This list of birds of Wales includes every species of bird that has been recorded in a wild state in Wales. Compared to the avifauna of Britain as a whole, Wales has fewer breeding species, but these include a number of moorland species such as red grouse and black grouse, large numbers of seabirds (particularly on offshore islands such as Skomer, Grassholm and Bardsey) and good populations of several species typical of Welsh oak woods including redstart, pied flycatcher and wood warbler. Among the birds of prey is the red kite, which had become extinct in other parts of Britain until being reintroduced recently. In winter many wildfowl and waders are found around the coast, attracted by the mild temperatures. In spring and autumn a variety of migrant and vagrant birds can be seen, particularly on headlands and islands. Three-quarters of the UK population of the red-billed chough resides in Wales.
The list is based on Birds in Wales (Lovegrove et al. 1994), Birds in Wales 1992–2000 (Green 2002) and the list of the Welsh Ornithological Society (Prater & Thorpe 2006) with updates from the Welsh Records Panel's annual reports. The taxonomy and scientific names follow the official list of the British Ornithologists' Union (BOU). The English names are the vernacular names used in the 7th edition of the BOU list with the standardized names from that list given in brackets where they differ. The family introductions are based on The New Encyclopedia of Birds (Perrins 2004) except where otherwise stated. The number of species in each family is approximate due to differing opinions on classification; the numbers given in the list are based on The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 2021 edition.
Certain categories of birds are noted with the following tags:
The total number of species on the list is 435 including 133 British rarities, 65 Welsh rarities and 10 introduced species. About 150 species breed annually.
|Table of contents|
Non-passerines: Ducks, geese and swans • Grouse • Pheasants and partridges • Divers • Grebes • Albatrosses • Petrels and shearwaters • Austral storm petrels • Northern storm petrels • Gannets • Cormorants • Herons and bitterns • Ibises and spoonbills • Storks • Hawks and eagles • Osprey • Falcons • Rails • Cranes • Bustards • Oystercatchers • Avocets and stilts • Stone-curlews • Pratincoles and coursers • Plovers • Sandpipers, snipes and phalaropes • Skuas • Gulls, terns, and skimmers • Auks • Sandgrouse • Pigeons and doves • Parrots • Cuckoos • Barn owls • Typical owls • Nightjars • Swifts • Kingfishers • Bee-eaters • Rollers • Hoopoe • Woodpeckers
Passerines: Larks • Swallows and martins • Wagtails and pipits • Waxwings • Dippers • Wrens • Mockingbirds • Accentors • Thrushes and chats • Cettid warblers • Locustellid warblers • Acrocephalid warblers • Phylloscopid warblers • Old World warblers • Kinglets • Old World flycatchers • Bearded reedling • Long-tailed tits • Tits • Nuthatches • Treecreepers • Penduline tits • Orioles • Shrikes • Crows • Starlings • Sparrows • Vireos • Finches • New World warblers • Tanagers • Longspurs and arctic buntings • Buntings • New World sparrows • New World orioles and New World blackbirds
Order: Anseriformes Family: Anatidae
The swans, ducks and geese are medium to large birds that are adapted to an aquatic existence with webbed feet and bills which are flattened to a greater or lesser extent. In many ducks the male is colourful while the female is dull brown. The diet consists of a variety of animals and plants. The family is well represented in Wales, especially in winter when large numbers visit from Greenland, Scandinavia and Russia. There are about 160 species worldwide, 53 in Britain and 47 in Wales.
|Mute swan||Cygnus olor|
|Bewick's swan||Cygnus columbianus|
|Whooper swan||Cygnus cygnus|
|Bean goose||Anser fabalis||WR|
|Pink-footed goose||Anser brachyrhynchus|
|(Greater) white-fronted goose||Anser albifrons|
|Lesser white-fronted goose||Anser erythropus||BR|
|Greylag goose||Anser anser|
|(Greater) Canada goose||Branta canadensis||I|
|Barnacle goose||Branta leucopsis|
|Brent goose||Branta bernicla|
|Red-breasted goose||Branta ruficollis|
|Egyptian goose||Alopochen aegyptiacus||I|
|Ruddy shelduck||Tadorna ferruginea||BR|
|(Common) shelduck||Tadorna tadorna|
|Mandarin duck||Aix galericulata||I|
|(Eurasian) wigeon||Anas penelope|
|American wigeon||Mareca americana||WR|
|(Eurasian) teal||Anas crecca|
|Green-winged teal||Anas carolinensis||WR|
|American black duck||Anas rubripes||BR|
|(Northern) pintail||Anas acuta|
|Blue-winged teal||Spatula discors||BR|
|(Northern) shoveller||Spatula clypeata|
|Red-crested pochard||Netta rufina|
|(Common) pochard||Aythya ferina|
|Ring-necked duck||Aythya collaris||WR|
|Ferruginous duck||Aythya nyroca||WR|
|Tufted duck||Aythya fuligula|
|(Greater) scaup||Aythya marila|
|Lesser scaup||Aythya affinis||BR|
|(Common) eider||Somateria mollissima|
|King eider||Somateria spectabilis||BR|
|Long-tailed duck||Clangula hyemalis|
|Common scoter||Melanitta nigra|
|Black scoter||Melanitta americana||BR|
|Surf scoter||Melanitta perspicillata||WR|
|Velvet scoter||Melanitta fusca|
|(Common) goldeneye||Bucephala clangula|
|Red-breasted merganser||Mergus serrator|
|Ruddy duck||Oxyura jamaicensis||I|
Order: Galliformes Family: Tetraonidae
Grouse are sturdy, medium-sized terrestrial birds of the Northern Hemisphere. They have feathered feet and nostrils and short, rounded wings. They feed mainly on plant material and lay their eggs in a simple scrape on the ground. They are gamebirds and large numbers were shot in the past in moorland areas. There are about 19 species worldwide, 4 in Britain and 2 in Wales.
