This list of major Negro league baseball teams consists of teams that played in the seven major Negro baseball leagues. For a league to be considered "major," there were usually two top-tier leagues at a time: one representing the northeastern states – known as the "East", and one representing the north-central states – known as the "West". Formal leagues were organized in 1920.

In December 2020, 75 years and one month after Jackie Robinson signed a contract with the Brooklyn Dodgers, Major League Baseball announced they were finally recognizing these seven major leagues on par with other major leagues.

The following teams played at least one partial season in one of the major Negro leagues. Some teams also played as either a barnstorming (or traveling) team, a minor league team or a team that existed after the integration of Major League Baseball (1946) when the talent level declined dramatically.

Alabama

Team 1st Yr Last Yr Affiliation(s) Notes Ref
Birmingham Black Barons 1920 1961 NSL (1920–23, 26, 31–36)
NNL1 (1924–25, 27–30)
NAL (1937–38, 40–61)
  • NSL was a minor league every season except 1932
  • Did not field a team for 1939
[1]
Montgomery Grey Sox (II) 1931 1932 Independent (1931)
NSL (1932)
[2]

Arkansas

Team 1st Yr Last Yr Affiliation(s) Notes Ref
Little Rock Grays 1932 1932 Negro Southern League [3]

Delaware

Team 1st Yr Last Yr Affiliation(s) Notes Ref
Wilmington Potomacs
(See Washington Potomacs)
1925 1925 ECL (1925)
  • Disbanded mid-season 1925
[4]

District of Columbia

Team 1st Yr Last Yr Affiliation(s) Notes Ref
Washington Black Senators 1938 1938 ECL (1938)
  • Disbanded in August before season ended
[4]
Washington Elite Giants
(See Baltimore Elite Giants)
1936 1937 NNL2 (1936–37) [5]
Washington Pilots 1932 1932 EWL (1932) [4]
Washington Potomacs club
  • Washington Potomacs (1923–24)
  • Wilmington Potomacs (1925)
1923 1925 Independent (1923)
ECL (1924–25)
[4]
Washington Homestead Grays
(See Homestead Grays)
1939 c. 1950s NNL2 (1939–48)
Independent (1949–c. 50s)
  • Split home games in Pittsburgh
  • Alternately known as Washington Grays later
  • Sparingly used Pittsburgh as home field after c. 1948
[6]

Florida

Team 1st Yr Last Yr Affiliation(s) Notes Ref
Jacksonville Red Caps club
  • Jacksonville Red Caps (1938)
  • Cleveland Bears (1939–40)
  • Jacksonville Red Caps (1941–42)
1938 1942 NAL (1938–42)
  • Disbanded midway through 1942 season
[7]

Georgia

Team 1st Yr Last Yr Affiliation(s) Notes Ref
Atlanta Black Crackers (I) club
  • Atlanta Black Crackers (I) (1919–38)
  • Indianapolis ABCs (IV) (1939)
1919 1939 Ind.(19,22–25,28,30–31,33–34,37)
NSL(I)(20–21,26–27,29,32,35–36)
NAL (1938–39)
  • NSL was a minor league every season except 1932
  • Disestablished May 1939
[8][9]

Illinois

Team 1st Yr Last Yr Affiliation(s) Notes Ref
Chicago American Giants 1910 1952 Independent (1910–19)
NNL1 (1920–31)
NSL (1932)
NNL2 (1933–35)
Independent (1936)
NAL (1937–52)
  • Formed via 1909 split of Leland Giants
  • Known as Leland Giants (II) 1910
  • Also known as Cole's American Giants 1932–35
  • Moved majority of home games temporarily to Indianapolis 1933
[10]
Chicago Giants 1910 1921 Independent (1910–19)
NNL1 (1920–21)
[11]

