This list of minor Negro league baseball teams consists of teams that played in the various minor Negro baseball leagues, as well as the independent teams, teams that played in proto-leagues and teams that played after integration.

In Negro league baseball, organized major league play began in 1920, however informal "proto" leagues arose in the 1880s. Most teams up to about 1920 were able to survive, and even profit, by barnstorming small towns and playing local semi-pro teams. After 1920, most teams found financial security by forming leagues, but it was common for teams each season to play as many games outside of the league's schedule. Generally, leagues in the north were major while leagues in the south were minor.

With the integration of Organized Baseball beginning 1946, Negro leagues lost elite players to white leagues causing former major Negro leagues to slip to minor league status, and historians do not consider any Negro league "major" after 1950. By default, leagues established after integration are considered minor league, as is the one of two 1940s majors that continued after 1950. Also at this time, Negro leagues began to appear in the west.

Below are some of the better-documented leagues:

Proto-leagues
Minor leagues
Post-integration

Below is the list of minor Negro league teams. Teams in bold are considered to have been of major league caliber for at least one season of their existence. Other teams included in this list were either a semi-pro, barnstorming or traveling team and not necessarily a member of a league.

Alabama

Team 1st Yr Last Yr Affiliation(s) Notes Ref
Birmingham Black Barons 1920 1961 NSL (1920–23, 26, 31–36)
NNL1 (1924–25, 27–30)
NAL (1937–38, 40–61)
  • NSL was a minor league every season except 1932
  • Did not field a team for 1939
[1]
Birmingham Giants 1907 1909 Independent (1907–09) [2]
Mobile Black Bears [3]
Mobile Tigers [citation needed]
Montgomery Grey Sox (I) 1920 1921 NSL (1920)
Independent (1921)
[4]
Montgomery Grey Sox (II) 1931 1932 Independent (1931)
NSL (1932)
[5]

Arkansas

Team 1st Yr Last Yr Affiliation(s) Notes Ref
Gurdon Panthers 1951 1951 Arkansas–Louisiana–Texas League [6]
Hot Springs Arlingtons
  • Hot Springs Blues (1904)
1896 1904 Southern Negro League (1897) Rube Foster (1901) [7]
Little Rock Black Travelers [3]
Little Rock Quapaws 1896 1900 Southern Negro League (1897) [8]

California

Team 1st Yr Last Yr Affiliation(s) Notes Ref
Los Angeles White Sox 1946 1946 WCNBL (1946) [9]
Oakland Larks 1946 1946 WCNBL (1946) [10]
San Diego Tigers 1946 1946 WCNBL (1946) [11]
San Francisco Sea Lions 1946 1946 WCNBL (1946) [12]

Colorado

Team 1st Yr Last Yr Affiliation(s) Notes Ref
Denver White Elephants [citation needed]

Connecticut

Team 1st Yr Last Yr Affiliation(s) Notes Ref
Ansonia Cuban Giants 1891 1891 Connecticut State League The Ansonia Cuban Giants were an all-black team in an otherwise all-white league [citation needed]

District of Columbia

Team 1st Yr Last Yr Affiliation(s) Notes Ref
Washington Capital Citys 1887 1887 National Colored Base Ball League (1887) Folded before playing an official game [13][14][15]
Washington Potomacs club
  • Washington Potomacs (1923–24)
  • Wilmington Potomacs (1925)
1923 1925 Independent (1923)
ECL (1924–25)
[3]
Washington Homestead Grays
(See Homestead Grays)
1939 c. 1950s NNL2 (1939–48)
Independent (1949–c. 50s)
  • Split home games in Pittsburgh
  • Alternately known as Washington Grays later
  • Sparingly used Pittsburgh as home field after c. 1948
[16]

Florida

Team 1st Yr Last Yr Affiliation(s) Notes Ref
Ethiopian Clowns
(See Indianapolis Clowns)
c. 1930s 1942 Independent (c. 1930s–42)
  • Based in Miami
  • Also known as Miami Giants c. 1930s
[citation needed]

