This is a list of disasters in the Philippines.

Astronomical phenomenon


Event Date Cause
Quaternary extinction event Pleistocene 640,000, 74,000, and 13,000 years ago Clovis comet? (13,000 years ago)[1]
Pliocene–Pleistocene boundary marine extinction Pliocene 2 Ma Supernova in the Scorpius–Centaurus OB association[2]

Historical era

Event Date Cause
Meteorite impact March 6, 2011 At about 10am on March 7, 2011 (UTC+8), a loud explosion was heard at the island of Tablas in Romblon. It was followed by a tremor.

Fishermen on sea saw a fiery and swift ball of fire falling from sky (daytime).[3]

Volcanic eruptions


The ancestral Mount Pinatubo erupted during pre-history, but it is less explosive than the modern Mount Pinatubo.
The Mt. Masaraga, The thick lava flows from Holocene period are still present on the flanks of the mountain.
Event Date Notes
Eruption of Mount Panay Pleistocene Last eruptive activity is thought to be Pleistocene, about 500,000 years ago.[4]
Eruption of Mount Arayat Holocene There are no cultural records of historical eruptions. However, weak steaming is currently present in some of the heavily eroded vents on the north-western side of the summit. The ancient eruptions were said to have caused the formation of a lava dome on the western slopes of the mountain known as White Rock. The Arayat amphitheater is said to have been caused by the summit's collapse on the western side but a much deeper crater is present on the eastern side, it was said that the mountain was once a volcanic island, until eruptions covered the surrounding area with soil, eruptions were said to be the possible cause of a theorized re-route of Pampanga River which is said to have once passed on the western side rather than the eastern side where it currently moves[4]
Eruption of Mount Natib Pleistocene or Holocene There are no historical eruptions within the Natib caldera complex. Studies in 1991 (Panum and Rayem) indicate that the last eruptive activity was probably Holocene to upper Pleistocene. An earlier study in 1971 (Ebasco Services) dated the eruptive products between 69,000 +/- 27,000 years old.
Eruption of Mt.Masaraga Holocene There are no historical eruptions from the volcano with the last eruptive activity dated as Holocene as reported by the Global Volcanism Program. Thick lava flows from that period are present on the flanks of Mount Masaraga, an understudied volcano in the Philippines.
Eruption of Laguna Caldera C28,000 BP The caldera, whose lake surface is only 1m above sea level, may have formed by least two major eruptions of about 1 million and 27,000-29,000 years ago.[4]
Eruption of Mount Malinao 60,000 BP There are no historical eruptions from Malinao which is believed to have been active from about 500,000 years ago until 60,000 years ago.[5]
Eruption of Cuernos de Negros 12,000 BC An earlier study in 1971 (Ebasco Services) dated the eruptive products between 69,000 +/- 27,000 years old.
Eruption of Ancestral Pinatubo Holocene 1.1 million years ago The activity of ancestral Pinatubo seems to have begun about 1.1 million years ago and probably ended tens of thousands or more before the birth of 'Modern Pinatubo'. Much of the rugged land surrounding the present volcano consists of remnants of 'ancestral' Pinatubo. It was an andesite and dacite stratovolcano with its eruptive activity much less explosive than modern Pinatubo.
Eruption of Mt. Mariveles 2050 BCE There are no recorded historical eruptions from Mariveles caldera, with the last activity indicated by radiocarbon dating occurring around mid-Holocene or about 2050 BCE.[6]