Indiana

Team 1st Yr Last Yr Affiliation(s) Notes Ref
Cole's American Giants
(See Chicago American Giants)
1933 1933 NNL2 (1933)
  • Played majority of home games temporarily in Indianapolis 1933
[10]
Indianapolis ABCs (I) c. 1913 1926 Independent (1913–19)
NNL1 (1920–26)
[9]
Indianapolis ABCs (II) club
  • Indianapolis ABCs (II) (1931–33)
  • Detroit Stars (II) (1933)
1931 1933 NNL1 (1931)
NSL (1932)
NNL2 (1933)
  • Relocated to Detroit shortly after opening day 1933
[9][12]
Indianapolis ABCs (III)
(See St. Louis Stars (III))
1938 1938 NAL (1938) [9][13]
Indianapolis ABCs (IV)
(See Atlanta Black Crackers (I))
1939 1939 NAL (1939)
  • Disestablished May 1939
[9]
Indianapolis Clowns club
  • Miami Giants (c. 1930s)
  • Ethiopian Clowns (c. 1930s–42)
  • Cincinnati Clowns (1943)
  • Indianapolis–Cincinnati Clowns (1944)
  • Cincinnati Clowns (1945)
  • Indianapolis Clowns (1946–62)
c. 1930s 1962 Independent (c. 1930s–42)
NAL (1943–55)
Independent (1956–62)
[citation needed]
Indianapolis Athletics 1937 1937 NAL (1937) [4]
Indianapolis Crawfords
(See Pittsburgh Crawfords)
1940 1940 NAL (1940)
  • Folded after 1940 season
[14]

Kentucky

Team 1st Yr Last Yr Affiliation(s) Notes Ref
Louisville Black Caps club
  • Louisville Black Caps (Apr–Aug)
  • Columbus Turfs (Aug–Sept)
1932 1932 NSL (1932)
  • Relocated to Columbus in August then folded at end of season
[4]
Louisville White Sox 1931 1931 NNL1 (1931) [4]

Louisiana

Team 1st Yr Last Yr Affiliation(s) Notes Ref
Monroe Monarchs 1920s 1935 Negro Southern League (1932)
  • NSL only organized league to complete the 1932 season
    (Considered de facto Major League)
[15]
New Orleans–St. Louis Stars
(See St. Louis Stars (III))
1940 1941 NAL (1940–41)
  • Split home games between New Orleans and St. Louis
[13]

Maryland

Team 1st Yr Last Yr Affiliation(s) Notes Ref
Baltimore Black Sox (I) 1916 1933 Independent (1916–22)
ECL (1923–28)
ANL (1929)
Independent (1930–31)
EWL (1932)
NNL2 (1933)
[16]
Baltimore Black Sox (II) 1934 1934 NNL2 (1934)
  • Only played second half of season then folded
[16]
Baltimore Elite Giants club
  • Nashville Standard Giants (1919–20)
  • Nashville Elite Giants (1921–30)
  • Cleveland Cubs (1931)
  • Nashville Elite Giants (1932–34)
  • Columbus Elite Giants (1935)
  • Washington Elite Giants (1936–37)
  • Baltimore Elite Giants (1938–51)
1919 1951 Independent (1919–29)
NNL1 (1930–31)
NSL (1932)
NNL2 (1933–48)
NAL (1949–51)
  • Dissolved around 1951
[5]

Michigan

Team 1st Yr Last Yr Affiliation(s) Notes Ref
Detroit Stars (I) 1919 1931 Independent (1919)
NNL1 (1920–31)
[12]
Detroit Stars (II)
(See Indianapolis ABCs (II))
1933 1933 NNL2 (1933)
  • Relocated from Indianapolis shortly after opening day 1933
[9][12]
Detroit Stars (III) 1937 1937 NAL (1937) [12]
Detroit Wolves 1932 1932 EWL (1932)
  • Only season in existence
[17]

