This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. (Learn how and when to remove these template messages) Some of this article's listed sources may not be reliable. Please help this article by looking for better, more reliable sources. Unreliable citations may be challenged or deleted. (September 2009) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.Find sources: "List of rivers by discharge" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (September 2021) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) This article possibly contains original research. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations. Statements consisting only of original research should be removed. (September 2021) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) This article's lead section may be too short to adequately summarize the key points. Please consider expanding the lead to provide an accessible overview of all important aspects of the article. (March 2022) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

This is a list of rivers by their average discharge, that is, their water flow rate. Here, only those rivers are shown whose discharge is more than 2,000 m3/s (71,000 cu ft/s). For context, the volume of an Olympic-size swimming pool is 2,500 m3. The average flow rate at the mouth of the Amazon is sufficient to fill more than 83 such pools each second. The average flow of all the rivers in this list adds up to 1,192,134 m3/s.

No Continent River Length (km) Length (miles) Drainage area (km2) Average discharge (m3/s) Outflow Reference
1 South America Amazon 6,400 3,976 6,112,000 209,000 Atlantic Ocean Primary river[1][2]
2 Africa Congo (Zaire) 4,370 2,716 4,014,500 41,200 Atlantic Ocean Primary river[1]
3 Asia Ganges-Brahmaputra/Meghna 2,704 1,680 1,731,334 38,129 Bay of Bengal, Indian Ocean Primary river[3][4]
4 South America Orinoco 2,250 1,398 989,000 37,740 Atlantic Ocean Primary river but naturally interconnected with Amazon river by Casiquiare canal[5][1][6]