Historical era

Only the church tower remains of the Cagsawa Church, which was buried by the 1814 eruption of Mayon Volcano.
The eruption column of the modern Mount Pinatubo on June 12, 1991, three days before the climactic eruption.
Map of Pinatubo showing nearby peaks and the evacuation zones.
Event Date Notes
Leonard Kniaseff c.120 AD.[7] There was a scare in 1995 but PHIVOLCS investigation at the time did not disclose any unusual activity, and no unusual activity has been reported since.
San Pablo Volcanic Field 1350 AD +/- 100 Last activity was the formation of Sampaloc Lake around 1350 AD +/- 100 years determined by anthropology[8]
Taal eruption 1572 to 2022 Currently on eruption since January 12, 2020. Eruptions have also destroyed numerous lakeside towns, burying them with volcanic ash or submerged them by rising lake waters displaced by the erupted material. The towns of Lipa, Taal, Sala, Bauan and Tanauan were formerly located along Taal Lake. Presently, only three towns are on the lake's shore. Remnants of the old lakeside towns are reported to be seen under the lake's waters.[9]
Mayon eruption 1616 to 2018 The most destructive eruption of Mayon occurred on February 1, 1814 (VEI=4). Lava flowed but not as much compared to the 1766 eruption; Instead, the volcano was belching dark ash and eventually bombarded the town of Cagsawa with tephra that buried it. Trees were burned; rivers were certainly damaged. Proximate areas were also devastated by the eruption, with ash accumulating to 9 m (30 ft) in depth. In Albay, a total of 2,200 locals perished in what is considered to be the most lethal eruption in Mayon's history; estimates by PHIVOLCS list the casualties at about 1,200, however. The eruption is believed to have contributed to the accumulation of atmospheric ash,[citation needed] capped by the catastrophic eruption of Mount Tambora in 1815, that led to the Year Without a Summer in 1816.
Pinatubo eruption 1500 to 2021 Reawakened in 1991 producing the 2nd largest eruption in the 20th century. Followed by milder eruptions in 1992 and 1993.[10]
Mt. Kanlaon eruption 1886 to 2017 The most active volcano in the Visayas, Kanlaon has erupted 26 times since 1919. Eruptions are typically phreatic explosions of small-to-moderate size that produce minor ash falls near the volcano. In 1902, the eruption was classified as strombolian, typified by the ejection of incandescent cinder, lapilli and lava bombs.
Bulusan eruption 1886 to 2022 Bulusan is generally known for its sudden steam-driven or phreatic explosions. It has erupted 16 times since 1885 and is considered as the 4th most active volcano in the Philippines after Mayon, Taal, and Kanlaon. There are evacuation procedures in place for parts of the peninsula, the farms nearest the volcano are evacuated, and many of the village schools are closed if it is considered possible that a more destructive eruption could occur.
Mt. Hibok-Hibok eruption 1827, 1862, 1871 and 1948–1952 On February 16, 1871, earthquakes and subterranean rumblings began to be felt in Camiguin, which increased in severity until April 30 when a volcanic fissure opened up 400 yards southwest of the village of Catarman, on the northwest flank of the Hibok-Hibok Volcano. From the opening, lava was continuously ejected and poured into the sea for four years destroying the town. At the same time, the vent started gaining in height and width thus forming Mt. Vulcan. In 1875, the Challenger expedition visited the area, and described the mountain as a dome, about 1,950 feet (590 m) in height, without any crater, but still smoking and incandescent at the top.[11]


For a more comprehensive list, see List of earthquakes in the Philippines.


Historical era

The bell tower of the Manila Cathedral after the series of destructive earthquakes of July 1880.
The ruins of a church after the 2013 earthquake.

The table below is a tally of the ten most deadly recorded earthquakes in the Philippines since the 1600s with having the most number of casualties:

18th century

19th century

Ten deadliest recorded earthquakes in the Philippines since the 1600s
Magnitude Origin Location Date Mortality Missing Injured Damages Source
1 7.9 Tectonic Moro Gulf August 16, 1976 4791 2288 9928
2 7.8 Tectonic Luzon Island July 16, 1990 1621 1000 More than 3000 10 billion
3 7.5 Tectonic Luzon Island November 30, 1645 More than 600 More than 3000 Unknown
4 7.3 Tectonic Casiguran, Aurora August 2, 1968 271 261
5 7.2 Tectonic Bohol & Cebu October 15, 2013 222 8 796 4 billion (est.) [15]
6 7.1 Tectonic Mindoro November 15, 1994 78 430 5.15 million [16]
7 6.7 Tectonic Negros Oriental February 6, 2012 51 62 112 383 million
8 7.8 Tectonic Panay (Lady Caycay) January 25, 1948 50 (est) 7 million
9 Unknown Tectonic Manila June 19, 1665 19 Unknown
10 6.5 Tectonic Laoag August 17, 1983 16 47
11 7.5 Tectonic Mindanao Island March 5, 2002 15 100


Typhoon Yolanda or Haiyan, strongest typhoon in the Philippines.