Missouri

Team 1st Yr Last Yr Affiliation(s) Notes Ref
Kansas City Monarchs 1920 1965 NNL1 (1920–31)
Independent (1932–36)
NAL (1937–61)
Independent (1962–65)
  • Later based in Grand Rapids, MI 1956–65
[18]
St. Louis Stars (I) 1906 1931 Independent (1906–19)
NNL1 (1920–31)
  • Known as St. Louis Giants 1906–21
[13]
St. Louis Stars (II) 1937 1937 NAL (1937)
  • Only season in existence
[13]
St. Louis Stars (III) club
  • Indianapolis ABCs (III) (1938)
  • St. Louis Stars (III) (1939)
  • New Orleans–St. Louis Stars (1940–41)
  • Harrisburg–St. Louis Stars (1943)
1938 1943 NAL (1938–41)
NNL2 (1943)
  • Played home games in New Orleans and St. Louis 1940–41
  • Did not field a team for 1942; team merged with New York Black Yankees of NNL
  • Played all home games in Harrisburg; none in St. Louis 1943
[9][13]

New Jersey

Team 1st Yr Last Yr Affiliation(s) Notes Ref
Bacharach Giants (I) 1916 1929 Independent (1916–22)
ECL (1923–28)
ANL (1929)
[citation needed]
Newark Browns 1932 1932 EWL (1932) [19]
Newark Dodgers 1933 1935 Independent (1933)
NNL2 (1934–35)
  • Merged with Brooklyn Eagles to become Newark Eagles 1936
  • (See Newark Eagles entry)
[20]
Newark Eagles club
  • Newark Eagles (1936–48)
  • Houston Eagles (1949–50)
  • New Orleans Eagles (1950–51)
1936 1951 NNL2 (1936–48)
NAL (1949–51)
  • Formed via 1936 merger of:
Newark Dodgers (1933–35)
Brooklyn Eagles (1935)
[20]
Newark Stars 1926 1926 ECL (1926) [21]

New York

Team 1st Yr Last Yr Affiliation(s) Notes Ref
Brooklyn Eagles 1935 1935 NNL2 (1935)
  • Merged with Newark Dodgers to become Newark Eagles 1936
  • (See Newark Eagles entry)
[20]
Brooklyn Royal Giants 1905 1942 Independent (1905–06)
NA (1907–09)
Independent (1910–22)
ECL (1923–27)
Independent (1928–42)
  • Deteriorated to minor league status by the 1930s
[22]
Lincoln Giants 1911 1930 Independent (1911–22)
ECL (1923–26)
Independent (1927)
ECL (1928)
ANL (1929)
Independent (1930)
  • Based in New York City
[23]
New York Black Yankees 1931 1959 Independent (1931–35)
NNL2 (1936–48)
Independent (1949–59)
  • Known as Harlem Black Bombers 1931
[24]
New York Cubans 1935 1950 NNL2 (1935–36)
NNL2 (1939–48)
NAL (1949–50)
  • Did not field a team 1937–38
[25]

Ohio

Team 1st Yr Last Yr Affiliation(s) Notes Ref
Akron Black Tyrites 1933 1933 NNL2 (1933)
  • Merged/replaced the Columbus Blue Birds mid-season 1933
  • Folded/replaced by the Cleveland Giants for last month of 1933
[26]
Cincinnati Buckeyes
(See Cleveland Buckeyes)
1942 1942 NAL (1942) [27]
Cincinnati Clowns
(See Indianapolis Clowns)
1943 1945 NAL (1943–45)
  • Played home games in Indianapolis and Cincinnati 1944–45
  • Also known as Indianapolis–Cincinnati Clowns 1944–45
[citation needed]
Cincinnati Cuban Stars
(See Cuban Stars (West))
1921 1921 NNL1 (1921) [citation needed]
Cincinnati Tigers 1934 1937 Independent (1934–36)
NAL (1937)
[28]
Cleveland Bears
(See Jacksonville Red Caps)
1939 1940 NAL (1939–40) [7]
Cleveland Browns 1924 1924 NNL1 (1924) [29]
Cleveland Buckeyes club
  • Cincinnati-Cleveland Buckeyes (1942)
  • Cleveland Buckeyes (1943–48)
  • Louisville Buckeyes (1949)
  • Cleveland Buckeyes (1950)
1942 1950 NAL (1942–50)
  • Half of 1942 home schedule in Cincinnati, half in Cleveland
  • Disbanded mid-season 1950
[27]