Georgia

Team 1st Yr Last Yr Affiliation(s) Notes Ref
Atlanta Black Crackers (I) club
  • Atlanta Black Crackers (I) (1919–38)
  • Indianapolis ABCs (IV) (1939)
1919 1939 Ind.(19,22–25,28,30–31,33–34,37)
NSL(I)(20–21,26–27,29,32,35–36)
NAL (1938–39)
  • NSL was a minor league every season except 1932
  • Disestablished May 1939
[17][18]
Atlanta Black Crackers (II) 1943 1949 Independent (1943–44)
NSL (II) (1945–47)
NAA (1948–49)
[17]

Illinois

Team 1st Yr Last Yr Affiliation(s) Notes Ref
Chicago American Giants 1910 1952 Independent (1910–19)
NNL1 (1920–31)
NSL (1932)
NNL2 (1933–35)
Independent (1936)
NAL (1937–52)
  • Formed via 1909 split of Leland Giants
(See Leland Giants entry)
  • Known as Leland Giants (II) 1910
  • Also known as Cole's American Giants 1932–35
  • Moved majority of home games temporarily to Indianapolis 1933
[19]
Chicago Brown Bombers 1945 1945 USL (1945) [20]
Chicago Columbia Giants 1899 1900 Independent (1899–1900)
  • Merged with Chicago Unions to become Chicago Union Giants 1901
  • (See Leland Giants entry)
[21]
Chicago Giants 1910 1921 Independent (1910–19)
NNL1 (1920–21)
  • Formed via 1909 split of Leland Giants
(See Leland Giants entry)
[22]
Chicago Unions 1887 1900 Independent (1887–1900)
  • Merged with Chicago Columbia Giants to become Chicago Union Giants 1901
  • (See Leland Giants entry)
[23]
Leland Giants 1901 1909 Independent (1901–09)
  • Formed via 1901 merger of:
Chicago Unions (1887–1900)
Chicago Columbia Giants (1899–1900)
  • Known as Chicago Union Giants 1901–04
  • Split after 1909 to form:
Chicago Giants
(See Chicago Giants entry)
Leland Giants (II)
(See Chicago American Giants entry)
[24][25]

Indiana

Team 1st Yr Last Yr Affiliation(s) Notes Ref
Indianapolis ABCs (I) c. 1913 1926 Independent (1913–19)
NNL1 (1920–26)
[18]
Indianapolis Clowns club
  • Miami Giants (c. 1930s)
  • Ethiopian Clowns (c. 1930s–42)
  • Cincinnati Clowns (1943)
  • Indianapolis–Cincinnati Clowns (1944)
  • Cincinnati Clowns (1945)
  • Indianapolis Clowns (1946–62)
c. 1930s 1962 Independent (c. 1930s–42)
NAL (1943–55)
Independent (1956–62)
[citation needed]

Kansas

Team 1st Yr Last Yr Affiliation(s) Notes Ref
Kansas City Giants 1909 1911 Independent (1909–11) [26]

Kentucky

Team 1st Yr Last Yr Affiliation(s) Notes Ref
Louisville Black Colonels [3]
Louisville Buckeyes
(See Cleveland Buckeyes)
1949 1949 NAL (1949) [27]
Louisville Fall City 1887 1887 NCBBL (1887) [28]
Louisville White Sox (1914–1915) 1914 1915 Independent (1914–15) [29]
Zulu Cannibal Giants 1934 1937 Independent (1934–37)
  • Based in Louisville
[23]

Louisiana

Team 1st Yr Last Yr Affiliation(s) Notes Ref
Detroit–New Orleans Stars
(See Detroit Stars (IV))
1960 1961 NAL (1960–61)
  • Folded after 1961 season
[30]
Monroe Monarchs 1920s 1935 Negro Southern League (1932)
  • NSL only organized league to complete the 1932 season
    (Considered de facto Major League)
[31]
New Orleans Ads 1920 1920 Negro Southern League (1920)
  • Team often referred to as the Caulfield Ads
[32]
New Orleans Black Pelicans 1926 1950 Negro Southern League (1926)
Independent (1927–29, 1932–44, 1946–49)
Texas Colored League (1930–31)
Negro Southern League (1945, 1950)
[33]
New Orleans Creoles 1945 1952 Independent (1945–46, 1952)
Negro Southern League (1947–48, 1950–51)
Negro Texas League (1949)
[33]
New Orleans Crescent Stars 1921 1937 Independent (1921–22, 1932–37) [30]
New Orleans Eagles
(See Newark Eagles)
1950 1951 NAL (1950–51)
  • Folded after 1951 season
[34]: 5 
New Orleans Stars 1924 1924 Independent (1924) [33]

