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The following list of disasters in Estonia is a list of major disasters (excluding conventional acts of war but including acts of terrorism) which relate to Estonia or involved its citizens, in a definable incident or accident such as a shipwreck, where the loss of life was five or more, while some traffic accidents with under ten victims may be excluded.

Disasters by death toll

Italics indicate an
estimated figure
Event Year Notes
200,000 Great Northern War plague outbreak 1708–1713 Plague during the Great Northern War, a mere decade after The Great Starvation and just after the Great Frost famine killed ca. 57% of people in Estonia.
70,00075,000 The Great Starvation 1695–1697 A cold and rainy summer and early autumn frost resulted in crop failure, killing ca. 20% of people in Estonia.
40,000 Great Frost famine 1709 An extraordinarily cold winter resulted in crop failure, killing ca. 11% of people in Estonia.
Significant Plague of 1211–1212 1211–1212 Plague outbreak during the Livonian Crusade devastated the Estonian forces.
Significant Plague of 1532 1532 Plague outbreak.
Significant Plague of 1549–1553 1549–1553 Plague outbreak.
Significant Plagues during the Livonian War 1561–1580 Several plague outbreaks during the Livonian War devastated different forces and the civilian population.
Significant Plague of 1601–1606 1601–1606 Plague outbreak during the Polish–Swedish War devastated different forces and the civilian population.
Significant Plague of 1657 1657 Plague outbreak.
2,940 COVID-19 pandemic 2020–2021 The ongoing pandemic has killed 0.89% of all infected in Estonia.
2,236 1848–1849 cholera outbreak 1848–1849 Cholera outbreak killed 38% of all infected.
852 MS Estonia 1994 Cruise ferry sank in the Baltic Sea en route from Tallinn to Stockholm, Sweden after its visor broke off, killing all but 137 on board.
755 1831–1833 cholera outbreak 1831–1833 Cholera outbreak killed 40%–55% of all infected.
674 1853 cholera outbreak 1853 A short pandemic killed ca. 41% of all infected.
200 1892–1894 cholera outbreak 1892–1894 Cholera outbreak killed 35% of all infected.
177 Russian monitor Rusalka 1893 Monitor mysteriously sank en route from Tallinn to Helsinki, killing all on board.
100 1871–1872 cholera outbreak 1871–1872 Cholera outbreak mostly devastated the area in and around Tallinn.
68 Pärnu methanol poisoning incident 2001 People in Pärnu county drank counterfeit vodka which had mistakenly been made with toxic methanol instead of ordinary ethanol.
63 Männiku explosion 1936 Ammunition depots exploded in Männiku, killing mostly army personnel.
61 Puka train accident 1897 Military train derailed at Puka, killing mostly personnel of the 95th "Krasnoyarski" Infantry Regiment.
21 Moe airplane accident 1977 An-24 carrying personnel of the Soviet 655th Fighter Aviation Regiment crashed after hitting the chimney of a distillery in Moe, killing all on board.
18 Kilingi-Nõmme II Primary School fire 1937 School burned down after film stock caught fire, killing 1 child on sight, 16 in the coming days, and 1 of their wounds several years later.
14 Kurkse tragedy 1997 Soldiers of the Baltic Peacekeeping Battalion froze in the Kurkse strait en route from Suur-Pakri Island to Kurkse on the mainland by foot on a dangerous training maneuver, killing all but 8 soldiers.
14 Copterline Flight 103 2005 Commercial transport helicopter en route from Tallinn to Helsinki, Finland crashed into the Tallinn Bay after liftoff, killing all on board.
10 Jõgeva mail train accident 1924 Mail train was derailed possibly by Soviet diversionists at Pedja River near Jõgeva, killing both passengers and crew.
10 Haapsalu orphanage fire 2011 Disabled patients died of carbon monoxide poisoning, while 36 patients were evacuated.
10 Valdeku shooting-range accident 1934 Officer candidates were killed by an accidental bombshell explosion during an Estonian Military Academy exercise.
9 Petseri fire 1939 A fire destroyed a third of the mostly wooden town of Petseri.
9 Ju-52 Kaleva shootdown 1940 Commercial transport airplane en route from Tallinn to Helsinki, Finland was shut down Soviet bombers above the Gulf of Finland, killing all on board.
9 Tallinn railway accident 1980 Two oncoming trains collided in Baltic Railway Station in Tallinn, killing passengers and crew in both trains.
8 Pala bus accident 1996 A lorry crashed into a school bus at Pala, with 29 survivors in the bus and 1 in the lorry.
6 Marja store collapse 1994 A convenience store collapsed in Mustamäe district, Tallinn, killing 5 customers on site and 1 in hospital.

Other significant disasters

Italics indicate an
estimated figure
Event Year Notes
1 2005 January storm 2005 Cyclone Gudrun caused considerable flooding in Western and Northern Estonian coastal areas.
None Kaali meteorite impact Ca. 1530–1450 BC Impact energy of about 80 TJ, incinerating the forests within a 6 km radius.
None Toompea fire 1684 A fire destroyed much of Tallinn's upper town Toompea.
None Great fire of Tartu 1775 A fire destroyed up to 2/3 of the mostly wooden town of Tartu.
None Sviby fire 1932 A fire destroyed almost the entire village of Sviby on Vormsi island.
None Võõpsu fire 1939 A fire destroyed almost the entire village of Võõpsu.

See also