[30]

Cleveland Cubs
(See Baltimore Elite Giants)
1931 1931 NNL1 (1931) [5]
Cleveland Elites (1926)
Cleveland Hornets (1927)
Cleveland Tigers (1928)
1926 1928 NNL1 (1926–28)
  • Teams are considered separate but closely linked
[31]
[32]
[33]
Cleveland Giants 1933 1933 NNL2 (1933)
  • Formed from remnants of the Akron Black Tyrites for end of 1933
[34]
Cleveland Red Sox 1934 1934 NNL2 (1934)
  • Only season in existence
[35]
Cleveland Stars 1932 1932 EWL (1932)
  • Folded mid-season 1932
[36]
Cleveland Tate Stars 1922 1923 NNL1 (1922-1923)
  • Played as NNL team in 1922, played as associate team in 1923
[37]

[38]

Columbus Blue Birds 1933 1933 NNL2 (1933)
  • Dissolved/merged with Akron Black Tyrites mid-season 1933
[39]
Columbus Buckeyes 1921 1921 NNL1 (1921)
  • Only season in existence
[40]
Columbus Elite Giants
(See Baltimore Elite Giants)
1935 1935 NNL2 (1935) [5]
Columbus Turfs
(See Louisville Black Caps)
1932 1932 NSL (1932)
  • Relocated from Louisville in August then folded at end of season
[4]
Dayton Marcos c. 1910s c. 1930s Independent (c. 1910s–19)
NNL1 (1920)
Independent (1921–25)
NNL1 (1926)
Independent (1927–c. 30s)
[41]
Toledo Crawfords
(See Pittsburgh Crawfords)
1939 1939 NAL (1939) [14]
Toledo Tigers 1923 1923 NNL1 (1923)
  • Folded mid-season 1923
[42]

Pennsylvania

Team 1st Yr Last Yr Affiliation(s) Notes Ref
Harrisburg Giants 1922 1927 Independent (1922–23)
ECL (1924–27)
[43]
Harrisburg–St. Louis Stars
(See St. Louis Stars (III))
1943 1943 NNL2 (1943)
  • Played all home games in Harrisburg; none in St. Louis
  • Disbanded mid-season 1943
[13]
Bacharach Giants (II) 1931 1942 Independent (1931–33)
NNL2 (1934)
Independent (1935–42)
[citation needed]
Hilldale Club 1916 1932 Independent (1916–22)
ECL (1923–28)
ANL (1929)
Independent (1930–31)
EWL (1932)
  • Also known as Hilldale Daisies, Darby Daisies
  • Based near Philadelphia
[44]
Philadelphia Stars 1933 1952 Independent (1933)
NNL2 (1934–48)
NAL (1949–52)
[45]
Philadelphia Tigers 1928 1928 ECL (1928) [46]
Homestead Grays club
  • Homestead Grays (c. 1912–38)
  • Washington Homestead Grays (1939–c. 50s)
  • Washington Grays (1939–c. 50s)
c. 1912 c. 1950s Independent (c. 1912–28)
ANL (1929)
Independent (1930–31)
EWL (1932)
Independent (1933–34)
NNL2 (1935–48)
Independent (1949–c. 50s)
  • Based near Pittsburgh
  • Started to split home games with Washington, D.C. 1939
  • Sparingly used Pittsburgh as home field after c. 1948
[6]
Pittsburgh Crawfords club
  • Pittsburgh Crawfords (1931–38)
  • Toledo Crawfords (1939)
  • Indianapolis Crawfords (1940)
1931 1940 Independent (1931–32)
NNL2 (1933–38)
NAL (1939–40)
[14]
Pittsburgh Keystones (II) 1921 1922 NNL1 (1921–22) [47]