Maryland

Team 1st Yr Last Yr Affiliation(s) Notes Ref
Baltimore Black Sox (I) 1916 1933 Independent (1916–22)
ECL (1923–28)
ANL (1929)
Independent (1930–31)
EWL (1932)
NNL2 (1933)
[35]
Baltimore Elite Giants club
  • Nashville Standard Giants (1919–20)
  • Nashville Elite Giants (1921–30)
  • Cleveland Cubs (1931)
  • Nashville Elite Giants (1932–34)
  • Columbus Elite Giants (1935)
  • Washington Elite Giants (1936–37)
  • Baltimore Elite Giants (1938–51)
1919 1951 Independent (1919–29)
NNL1 (1930–31)
NSL (1932)
NNL2 (1933–48)
NAL (1949–51)
  • Dissolved around 1951
[36]
Baltimore Lord Baltimores 1887 1887 NCBBL (1887) [37]
Baltimore Grays 1942 1942 NML (1942)
  • Played in Edgewater Beach, MD

Massachusetts

Team 1st Yr Last Yr Affiliation(s) Notes Ref
Boston Resolutes 1887 1887 NCBBL (1887) [38]
Boston Royal Giants IL (1906)
  • Based in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 1906
  • Known as Quaker Giants 1906
[citation needed][39]
Boston Blues 1946 1946 USL (1946) [40]

Michigan

Team 1st Yr Last Yr Affiliation(s) Notes Ref
Detroit Stars (I) 1919 1931 Independent (1919)
NNL1 (1920–31)
[41]
Detroit Stars (IV) club
  • Detroit Stars (IV) (1954–57)
  • Detroit Clowns (1958)
  • Detroit Stars (IV) (1959)
  • Detroit–New Orleans Stars (1960–61)
1954 1961 NAL (1954–61) [citation needed]
Page Fence Giants 1895 1898 Independent (1895–98)
  • Based in Adrian, Michigan
[42]

Minnesota

Team 1st Yr Last Yr Affiliation(s) Notes Ref
Minneapolis Keystones
St. Paul Colored Gophers 1907 1911 Independent (1907–11)
  • Played as the Twin City Gophers 1911
[43]
Twin City Colored Giants [citation needed]

Missouri

Team 1st Yr Last Yr Affiliation(s) Notes Ref
Kansas City Monarchs 1920 1965 NNL1 (1920–31)
Independent (1932–36)
NAL (1937–61)
Independent (1962–65)
  • Later based in Grand Rapids, MI 1956–65
[44]
Kansas City Royal Giants 1910 1912 Western Independent Clubs (1910–1912) [45]
St. Louis Stars (I) 1906 1931 Independent (1906–19)
NNL1 (1920–31)
  • Known as St. Louis Giants 1906–21
[46]

New Jersey

Team 1st Yr Last Yr Affiliation(s) Notes Ref
Bacharach Giants (I) 1916 1929 Independent (1916–22)
ECL (1923–28)
ANL (1929)
[citation needed]
Cuban Giants 1885 c. 1915 Independent (1885–1906)
NA (1907–09)
Independent (1910–c. 15)
  • Based in Trenton
  • Part of team split after 1896 to form Cuban X-Giants
  • After split, known as Genuine Cuban Giants or Original Cuban Giants
[47]
Cuban X-Giants 1897 1907 Independent (1897–1905)
IL (1906)
NA (1907)
  • Formed via 1896 split of Cuban Giants
  • Based in Trenton
[48]
Jersey City Colored Athletics [citation needed]
Newark Dodgers 1933 1935 Independent (1933)
NNL2 (1934–35)
  • Merged with Brooklyn Eagles to become Newark Eagles 1936
  • (See Newark Eagles entry)
[49]