|Red grouse||Lagopus lagopus|
|Black grouse||Lyrurus tetrix|
Order: Galliformes Family: Phasianidae
These are terrestrial species, feeding and nesting on the ground. They are variable in size but generally plump, with broad and relatively short wings. There are about 155 species worldwide, with 6 in Britain and Wales. 4 of these were introduced for hunting or ornamental purposes but 2 have now apparently died out.
|Red-legged partridge||Alectorix rufa||I|
|Grey partridge||Perdix perdix|
|(Common) quail||Coturnix coturnix|
|(Common) pheasant||Phasianus colchicus||I|
|Golden pheasant||Chrysolophus pictus||I|
|Lady Amherst's pheasant||Chrysolophus amherstiae||I|
Order: Gaviiformes Family: Gaviidae
Divers are aquatic birds the size of a large duck, to which they are unrelated. They swim well and fly adequately but are almost hopeless on land, because their legs are placed towards the rear of the body. They feed on fish and other aquatic animals. There are 5 species worldwide, with 4 in Britain and Wales. They are all non-breeding visitors in Wales.
|Red-throated diver||Gavia stellata|
|Black-throated diver||Gavia arctica|
|Great northern diver||Gavia immer|
|White-billed diver||Gavia adamsii||BR|
Order: Podicipediformes Family: Podicipedidae
Grebes are small to medium-large diving birds with lobed toes and pointed bills. They are seen mainly on lowland waterbodies and coasts. They feed on aquatic animals and nest on a floating platform of vegetation. There are about 19 species worldwide, with 6 in Britain and Wales.
|Pied-billed grebe||Podilymbus podiceps||BR|
|Little grebe||Tachybaptus ruficollis|
|Great crested grebe||Podiceps cristatus|
|Red-necked grebe||Podiceps grisegena|
|Slavonian grebe||Podiceps auritus|
|Black-necked grebe||Podiceps nigricollis|
Order: Procellariiformes Family: Diomedeidae
The albatrosses are among the largest flying birds with long, narrow wings for gliding. The majority are found in the Southern Hemisphere with only vagrants occurring in the North Atlantic. There are at least 13 species worldwide, with 1 in Britain and Wales.
|Black-browed albatross||Thalassarche melanophris||BR|
Order: Procellariiformes Family: Procellariidae
These are highly pelagic birds with long, narrow wings and tube-shaped nostrils. They feed at sea on fish, squid and other marine life. They come to land to breed in colonies, nesting in burrows or on cliffs. There are 9 species which have been recorded in Wales.
|(Northern) fulmar||Fulmarus glacialis|
|Cory's shearwater||Calonectris borealis||WR|
|Great shearwater||Ardenna gravis||WR|
|Sooty shearwater||Ardenna griseus|
|Manx shearwater||Puffinus puffinus|
|Balearic shearwater||Puffinus mauretanicus|
|Macaronesian shearwater||Puffinus baroli||BR|
Order: Procellariiformes Family: Oceanitidae
The austral storm petrels are the smallest seabirds, feeding on plankton and small fish picked from the surface, typically while hovering. They nest in colonies on the ground, most often in burrows.
|Wilson's storm petrel||Oceanites oceanicus||WR|
Order: Procellariiformes Family: Hydrobatidae
The northern storm petrels are the smallest seabirds, feeding on plankton and small fish picked from the surface, typically while hovering. They nest in colonies on the ground, most often in burrows.
|(European) storm petrel||Hydrobates pelagicus|
|Leach's storm petrel||Hydrobates leucorrhous|
Order: Suliformes Family: Pelecanidae
Gannets are large seabirds that plunge-dive for fish and nest in large colonies. They have a torpedo-shaped body, long, narrow, pointed wings and a fairly long tail. There are about 10 species worldwide, with 1 in Britain and Wales.
|(Northern) gannet||Morus bassanus|
Order: Suliformes Family: Phalacrocoracidae
Cormorants are medium to large aquatic birds with mainly dark plumage and areas of coloured skin on the face. The bill is long, thin and sharply hooked for catching fish and aquatic invertebrates. They nest in colonies, usually by the sea.
|(Great) cormorant||Phalacrocorax carbo|
|(European) shag||Gulosus aristotelis|
Order: Pelecaniformes Family: Ardeidae
Herons and egrets are medium to large wading birds with long necks and legs. Bitterns tend to be shorter-necked and more secretive. They all fly with their necks retracted. The sharp bill is used to catch fish, amphibians and other animals. Many species nest in colonies, often in trees.