Tennessee

Team 1st Yr Last Yr Affiliation(s) Notes Ref
Memphis Red Sox 1923 1962 Independent (1923)
NNL1 (1924–25, 27–30)
NSL (1926, 31–36)
NAL (1937–62)
[48]
Nashville Elite Giants
(See Baltimore Elite Giants)
1919 1934 Independent (1919–29)
NNL1 (1930)
NSL (1932)
NNL2 (1933–34)
  • Known as Nashville Standard Giants 1919–20
  • Relocated as Cleveland Cubs 1931 then returned to Nashville
[5]

Wisconsin

Team 1st Yr Last Yr Affiliation(s) Notes Ref
Milwaukee Bears 1923 1923 NNL1 (1923)
  • Only year in existence
[49]

Traveling teams

Team 1st Yr Last Yr Affiliation(s) Notes Ref
Cuban Stars (East) club
  • New York Cuban Stars (1916–19)
  • Havana Cuban Stars (1920)
  • Cuban Stars (East) (1921–c. 34)
1916 c. 1934 Independent (1916–22)
ECL (1923–28)
ANL (1929)
Independent (1930–c. 34)
  • Played road games primarily in the New York and northeast region of the US
[citation needed]
Cuban Stars (West) club
  • Cuban Stars of Havana (1906–19)
  • Cincinnati Cuban Stars (1920–21)
  • Cuban Stars (West) (1922–32)
1906 1932 IL (1906)
NA (1907–09)
Independent (1910–19)
NNL1 (1920–30)
Independent (1931)
EWL (1932)
  • Played road games for its first five years primarily in the eastern states near New York City and Philadelphia
  • By 1916 the team was competing primarily in the northern midwestern states
  • Based in Cincinnati 1920–21 and then returned to playing only road games
[citation needed]