New York

Team 1st Yr Last Yr Affiliation(s) Notes Ref
Brooklyn Royal Giants 1905 1942 Independent (1905–06)
NA (1907–09)
Independent (1910–22)
ECL (1923–27)
Independent (1928–42)
  • Deteriorated to minor league status by the 1930s
[50]
Harlem Stars [citation needed]
Lincoln Giants 1911 1930 Independent (1911–22)
ECL (1923–26)
Independent (1927)
ECL (1928)
ANL (1929)
Independent (1930)
  • Based in New York City
[51]
Lincoln Stars 1914 1917 Independent (1914–17)
  • Based in New York City
[52]
New York Black Yankees 1931 1959 Independent (1931–35)
NNL2 (1936–48)
Independent (1949–59)
  • Known as Harlem Black Bombers 1931
[53]
New York Cubans 1935 1950 NNL2 (1935–36)
NNL2 (1939–48)
NAL (1949–50)
  • Did not field a team 1937–38
[54]
Schenectady Mohawk Giants 1913 1914 Independent (1913–14) [55]

Ohio

Team 1st Yr Last Yr Affiliation(s) Notes Ref
Cincinnati Browns 1887 1887 NCBBL (1887)
  • Played no league games due to NCBBL folding
  • Played independent of a league briefly, then folded
[citation needed]
Cleveland Buckeyes club
  • Cincinnati-Cleveland Buckeyes (1942)
  • Cleveland Buckeyes (1943–48)
  • Louisville Buckeyes (1949)
  • Cleveland Buckeyes (1950)
1942 1950 NAL (1942–50)
  • Half of 1942 home schedule in Cincinnati, half in Cleveland
  • Disbanded mid-season 1950
[27]

[56]

Dayton Marcos c. 1910s c. 1930s Independent (c. 1910s–19)
NNL1 (1920)
Independent (1921–25)
NNL1 (1926)
Independent (1927–c. 30s)
[57]
Toledo Rays 1945 1945 USL [58]

Oklahoma

Team 1st Yr Last Yr Affiliation(s) Notes Ref
Oklahoma Monarchs 1910 1910 Independent (1910) [59]

Oregon

Team 1st Yr Last Yr Affiliation(s) Notes Ref
Portland Rosebuds 1946 1946 WCNBL (1946) [60]

Pennsylvania

Team 1st Yr Last Yr Affiliation(s) Notes Ref
Active Club of Philadelphia 1800s [61]
Anchor Giants early 1900s [61]
Bacharach Giants (II) 1931 1942 Independent (1931–33)
NNL2 (1934)
Independent (1935–42)
[citation needed]
Harrisburg Giants 1922 1927 Independent (1922–23)
ECL (1924–27)
[62]
Harrisburg Monrovians [citation needed]
Hilldale Club 1916 1932 Independent (1916–22)
ECL (1923–28)
ANL (1929)
Independent (1930–31)
EWL (1932)
  • Also known as Hilldale Daisies, Darby Daisies
  • Based near Philadelphia
[63]
Homestead Grays club
  • Homestead Grays (c. 1912–38)
  • Washington Homestead Grays (1939–c. 50s)
  • Washington Grays (1939–c. 50s)
c. 1912 c. 1950s Independent (c. 1912–28)
ANL (1929)
Independent (1930–31)
EWL (1932)
Independent (1933–34)
NNL2 (1935–48)
Independent (1949–c. 50s)
  • Based near Pittsburgh
  • Started to split home games with Washington, D.C. 1939
  • Sparingly used Pittsburgh as home field after c. 1948
[16]
Philadelphia Pythians 1867 1887 Independent (1867–86)
NCBBL (1887)
[64]
Philadelphia Giants 1902 1916 Independent (1902–05)
IL (1906)
NA (1907–09)
Independent (1910–16)
[65][66]
Philadelphia Stars 1933 1952 Independent (1933)
NNL2 (1934–48)
NAL (1949–52)
[67]
Pittsburgh Crawfords club
  • Pittsburgh Crawfords (1931–38)
  • Toledo Crawfords (1939)
  • Indianapolis Crawfords (1940)
1931 1940 Independent (1931–32)
NNL2 (1933–38)
NAL (1939–40)
[68]
Pittsburgh Keystones (I) 1887 1887 NCBBL (1887) [69]

