). doi:10.14344/IOC.ML.9.2. http://www.worldbirdnames.org/ retrieved 22 June 2019
  36. ^ First recorded October 2006 (WRP 2007)
  37. ^ Lovegrove et al. (1994), p259
  38. ^ Lovegrove et al. (1994), p310
  39. ^ Lovegrove et al. (1994), p265
  40. ^ Lovegrove et al. (1994), p272
  41. ^ First recorded December 2005 (WRP 2006)
  42. ^ Lovegrove et al. (1994), p299
  43. ^ Lovegrove et al. (1994), p326
  44. ^ Lovegrove et al. (1994), p249
  45. ^ Green (2002), p240
  46. ^ Snow & Perrins (1998), p1618

References