|(Great) bittern||Botaurus stellaris|
|American bittern||Botaurus lentiginosus||BR|
|Little bittern||Ixobrychus minutus||BR|
|(Black-crowned) night heron||Nycticorax nycticorax||WR|
|Green heron||Butorides virescens||BR|
|Squacco heron||Ardeola ralloides||BR|
|Cattle egret||Bubulcus ibis||BR|
|Little egret||Egretta garzetta|
|Great white egret||Ardea alba||WR|
|Grey heron||Ardea cinerea|
|Purple heron||Ardea purpurea||WR|
Order: Pelecaniformes Family: Threskiornithidae
A family of long-legged, long-necked wading birds. Ibises have long, curved bills. Spoonbils have a flattened bill, wider at the tip. There are about 33 species worldwide, with 2 in Britain and Wales.
|Glossy ibis||Plegadis falcinellus||BR|
|(Eurasian) spoonbill||Platalea leucorodia|
Order: Ciconiiformes Family: Ciconiidae
Storks are large, heavy, long-legged, long-necked wading birds with long stout bills and wide wingspans. They fly with the neck extended. There are about 19 species worldwide, with 2 occurring as vagrants in Britain and Wales.
|Black stork||Ciconia nigra||BR|
|White stork||Ciconia ciconia||WR|
Order: Accipitriformes Family: Accipitridae
A family of birds of prey which includes hawks, buzzards, eagles, kites and harriers. These birds have very large powerful hooked beaks for tearing flesh from their prey, strong legs, powerful talons and keen eyesight. There are about 240 species worldwide, 16 in Britain and 12 in Wales.
|European honey buzzard||Pernis apivorus|
|Black kite||Milvus migrans||WR|
|Red kite||Milvus milvus|
|White-tailed eagle||Haliaaetus albicilla||WR|
|(Eurasian) marsh harrier||Circus aeruginosus|
|Hen harrier||Circus cyaneus|
|Montagu's harrier||Circus pygargus||WR|
|(Northern) goshawk||Accipiter gentilis|
|(Eurasian) sparrowhawk||Accipiter nisus|
|(Common) buzzard||Buteo buteo|
|Rough-legged buzzard||Buteo lagopus||WR|
|Golden eagle||Aquila chrysaetos||WR|
Order: Accipitriformes Family: Pandionidae
A large fish-eating bird of prey belonging to a family of its own. It is mainly brown above and white below with long, angled wings. It is mainly a passage migrant in Wales but has recently begun to breed.
Order: Falconiformes Family: Falconidae
A family of small to medium-sized, diurnal birds of prey with pointed wings. They do not build their own nests and mainly catch prey in the air. There are about 64 species worldwide, 9 in Britain and 6 in Wales.
|(Common) kestrel||Falco tinnunculus|
|Red-footed falcon||Falco vespertinus||WR|
|(Eurasian) hobby||Falco subbuteo|
|Gyr falcon||Falco rusticolus||BR|
|Peregrine falcon||Falco peregrinus|
Order: Gruiformes Family: Rallidae
These birds mainly occupy dense vegetation in damp environments near lakes, marshes or rivers. Many are shy and secretive birds, making them difficult to observe. Most species have strong legs and long toes which are well adapted to soft uneven surfaces. There are about 135 species worldwide, 11 in Britain and 8 in Wales.
|Water rail||Rallus aquaticus|
|Spotted crake||Porzana porzana||WR|
|Little crake||Porzana parva||BR|
|Baillon's crake||Porzana pusilla||BR|
|Corn crake||Crex crex||WR|
|(Common) moorhen||Gallinula chloropus|
|(Common) coot||Fulica atra|
Order: Gruiformes Family: Gruidae
Cranes are large, long-legged and long-necked birds. Unlike the similar-looking but unrelated herons, cranes fly with necks outstretched, not pulled back. Most have elaborate and noisy courting displays or "dances". There are about 15 species worldwide, 2 in Britain and 1 in Wales.
|(Common) crane||Grus grus||WR|
Order: Otidiformes Family: Otididae
Large, sturdy birds of open plains with long legs and necks and strong feet. There are about 26 species worldwide, 3 in Britain and 2 in Wales.
|Little bustard||Tetrax tetrax||BR|
|Great bustard||Otis tarda||BR|
Order: Charadriiformes Family: Haematopodidae
The oystercatchers are large, obvious and noisy wading birds with strong bills used for smashing or prising open molluscs. There are about 11 species worldwide, with 1 in Britain and Wales.
|(Eurasian) oystercatcher||Haematopus ostralegus|
Order: Charadriiformes Family: Recurvirostridae
A family of fairly large wading birds. The avocets have long legs and long up-curved bills. The stilts have extremely long legs and long, thin, straight bills. There are about 10 species worldwide, with 2 in Britain and Wales.
|Black-winged stilt||Himantopus himantopus||BR|
|(Pied) avocet||Recurvirostra avosetta|
Order: Charadriiformes Family: Burhinidae
A small family of medium to large waders with strong black bills, large yellow eyes and cryptic plumage. There are 9 species worldwide, with 1 in Britain and Wales.
|Eurasian stone-curlew||Burhinus oedicnemus||WR|
Order: Charadriiformes Family: Glareolidae
A family of slender, long-winged wading birds. There are 17 species worldwide, 4 in Britain and 3 in Wales.