Rank Storm Dates of impact Deaths
1 1881 Haiphong typhoon 1881, September 27–October 6 20,000 [17]
2 Haiyan/Yolanda 2013 2013, November 7–8 6,241 [18]
3 Thelma (Uring), 1991 1991, November 2–7 5,956 [20][21][22]
4 Bopha/Pablo 2012 2012, December 2–9 1,901
5 Angela Typhoon, 1867 1867, September 20–26 1,800 [17][23][24]
6 Winnie 2004 2004, November 27–30 1,593
7 Fengshen/Frank 2008 2008, June 18–23 1,501 [21]
8 Unidentified typhoon 1897, October 7–16 1,500 [17][23][24]
9 Ike (Nitang), 1984 1984, August 31–September 4 1,492 [20]
10 Durian/Reming 2006 2006, November 29–December 1 1,399
Costliest Philippine typhoons
Rank Names Dates of impact PHP USD Ref
1 Bopha, (Pablo) November 25 – December 9, 2012 42.2 billion 1.04 billion [25]
2 Haiyan, (Yolanda) November 3 – 11, 2013 35.5 billion 809 million [26]
3 Parma, (Pepeng) October 2 – 10, 2009 27.3 billion 608 million [27]
4 Nesat, (Pedring) September 26 – 28, 2011 15 billion 333 million [28]
5 Fengshen, (Frank) June 20 – 23, 2008 13.5 billion 301 million [29]
6 Ketsana, (Ondoy) September 25 – 27, 2009 11 billion 244 million [27]
7 Mike, (Ruping) November 10 – 14, 1990 10.8 billion 241 million [30]
8 Angela, (Rosing) October 30 – November 4, 1995 10.8 billion 241 million [30]
9 Flo, (Kadiang) October 2 – 6, 1993 8.75 billion 195 million [30]
10 Megi (Juan) October 18 – 21, 2010 8.32 billion 193 million [31]


The Stegodon, Once roamed in the plains of Luzon, Mindanao and entire Philippine Archipelago.
Diprotodon became extinct around 50,000 years ago, Due to Climate change.
Period Start Date Extinction Date Cause
Mid-Holocene Extinction of large mammals 2050 BC Volcanic eruption. and climate change
Holocene 500,000 years ago Extinction of large animals Volcanic eruptions. A volcanic eruption occurred In the present location of Taal Lake, during Mid-Holocene, causing the species of proboscideans like Stegodon to become extinct.
Pleistocene 2 million -13,000 yrs ago Quaternary extinction event 640,000, 74,000, and 13,000 years ago Clovis comet? (13,000 years ago) Eruption of a super volcano? (640,000 years ago)[1] Hunting by humans? Climate change?
Pliocene Pliocene–Pleistocene boundary marine extinction 2 Ma

Supernova in the Scorpius–Centaurus OB association[2]