Tennessee

Team 1st Yr Last Yr Affiliation(s) Notes Ref
Chattanooga Black Lookouts 1920 1927 NSL (1920, 1926–27)
  • Folded after 1920 season; re-established 1926
  • Minor league farm team for Homestead Grays 1926–27
[70]
Chattanooga Choo-Choos 1940 1946 NSL (1940–46) [citation needed]
Knoxville Giants 1920 1932 NSL (1920–22, 1931–32)
  • Folded after 1922 season; re-established 1931
[71]
Memphis Red Sox 1923 1962 Independent (1923)
NNL1 (1924–25, 27–30)
NSL (1926, 31–36)
NAL (1937–62)
[72]
Nashville Elite Giants
(See Baltimore Elite Giants)
1919 1934 Independent (1919–29)
NNL1 (1930)
NSL (1932)
NNL2 (1933–34)
  • Known as Nashville Standard Giants 1919–20
  • Relocated as Cleveland Cubs 1931 then returned to Nashville
[36]

Texas

Team 1st Yr Last Yr Affiliation(s) Notes Ref
Austin Black Senators [citation needed]
Brenham Merchants [citation needed]
Dallas Black Giants 1908 1949
Houston Eagles
(See Newark Eagles)
1949 1950 NAL (1949–50)
  • Relocated to New Orleans after 1950 season
[49][73]
San Antonio Black Bronchos 1908 1909 Independent (1908–09) [74]
San Antonio Black Indians [citation needed]

Washington

Team 1st Yr Last Yr Affiliation(s) Notes Ref
Seattle Steelheads 1946 1946 WCNBL (1946) [75]

Traveling teams

Team 1st Yr Last Yr Affiliation(s) Notes Ref
All Cubans 1899 1905 Independent
  • Precursor of Cuban Stars (West)
[citation needed]
All Nations 1912 1925 Independent
  • Based out of Kansas City MO and Des Moines IA
[citation needed]
Chappie Johnson's Stars [citation needed]
Colored House of David [citation needed]
Cuban Stars (East) club
  • New York Cuban Stars (1916–19)
  • Havana Cuban Stars (1920)
  • Cuban Stars (East) (1921–c. 34)
1916 c. 1934 Independent (1916–22)
ECL (1923–28)
ANL (1929)
Independent (1930–c. 34)
  • Played road games primarily in the New York and northeast region of the US
[citation needed]
Cuban Stars (West) club
  • Cuban Stars of Havana (1906–19)
  • Cincinnati Cuban Stars (1920–21)
  • Cuban Stars (West) (1922–32)
1906 1932 IL (1906)
NA (1907–09)
Independent (1910–19)
NNL1 (1920–30)
Independent (1931)
EWL (1932)
  • Played road games for its first five years primarily in the eastern states near New York City and Philadelphia
  • By 1916 the team was competing primarily in the northern midwestern states
  • Based in Cincinnati 1920–21 and then returned to playing only road games
[citation needed]
Ethiopian Clowns
(See Indianapolis Clowns)
c. 1930s 1942 Independent (c. 1930s–42)
  • Generally based out of Miami
[citation needed]
Mineola Black Spiders c. 1932 c. 1937 Independent
  • Generally based out of northern Iowa
[citation needed]
New York Gorhams 1886 1892 Independent (1886)
NCBBL (1887)
Independent (1888–92)
  • Generally based out of various East coast cites from New Jersey to Connecticut
[76]
Secret Nine 1931 1931 Independent [33]
Tennessee Rats c. 1911 c. 1926 Independent
  • Generally not considered a Negro league team
  • Based out of Holden MO
[citation needed]


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