|Cream-coloured courser||Cursorius cursor||BR|
|Collared pratincole||Glareola pratincola||BR|
|Black-winged pratincole||Glareola nordmanni||BR|
Order: Charadriiformes Family: Charadriidae
Small to medium-sized wading birds with compact bodies, short, thick necks and long, usually pointed, wings. There are about 66 species worldwide, 16 in Britain and 12 in Wales.
|Little ringed plover||Charadrius dubius|
|Ringed plover||Charadrius hiaticula|
|Kentish plover||Charadrius alexandrinus||WR|
|Greater sand plover||Charadrius leschenaultii||BR|
|(Eurasian) dotterel||Charadrius morinellus|
|American golden plover||Pluvialis dominica||WR|
|Pacific golden plover||Pluvialis fulva||BR|
|(European) golden plover||Pluvialis apricaria|
|Grey plover||Pluvialis squatarola|
|Sociable lapwing||Vanellus gregarius||BR|
|(Northern) lapwing||Vanellus vanellus|
Order: Charadriiformes Family: Scolopacidae
A large, diverse family of wading birds. Different lengths of legs and bills enable multiple species to feed in the same habitat, particularly on the coast, without direct competition for food.
|(Red) knot||Calidris canutus|
|Semipalmated sandpiper||Calidris pusilla||BR|
|Little stint||Calidris minuta|
|Temminck's stint||Calidris temminckii||WR|
|Least sandpiper||Calidris minutilla||BR|
|White-rumped sandpiper||Calidris fuscicollis||WR|
|Baird's sandpiper||Calidris bairdii||BR|
|Pectoral sandpiper||Calidris melanotos||WR|
|Sharp-tailed sandpiper||Calidris acuminata||BR|
|Curlew sandpiper||Calidris ferruginea|
|Stilt sandpiper||Calidris himantopus||BR|
|Purple sandpiper||Calidris maritima|
|Broad-billed sandpiper||Calidris falcinellus||BR|
|Buff-breasted sandpiper||Calidris subruficollis||WR|
|Jack snipe||Lymnocryptes minimus|
|(Common) snipe||Gallinago gallinago|
|Great snipe||Gallinago minima||BR|
|Long-billed dowitcher||Limnodromus scolopaceus||BR|
|(Eurasian) woodcock||Scolopax rusticola|
|Black-tailed godwit||Limosa limosa|
|Bar-tailed godwit||Limosa lapponica|
|Little curlew||Numenius minutus||BR|
|Eurasian whimbrel||Numenius phaeopus|
|(Eurasian) curlew||Numenius arquata|
|Upland sandpiper||Bartramia longicauda||BR|
|Terek sandpiper||Xenus cinerea||BR|
|Common sandpiper||Actitis hypoleucos|
|Spotted sandpiper||Tringa macularius||BR|
|Green sandpiper||Tringa ochropus|
|Grey-tailed tattler||Tringa brevipes||BR|
|Spotted redshank||Tringa erythropus|
|Greater yellowlegs||Tringa melanoleuca||BR|
|(Common) greenshank||Tringa nebularia|
|Lesser yellowlegs||Tringa flavipes||BR|
|Marsh sandpiper||Tringa stagnatilis||BR|
|Wood sandpiper||Tringa glareola|
|(Common) redshank||Tringa totanus|
|(Ruddy) turnstone||Arenaria interpres|
|Wilson's phalarope||Phalaropus tricolor||BR|
|Red-necked phalarope||Phalaropus lobatus||WR|
|Grey phalarope||Phalaropus fulicarius|
Order: Charadriiformes Family: Stercorariidae
Medium to large seabirds with mainly grey or brown plumage, sharp claws and a hooked tip to the bill. They chase other seabirds to force them to drop their catches. There are about 7 species worldwide, with 4 in Britain and Wales.
|Pomarine skua||Stercorarius pomarinus|
|Arctic skua||Stercorarius parasiticus|
|Long-tailed skua||Stercorarius longicaudus|
|Great skua||Stercorarius skua|
Order: Charadriiformes Family: Laridae
Medium to large seabirds with grey, white and black plumage, webbed feet and strong bills. Many are opportunistic and adaptable feeders.
|Ivory gull||Pagophila eburnea||BR|
|Sabine's gull||Xema sabini|
|(Black-legged) kittiwake||Rissa tridactyla|
|Bonaparte's gull||Chroicocephalus philadelphia||BR|
|Black-headed gull||Chroicocephalus ridibundus|
|Little gull||Hydrocoloeus minutus|
|Ross's gull||Rhodostethia rosea||BR|
|Laughing gull||Leucophaeus atricilla||BR|
|Franklin's gull||Leucophaeus pipixcan||BR|
|Mediterranean gull||Ichthyaetus melanocephalus|
|Common gull||Larus canus|
|Ring-billed gull||Larus delawarensis|
|Lesser black-backed gull||Larus fuscus|
|Herring gull||Larus argentatus|
|Yellow-legged gull||Larus michahellis|
|Iceland gull||Larus glaucoides|
|Glaucous gull||Larus hyperboreus|
|Great black-backed gull||Larus marinus|
|Sooty tern||Onychoprion fuscata||BR|
|Bridled tern||Onychoprion anaethetus||BR|
|Little tern||Sternula albifrons|
|Gull-billed tern||Gelochelidon nilotica||BR|
|Caspian tern||Hydroprogne caspia||BR|
|Whiskered tern||Chlidonias hybrida|
|Black tern||Chlidonias niger|
|White-winged black tern||Chlidonias leucoptera||WR|
|Sandwich tern||Thalasseus sandvicensis|
|Royal tern||Thalasseus maximus||BR|
|Lesser crested tern||Thalasseus bengalensis||BR|
|Forster's tern||Sterna forsteri||BR|
|Common tern||Sterna hirundo|
|Roseate tern||Sterna dougallii|
|Arctic tern||Sterna paradisaea|
Order: Charadriiformes Family: Alcidae
A family of seabirds which are superficially similar to penguins with their black-and-white colours, their upright posture and some of their habits but which are able to fly. There are about 23 species worldwide, 9 in Britain and 5 in Wales. Great auks are extinct.