References

  1. ^ "Birmingham Black Barons". Negro Leagues Baseball Museum. Retrieved 2013-02-12.
  2. ^ "Montgomery, Alabama Negro League City Encyclopedia". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved 2013-02-12.
  3. ^ "Little Rock Grays". seamheads.com. Retrieved 2021-01-06.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h "Negro league teams". Negro Leagues Baseball Museum. Retrieved 2013-02-12.
  5. ^ a b c d e "Baltimore Elite Giants". Negro Leagues Baseball Museum. Retrieved 2013-02-16.
  6. ^ a b "Homestead Grays". Negro Leagues Baseball Museum. Retrieved 2013-02-16.
  7. ^ a b "Jacksonville Red Caps". Negro Leagues Baseball Museum. Retrieved 2013-02-16.
  8. ^ "Atlanta Black Crackers". Negro Leagues Baseball Museum. Retrieved 2013-02-17.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g "Indianapolis ABCs". Negro Leagues Baseball Museum. Retrieved 2013-03-22.
  10. ^ a b "Chicago American Giants". Negro Leagues Baseball Museum. Retrieved 2013-02-26.
  11. ^ Gary Ashwill (ed.). "Chicago Giants". Negro leagues database (Seamheads.com). Gary Ashwill. Retrieved 2013-02-26.
  12. ^ a b c d "Detroit Stars". Negro Leagues Baseball Museum. Retrieved 2013-03-26.
  13. ^ a b c d e f "St. Louis Stars". Negro Leagues Baseball Museum. Retrieved 2013-03-26.
  14. ^ a b c "Pittsburgh Crawfords". Negro Leagues Baseball Museum. Retrieved 2013-03-22.
  15. ^ Holway, John (2001). The Complete Book of Baseball's Negro Leagues: The Other Half of Baseball History. Fern Park, Florida: Hastings House Publishers. p. 284. ISBN 0-8038-2007-0.
  16. ^ a b "Baltimore Black Sox". Negro Leagues Baseball Museum. Retrieved 2013-03-26.
  17. ^ "Detroit Wolves". Negro League Baseball Players Association. Retrieved 2013-03-28.
  18. ^ "Kansas City Monarchs". Negro Leagues Baseball Museum. Retrieved 2013-03-26.
  19. ^ "1932 Newark Browns". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved 2013-09-19.
  20. ^ a b c "Newark Eagles". Negro Leagues Baseball Museum. Retrieved 2013-03-27.
  21. ^ "1926 Newark Stars". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved 2013-09-19.
  22. ^ "Brooklyn Royal Giants". Negro Leagues Baseball Museum. Retrieved 2013-03-27.
  23. ^ "New York Lincoln Giants". Negro League Baseball Players Association. Retrieved 2013-03-29.
  24. ^ "New York Black Yankees". Negro Leagues Baseball Museum. Retrieved 2013-03-27.
  25. ^ "New York Cubans". Negro Leagues Baseball Museum. Retrieved 2013-03-27.
  26. ^ Gary Ashwill (ed.). "Akron Grays". Negro leagues database (Seamheads.com). Gary Ashwill. Retrieved 2013-09-20.
  27. ^ a b "Cleveland Buckeyes". Negro Leagues Baseball Museum. Retrieved 2013-03-23.
  28. ^ "Cincinnati Tigers". Negro League Baseball Players Association. Retrieved 2013-03-28.
  29. ^ Gary Ashwill (ed.). "Cleveland Browns". Negro leagues database (Seamheads.com). Gary Ashwill. Retrieved 2013-09-21.
  30. ^ "1942 Cincinnati/Cleveland Buckeyes". Baseball.Reference.com. Retrieved 2014-05-29.
  31. ^ "1926 Cleveland Elites". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved 2013-10-08.
  32. ^ "1927 Cleveland Hornets". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved 2013-10-08.
  33. ^ Gary Ashwill (ed.). "Cleveland Tigers". Negro leagues database (Seamheads.com). Gary Ashwill. Retrieved 2013-10-08.
  34. ^ Gary Ashwill (ed.). "Cleveland Giants". Negro leagues database (Seamheads.com). Gary Ashwill. Retrieved 2013-09-20.
  35. ^ "1934 Cleveland Red Sox". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved 2013-10-08.
  36. ^ "1932 Cleveland Stars". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved 2013-10-08.
  37. ^ "1922 Cleveland Tate Stars". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved 2013-10-08.
  38. ^ "1923 Cleveland Tate Stars". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved 2014-05-29.
  39. ^ Gary Ashwill (ed.). "Columbus Blue Birds". Negro leagues database (Seamheads.com). Gary Ashwill. Retrieved 2013-09-20.
  40. ^ Gary Ashwill (ed.). "Columbus Buckeyes". Negro leagues database (Seamheads.com). Gary Ashwill. Retrieved 2013-09-20.
  41. ^ "Dayton Marcos". Negro League Baseball Players Association. Retrieved 2013-03-28.
  42. ^ Gary Ashwill (ed.). "Toledo Tigers". Negro leagues database (Seamheads.com). Gary Ashwill. Retrieved 2013-09-21.
  43. ^ "Harrisburg, Pennsylvania Negro League City Encyclopedia". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved 2013-10-18.
  44. ^ "Hilldale Daisies". Negro Leagues Baseball Museum. Retrieved 2013-03-27.
  45. ^ "Philadelphia Stars". Negro Leagues Baseball Museum. Retrieved 2013-03-27.
  46. ^ Gary Ashwill (ed.). "Philadelphia Tigers". Negro leagues database (Seamheads.com). Gary Ashwill. Retrieved 2013-09-21.
  47. ^ Gary Ashwill (ed.). "Pittsburgh Keystones". Negro leagues database (Seamheads.com). Gary Ashwill. Retrieved 2013-09-21.
  48. ^ "Memphis Red Sox". Negro Leagues Baseball Museum. Retrieved 2013-03-27.
  49. ^ Gary Ashwill (ed.). "Milwaukee Bears". Negro leagues database (Seamheads.com). Gary Ashwill. Retrieved 2013-09-15.