See also


  1. ^ a b Tiwary, Sachin. "Extinction in the Late Quaternary Period". ((cite journal)): Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  2. ^ a b Benitez, Narciso; Maíz-Apellániz, Jesús; Canelles, Matilde (2002). "Evidence for Nearby Supernova Explosions". Phys. Rev. Lett. 88 (8): 081101. arXiv:astro-ph/0201018. Bibcode:2002PhRvL..88h1101B. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.88.081101. PMID 11863949. S2CID 41229823.
  3. ^ "The Latest Worldwide Meteor/Meteorite News: Breaking News -Tablas Island, Philippines- fiery and swift ball of fire/ Tremor 10am 7MAR2011 (GMT+8)". 2011-03-08.
  4. ^ a b c Smithsonian Institution's Global Volcanism Program, Panay page
  5. ^ "Malinao » Summary". Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 11 January 2013.
  6. ^ "Eruptive History of Mariveles". Global Volcanism Program. Retrieved on 2011-07-28.
  7. ^ "Leonard Range Eruption History". Global Volcanism Program. Retrieved on 2011-08-18.
  8. ^ "San Pablo Volcanic Field Eruption History". Global Volcanism Program. Retrieved on 2011-08-18.
  9. ^ Hargrove, Thomas (1991). "The Mysteries of Taal, a Philippine volcano and lake, her sea life and lost towns". Bookmark, Manila. ISBN 971-569-046-7.
  10. ^ USGS. "Earthquake Information for 1990". Archived from the original on 2009-12-06. Retrieved 2010-03-06.
  11. ^ Becker, George F. (1901). "Report on the Geology of the Philippine Islands", p.42-43. Washington Government Printing Office, 1901.
  12. ^ "Hiking Taal Volcano | Day Tours from Manila, Philippines".
  13. ^ Maso, Saderra (1902). Seismic and Volcanic Centers of the Philippine Archipelago. Manila: Bureau of Printing. p. 16.
  14. ^ a b Bautista, Maria Leonila P. & Bautista, Bartolome C. "Philippine Historical Earthquakes and Lessons Learned" (PDF). EqTAP Project. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-11-13. Retrieved 2014-06-10.
  15. ^ "Massive extremely dangerous earthquake in Bohol, Philippines – At least 222 people killed, 8 missing, over 790 injured, around 4 billion PHP damage, 7 billion PHP reconstruction costs". October 31, 2013. Retrieved June 2, 2014.
  16. ^ "1994 Mindoro Tsunami". Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology. Retrieved February 7, 2012.
  17. ^ a b c "Tropical Cyclone Disasters in the Philippines: A Listing of Major Typhoons by Month Through 1979" Retrieved 03-27-2018.
  18. ^ "TyphoonHaiyan - RW Updates". United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. December 28, 2013. Philippines: Hundreds of corpses unburied after Philippine typhoon. Archived from the original on December 30, 2013. Retrieved December 30, 2013.
  19. ^ Leoncio A. Amadore, PhD Socio-Economic Impacts of Extreme Climatic Events in the Philippines. Archived 2008-10-02 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved on 2007-02-25.
  20. ^ a b " 10 WORST TYPHOONS OF THE PHILIPPINES (A SUMMARY)". 2004. Archived from the original on 2008-05-22. Retrieved 2018-03-27.
  21. ^ a b " 12 WORST TYPHOONS OF THE PHILIPPINES (A SUMMARY)". 2010-07-29. Retrieved 2018-03-27.
  22. ^ "Top 25 Natural Disasters in Philippines (1901-2000)" Retrieved 03-26-2018.
  23. ^ a b Pedro Ribera, Ricardo Garcia-Herrera & Luis Gimeno (July 2008). "Historical deadly typhoons in the Philippines" (PDF). Weather. 63 (7): 196. Bibcode:2008Wthr...63..194R. doi:10.1002/wea.275.
  24. ^ a b "Historical deadly typhoons in the Philippines" Retrieved 03-27-2018.
  25. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-11-10. Retrieved 2014-06-02.((cite web)): CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  26. ^ Typhoon Haiyan death toll rises over 5,000 (Report). BBC. November 22, 2013. Retrieved November 22, 2013.
  27. ^ a b "Situation report no.50 on Typhoon Ondoy (Ketsana) and Typhoon Pepeng (Parma)" (PDF). Philippine National Disaster Coordinating Council. 2009-11-17. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-04. Retrieved 2010-05-14.
  28. ^ As Typhoon Nesat departs, Philippines tallies the damage | MNN - Mother Nature Network Archived 2014-07-03 at the Wayback Machine
  29. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-09-09. Retrieved 2014-06-02.((cite web)): CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  30. ^ a b c "Destructive typhoons 1970-2003". National Disaster Coordinating Council. 2009-05-01. Archived from the original on 2004-10-28. Retrieved 2010-05-13.
  31. ^ "Typhoon Juan Update" (PDF). NDRRMC (formerly NDCC). 2010-10-23. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-08-23. Retrieved 2010-10-23.