|(Common) guillemot||Uria aalge|
|Black guillemot||Cepphus grylle|
|Little auk||Alle alle|
|(Atlantic) puffin||Fratercula arctica|
Order: Pterocliformes Family: Pteroclidae
Sturdy, medium-sized birds with a small head and long, pointed wings. There are 16 species worldwide. 1 has occurred as a vagrant in Britain and Wales.
|Pallas's sandgrouse||Syrrhaptes paradoxus||BR|
Order: Columbiformes Family: Columbidae
Pigeons and doves are stout-bodied birds with short necks and short slender bills with a fleshy cere. There are about 308 species worldwide, 7 in Britain and 5 in Wales.
|Rock dove||Columba livia|
|Stock dove||Columba oenas|
|(Common) woodpigeon||Columba palumbus|
|(Eurasian) collared dove||Streptopelia decaocto|
|(European) turtle dove||Streptopelia turtur|
Order: Psittaciformes Family: Psittaculidae
|Ring-necked parakeet (rose-ringed parakeet)||Psittacula krameri||I|
Order: Cuculiformes Family: Cuculidae
Birds of variable size with slender bodies and long tails. Some species are known for laying their eggs in the nests of other birds. There are about 141 species worldwide, 4 in Britain and 3 in Wales.
|Great spotted cuckoo||Clamator glandarius||BR|
|(Common) cuckoo||Cuculus canorus|
|Yellow-billed cuckoo||Coccyzus americanus||BR|
Order: Strigiformes Family: Tytonidae
Barn owls are medium-sized to large owls with large heads and characteristic heart-shaped faces. They have long strong legs with powerful talons. There are about 16 species worldwide, with 1 in Britain and Wales.
|Barn owl||Tyto alba|
Order: Strigiformes Family: Strigidae
Typical owls are small to large solitary nocturnal birds of prey. They have large forward-facing eyes and ears, a hawk-like beak and a conspicuous circle of feathers around each eye called a facial disc. There are about 199 species worldwide, 8 in Britain and 6 in Wales.
|(Eurasian) scops owl||Otus scops||BR|
|Snowy owl||Bubo scandiaca||BR|
|Little owl||Athene noctua||I|
|Tawny owl||Strix aluco|
|Long-eared owl||Asio otus|
|Short-eared owl||Asio flammeus|
Order: Caprimulgiformes Family: Caprimulgidae
Nightjars are medium-sized nocturnal birds that usually nest on the ground. They have long wings, short legs and very short bills. Their soft plumage is cryptically coloured to resemble bark or leaves. There are about 91 species worldwide, 4 in Britain and 2 in Wales.
|(European) nightjar||Caprimulgus europaeus|
|Common nighthawk||Chordeiles minor||BR|
Order: Apodiformes Family: Apodidae
The swifts are small birds which spend the majority of their lives flying. These birds have very short legs and never settle voluntarily on the ground, perching instead only on vertical surfaces. There are about 100 species worldwide, 7 in Britain and 5 in Wales.
|Chimney swift||Chaetura pelagica||BR|
|(Common) swift||Apus apus|
|Pallid swift||Apus pallidus||BR|
|Alpine swift||Apus melba||WR|
|Little swift||Apus affinis||BR|
Order: Coraciiformes Family: Alcedinidae
Kingfishers are medium-sized birds with large heads, long pointed bills, short legs and stubby tails. There are about 93 species worldwide, 2 in Britain and 1 in Wales.
|(Common) kingfisher||Alcedo atthis|
Order: Coraciiformes Family: Meropidae
A group of near-passerine birds characterised by richly coloured plumage, slender bodies and usually elongated central tail feathers. There are about 26 species worldwide, 2 in Britain and 1 in Wales.
|(European) bee-eater||Merops apiaster||WR|
Order: Coraciiformes Family: Coraciidae
A small family of colourful, medium-sized, birds with a crow-like shape that feeds mainly on insects. There are about 12 species worldwide, with 1 in Britain and Wales.
|(European) roller||Coracias garrulus||BR|
Order: Bucerotiformes Family: Upupidae
A distinctive bird in its own family with a long curved bill, a crest, and black-and-white striped wings and tail.
|Eurasian hoopoe||Upupa epops|
Order: Piciformes Family: Picidae
Woodpeckers are small to medium-sized birds with chisel-like beaks, short legs, stiff tails and long tongues used for capturing insects. Many woodpeckers have the habit of tapping noisily on tree trunks with their beaks. There are about 219 species worldwide, 5 in Britain and 4 in Wales.
|(Eurasian) wryneck||Jynx tranquila|
|European green woodpecker||Picus viridis|
|Great spotted woodpecker||Dendrocopos major|
|Lesser spotted woodpecker||Dryobates minor|
Order: Passeriformes Family: Alaudidae
Larks are small terrestrial birds with often extravagant songs and display flights. Most larks are fairly dull in appearance. Their food is insects and seeds. There are about 96 species worldwide, 10 in Britain and 6 in Wales.
|Black lark||Melanocorypha yeltoniensis||BR|
|(Greater) short-toed lark||Calandrella brachydactyla||WR|
|Crested lark||Galerida cristata||BR|
|Shore lark||Eremophila alpestris||WR|
Order: Passeriformes Family: Hirundinidae
The family Hirundinidae is adapted to aerial feeding. They have a slender streamlined body, long pointed wings and a short bill with a wide gape. There are about 83 species worldwide, 8 in Britain and 5 in Wales.
|Sand martin||Riparia riparia|
|(Eurasian) crag martin||Ptyonoprogne rupestris||BR|
|(Barn) swallow||Hirundo rustica|
|(Common) house martin||Delichon urbicum|
|Red-rumped swallow||Cecropis daurica||WR|
Order: Passeriformes Family: Motacillidae
Motacillidae is a family of small passerine birds with medium to long tails. They are slender, ground-feeding insectivores of open country. There are about 66 species worldwide, 15 in Britain and 13 in Wales.
|Richard's pipit||Anthus richardi|
|Blyth's pipit||Anthus godlewskii||BR|
|Tawny pipit||Anthus campestris||WR|
|Olive-backed pipit||Anthus hodgsoni||BR|
|Tree pipit||Anthus trivialis|
|Meadow pipit||Anthus pratensis|
|Red-throated pipit||Anthus cervinus||WR|
|(Eurasian) rock pipit||Anthus petrosus|
|Water pipit||Anthus spinoletta|
|(Western) yellow wagtail||Motacilla flava|
|Citrine wagtail||Motacilla citreola||BR|
|Grey wagtail||Motacilla cinerea|
|Pied wagtail||Motacilla alba|
Order: Passeriformes Family: Bombycillidae
The waxwings are a group of passerine birds characterised by soft, silky plumage and unique red tips to some of the wing feathers. There are 3 species worldwide, 2 in Britain and 1 in Wales.
|(Bohemian) waxwing||Bombycilla garrulus|
Order: Passeriformes Family: Cinclidae
Dark, dumpy, aquatic birds that are able to forage for food on the beds of rivers. There are 5 species worldwide, with 1 in Britain and Wales.
|(White-throated) dipper||Cinclus cinclus|
Order: Passeriformes Family: Troglodytidae
Wrens are small and inconspicuous birds, except for their loud songs. They have short wings and thin down-turned bills.
|(Eurasian) wren||Troglodytes troglodytes|
Order: Passeriformes Family: Mimidae
Medium-sized passerine birds with long tails. Some are notable for their ability to mimic sounds such as other birds' songs. There are about 35 species worldwide. 3 have occurred as vagrants in Britain and 1 in Wales.
|Grey catbird||Dumetella carolinensis||BR|
Order: Passeriformes Family: Prunellidae
A small family of drab, unobtrusive, insectivorous birds with thin, pointed bills. There are 13 species worldwide, with 2 in Britain and Wales.
|Alpine accentor||Prunella collaris||BR|
Order: Passeriformes Family: Turdidae
The thrushes and chats are plump, soft-plumaged, small to medium-sized insectivores or sometimes omnivores, often feeding on the ground. Many have attractive songs. There are about 331 species worldwide including the chats, 42 in Britain and 30 in Wales.
|Swainson's thrush||Catharus ustulatus||BR|
|Grey-cheeked thrush||Catharus minimus||BR|
|Ring ouzel||Turdus torquatus|
|Common blackbird||Turdus merula|
|Eyebrowed thrush||Turdus obscurus||BR|
|Dusky thrush||Turdus naumanni||BR|
|Black-throated thrush||Turdus atrogularis|
|Red-throated thrush||Turdus ruficollis||BR|
|Song thrush||Turdus philomelos|
|Mistle thrush||Turdus viscivorus|
|American robin||Turdus viscivorus||BR|
|Dusky thrush||Turdus eunomus||BR|
Order: Passeriformes Family: Cettiidae
|Cetti's warbler||Cettia cetti|
Order: Passeriformes Family: Locustellidae
|Lanceolated warbler||Locustella lanceolata||BR|
|(Common) grasshopper warbler||Locustella naevia|
|River warbler||Locustella fluviatilis||BR|
|Savi's warbler||Locustella luscinioides||BR|
Order: Passeriformes Family: Acrocephalidae
|Aquatic warbler||Acrocephalus paludicola||WR|
|Sedge warbler||Acrocephalus schoenobaenus|
|Paddyfield warbler||Acrocephalus agricola||BR|
|Blyth's reed warbler||Acrocephalus dumetorum||BR|
|Marsh warbler||Acrocephalus palustris||WR|
|(Eurasian) reed warbler||Acrocephalus scirpaceus|
|Great reed warbler||Acrocephalus arundinaceus||BR|
|Booted warbler||Iduna caligata||BR|
|Icterine warbler||Hippolais icterina||WR|
|Melodious warbler||Hippolais polyglotta||WR|
Order: Passeriformes Family: Phylloscopidae
|Greenish warbler||Phylloscopus trochiloides||WR|
|Arctic warbler||Phylloscopus borealis||BR|
|Pallas's leaf warbler||Phylloscopus proregulus||WR|
|Yellow-browed warbler||Phylloscopus inornatus|
|Hume's leaf warbler||Phylloscopus humei||BR|
|Radde's warbler||Phylloscopus schwarzi||WR|
|Dusky warbler||Phylloscopus fuscatus||WR|
|Western Bonelli's warbler||Phylloscopus bonelli||BR|
|Wood warbler||Phylloscopus sibalatrix|
|(Common) chiffchaff||Phylloscopus collybita|
|Willow warbler||Phylloscopus trochilus|
Order: Passeriformes Family: Sylviidae
A group of small, insectivorous passerine birds. Most are of generally undistinguished appearance, but many have distinctive songs.
|Eurasian blackcap||Sylvia atricapilla|
|Garden warbler||Sylvia borin|
|Barred warbler||Curruca nisoria||WR|
|Lesser whitethroat||Curruca curruca|
|(Common) whitethroat||Curruca communis|
|Dartford warbler||Curruca undata|
|Rüppell's warbler||Curruca ruppeli||BR|
|Eastern subalpine warbler||Curruca cantillans||WR|
|Western subalpine warbler||Curruca iberiae||WR|
|Sardinian warbler||Curruca melanocephala||BR|
Order: Passeriformes Family: Regulidae
|Common firecrest||Regulus ignicapilla|
Order: Passeriformes Family: Muscicapidae
The flycatchers are small birds that fly out from a perch to catch insects in the air.
|(European) robin||Erithacus rubecula|
|Thrush nightingale||Luscinia luscinia||BR|
|(Common) nightingale||Luscinia megarhynchos||WR|
|White-throated robin||Irania gutturalis||BR|
|Black redstart||Phoenicurus ochruros|
|(Common) redstart||Phoenicurus phoenicurus|
|Moussier's redstart||Phoenicurus moussieri||BR|
|(European) stonechat||Saxicola torquata|
|Isabelline wheatear||Oenanthe isabellina||BR|
|(Northern) wheatear||Oenanthe oenanthe|
|Pied wheatear||Oenanthe pleschanka||BR|
|Western black-eared wheatear||Oenanthe hispanica||BR|
|Desert wheatear||Oenanthe deserti||BR|
|(Rufous-tailed) rock thrush||Monticola saxatilis||BR|
|Blue rock thrush||Monticola solitarius||BR|
|Spotted flycatcher||Muscicapa striata|
|Red-breasted flycatcher||Ficedula parva||WR|
|Collared flycatcher||Ficedula albicollis||BR|
|Pied flycatcher||Ficedula hypoleuca|
Order: Passeriformes Family: Panuridae
|Bearded reedling||Panurus biarmicus||WR|
Order: Passeriformes Family: Aegithalidae
Small, long-tailed birds that typically live in flocks for much of the year. There are 8 species worldwide, with 1 in Britain and Wales.
|Long-tailed tit||Aegithalos caudatus|
Order: Passeriformes Family: Paridae
Tits are mainly small, stocky, woodland species with short stout bills. They are adaptable birds, with a mixed diet including seeds and insects. There are about 59 species worldwide, 6 in Britain and 5 in Wales.
|Blue tit||Cyanistes caeruleus|
|Great tit||Parus major|
|Coal tit||Periparus ater|
|Willow tit||Poecile montana|
|Marsh tit||Poecile palustris|
Order: Passeriformes Family: Sittidae
Nuthatches are small woodland birds with the unusual ability to climb down trees head-first, unlike other birds which can only go upwards. There are about 24 species worldwide, 2 in Britain and 1 in Wales.
|(Wood) nuthatch||Sitta europaea|
Order: Passeriformes Family: Certhiidae
Treecreepers are small woodland birds, brown above and white below. They have thin, pointed, down-curved bills, which they use to extricate insects from bark. There are 7 species worldwide, 2 in Britain and 1 in Wales.
|(Eurasian) treecreeper||Certhia familiaris|
Order: Passeriformes Family: Remizidae
Small birds with finely pointed bills that build purse-like nests hanging from a branch. There are about 13 species worldwide, with 1 in Britain and Wales.
|(Eurasian) penduline tit||Remiz pendulinus||BR|
Order: Passeriformes Family: Oriolidae
Orioles are colourful, medium-sized passerine birds with far-carrying, fluting songs. There are about 30 species worldwide, with 1 in Britain and Wales.
|(Eurasian) golden oriole||Oriolus oriolus||WR|
Order: Passeriformes Family: Laniidae
Shrikes are passerine birds known for their habit of catching other birds and small animals and impaling the uneaten portions of their bodies on thorns. A typical shrike's beak is hooked, like a bird of prey. There are about 30 species worldwide, 9 in Britain and 5 in Wales.
|Isabelline shrike||Lanius isabellinus||BR|
|Red-backed shrike||Lanius collurio||WR|
|Lesser grey shrike||Lanius minor||BR|
|Great grey shrike||Lanius excubitor|
|Woodchat shrike||Lanius senator||WR|
Order: Passeriformes Family: Corvidae
The crows and their relatives are fairly large birds with strong bills and are usually intelligent and adaptable. There are about 119 species worldwide, with 9 in Britain and Wales.
|(Eurasian) jay||Garrulus glandarius|
|(Black-billed) magpie||Pica pica|
|(Spotted) nutcracker||Nucifraga caryocatactes||BR|
|(Red-billed) chough||Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax|
|(Eurasian) jackdaw||Corvus monedula|
|Carrion crow||Corvus corone|
|Hooded crow||Corvus cornix|
|(Common) raven||Corvus corax|
Order: Passeriformes Family: Sturnidae
Starlings are small to medium-sized passerine birds with strong feet. Their flight is strong and direct and most are very gregarious. There are about 114 species worldwide, with 2 in Britain and Wales.
|(Common) starling||Sturnus vulgaris|
|Rosy starling||Pastor roseus||WR|
Order: Passeriformes Family: Passeridae
Sparrows tend to be small, plump, brownish or greyish birds with short tails and short, powerful beaks. They are seed-eaters and they also consume small insects. There are about 38 species worldwide, 4 in Britain and 3 in Wales.
|House sparrow||Passer domesticus|
|Spanish sparrow||Passer hispaniolensis||BR|
|(Eurasian) tree sparrow||Passer montanus|
Order: Passeriformes Family: Vireonidae
The vireos are a group of small to medium-sized passerine birds restricted to the New World. There are about 52 species worldwide. 3 have occurred as vagrants in Britain and 1 in Wales.
|Red-eyed vireo||Vireo olivaceus||BR|
Order: Passeriformes Family: Fringillidae
Seed-eating passerine birds that are small to moderately large and have a strong beak, usually conical and in some species very large. There are about 176 species worldwide, 21 in Britain and 16 in Wales.
|Common chaffinch||Fringilla coelebs|
|(European) serin||Serinus serinus||WR|
|(European) greenfinch||Chloris chloris|
|(European) goldfinch||Carduelis carduelis|
|(Eurasian) siskin||Spinus spinus|
|(Common) linnet||Linaria cannabina|
|Lesser redpoll||Acanthis cabaret|
|Common redpoll||Acanthis flammea||WR|
|Arctic redpoll||Acanthis hornemanni||WR|
|Two-barred crossbill||Loxia leucoptera||BR|
|(Common) crossbill||Loxia curvirostris|
|Common rosefinch||Carpodacus erythrinus||WR|
|(Common) bullfinch||Pyrrhula pyrrhula|
Order: Passeriformes Family: Panuridae
A group of small, often colourful passerine birds restricted to the New World. Most are arboreal and insectivorous. There are about 118 species worldwide. 18 have occurred as vagrants in Britain and 6 in Wales.
|Black-and-white warbler||Mniotilta varia||BR|
|Yellow warbler||Setophaga petechia||BR|
|Blackburnian warbler||Setophaga fusca||BR|
|Yellow-rumped warbler||Setophaga coronata||BR|
|Blackpoll warbler||Setophaga striata||BR|
|Common yellowthroat||Geothlypas trichas||BR|
Order: Passeriformes Family: Thraupidae
The tanagers are a large group of small to medium-sized passerine birds restricted to the New World, mainly in the tropics. Many species are brightly coloured. There are about 226 species worldwide. 2 have occurred as vagrants in Britain and 1 in Wales.
|Summer tanager||Piranga rubra||BR|
Order: Passeriformes Family: Calcariidae
|Lapland bunting||Calcarius lapponicus|
|Snow bunting||Plectrophenax nivalis|
Order: Passeriformes Family: Emberizidae
The Emberizidae are a large family of seed-eating passerine birds with a distinctively shaped bill.
|Pine bunting||Emberiza leucocephalos||BR|
|Cirl bunting||Emberiza cirlus||WR|
|Rock bunting||Emberiza cia||BR|
|Ortolan bunting||Emberiza hortulana||WR|
|Rustic bunting||Emberiza rustica||WR|
|Little bunting||Emberiza pusilla||WR|
|Yellow-breasted bunting||Emberiza aureola||BR|
|Reed bunting||Emberiza schoeniclus|
|Black-headed bunting||Emberiza melanocephala||BR|
|Corn bunting||Emberiza calandra||WR|
|Rose-breasted grosbeak||Pheucticus ludovicianus||BR|
|Indigo bunting||Passerina cyanea||BR|
Order: Passeriformes Family: Passerellidae
|Song sparrow||Melospiza melodia||BR|
|White-throated sparrow||Zonotrichia albicollis||BR|
|Dark-eyed junco||Junco hyemalis||BR|
Order: Passeriformes Family: Icteridae
A group of small to medium-sized, often colourful passerine birds restricted to the New World. There are about 101 species worldwide. 3 have occurred as vagrants in Britain and 2 in Wales.
|Baltimore oriole||Icterus galbula||BR|