5 South America Guainía/Negro 2,230 1,390 691,000 35,943 Amazon River Tributary river[7]
6 South America Madeira 1,450 900 1,376,000 31,200 Amazon River Tributary river[8][9]
7 Asia Yangtze 6,300 3,915 1,808,500 30,146 East China Sea, Pacific Ocean Primary river[1][2]
8 South America Río de la Plata 290 180 3,182,064 27,225 Atlantic Ocean Primary river[10][1]
9 Asia Brahmaputra 2,937 1,823 651,334 19,824 Ganges (Padma) Tributary river[11]
10 Asia Yenisei 3,438 2,136 2,580,000 19,800 Kara Sea, Arctic Ocean Primary river[12]
11 South America Paraná 4,880 3,050 2,582,672 19,706 Río de la Plata Tributary river[10]
12 Asia Ganga (Ganges) 2,600 1,565 1,125,000 18,691 Gulf of Bengal, Padma River Tributary river[13]
13 North America Mississippi 3,766 2,340 3,248,000 18,434 Gulf of Mexico, Atlantic Ocean Primary river[14][15]
14 South America Japurá (Caquetá) 2,036 1,265 267,730 18,122 Amazon River Tributary river[16]
15 Asia Lena 4,294 2,668 2,490,000 17,067 Laptev Sea, Arctic Ocean Primary river[17][18]
16 North America Saint Lawrence 3,058 1,900 1,344,200 16,800 Gulf of Saint Lawrence, Atlantic Ocean Primary river[19]
17 South America Marañón 1,737 1,079 358,000 16,708 Amazon River Tributary river
18 Asia Mekong 4,023 2,500 811,000 16,000 South China Sea, Pacific Ocean Primary river[1][2]
19 Asia Irrawaddy (Ayeyarwady) 2,210 1,370 411,000 15,112 Andaman Sea, Indian Ocean Primary river
20 South America Tapajós 840 520 492,481 13,540 Amazon River Tributary river[20][self-published source?]
21 South America Ucayali 2,670 1,659 351,549 13,385 Amazon River Tributary river[21]
22 Asia Ob 3,697 2,299 2,990,000 12,692 Gulf of Ob, Arctic Ocean Primary river[1][2]
23 South America Tocantins 2,699 1,677 764,183 11,796 Atlantic Ocean, Pará Primary river but Amazon river water flows in to its estuary through Santa Mario River Channel[22]
24 Asia Amur 4,352 2,714 1,855,000 11,330 Sea of Okhotsk, Pacific Ocean Primary river[23][1]
25 Africa Kasai (Kwa) 2,272 1,405 881,890 11,318 Congo River Tributary river[24]
26 South America Purus 3,211 1,995 371,042 10,970 Amazon River Tributary river[20]
27 North America Mackenzie 1,738 1,080 1,790,000 10,338 Beaufort Sea, Arctic Ocean Primary river[1]
28 South America Xingu 2,240 1,392 531,250 9,680 Amazon River Tributary river[20]
29 Asia Pearl (Xi) 2,400 1,491 437,000 9,500 South China Sea Primary river[25]
30 South America Madre de Dios 1,347 837 282,000 9,350 Madeira River Tributary river
31 South America Putumayo (Içá) 1,813 1,121 148,000 8,520 Amazon River Tributary river
32 Europe Volga 3,531 2,194 1,380,000 8,220 Caspian Sea Primary river
33 South America Mamoré 1,930 1,199 611,800 8,150 Madeira River Tributary river
34 North America Ohio 1,579 981 490,601 7,957 Mississippi River[note 1] Tributary river[26]
35 South America Guaviare 1,497 930 140,000 7,529 Orinoco River Tributary river
36 North America Columbia 2,044 1,243 668,217 7,504 Pacific Ocean Primary river[27]
37 Oceania Fly 1,060 649 76,000 7,500 Gulf of Papua, Coral Sea, Pacific Ocean Primary river[28]
38 South America Magdalena 1,540 963 257,438 7,200 Atlantic Ocean Primary river
39 South America Uruguay 1,838 1,140 353,451 7,058 Río de la Plata Tributary river[10]
40 Oceania Sepik 1,146 700 80,321 7,000 Bismarck Sea, Pacific Ocean Primary river[29]
41 South America Napo 1,075 665 100,518 6,660 Amazon River Tributary river[30]
42 Asia Salween 2,815 1,749 320,000 6,600 Andaman Sea, Indian Ocean Primary river
43 Europe Danube 2,860 1,777 801,463 6,546 Black Sea, Atlantic Ocean Primary river[31]
44 Asia Kapuas 1,143 710 98,749 6,500 South China Sea, Pacific Ocean Primary river
45 North America Yukon 3,187 1,980 854,696 6,428 Bering Sea, Pacific Ocean Primary river
46 South America Araguaia 2,627 1,632 377,000 6,420 Tocantins River Tributary river[32][16]
47 South America Juruá 3,283 1,498 186,000 6,004 Amazon River Tributary river[20]
48 Africa Ubangi (Oubangui) 2,272 1,405 651,915 5,936 Congo River Tributary river[33]
49 South America Meta 1,200 742 93,800 5,694 Orinoco River Tributary river[34]
50 South America Essequibo 1,014 627 150,769 5,650 Atlantic Ocean Primary river[35]
51 Africa Niger 4,167 2,589 2,090,000 5,589 Atlantic Ocean Primary river[1]
52 Asia Indus 3,180 2,000 1,081,718 5,533 Arabian Sea, Indian Ocean Primary river[36]
53 Oceania Mamberamo 1,175 727 78,992 5,500 Pacific Ocean Primary river[37]
54 Asia Barito 1,090 550 81,675 5,497 Java Sea, Pacific Ocean Primary river[38]
55 Asia Aldan 2,273 1,412 729,000 5,489 Lena River Tributary river[16]
56 South America Branco 775 479 195,000 5,400 Rio Negro Tributary river
57 North America Detroit 44 28 1,800 5,300 Lake Erie Primary river[note 2]
58 Asia Mahakam 980 609 77,095 5,000 Makassar Strait, Pacific Ocean Primary river[39]
59 South America Caroní 952 595 95,000 4,981 Orinoco Tributary river
60 Africa Ogooué (Ogowe) 1,200 747 223,856 4,935 Atlantic Ocean Primary river[40]
61 South America Paraguay 2,621 1,629 1,120,154 4,696 Parana River Tributary river[10]
62 Asia Chindwin 1,207 750 114,000 4,636 Irrawaddy (Ayeyarwady) River Tributary river
63 South America Javari 1,184 732 98,366 4,545 Amazon River Tributary river
64 Europe Pechora 1,809 1,124 289,532 4,533 Barents Sea, Arctic Ocean Primary river
65 Asia Angara 1,779 1,100 1,079,000 4,530 Yenisei River Tributary river
66 Africa Ruki 1,300 804 173,790 4,450 Congo River Tributary river[41]
67 South America Juruena 1,240 770 4,350 Tapajós Tributary river
68 Asia Red (Hong) 1,149 714 143,600 4,300 Gulf of Tonkin, South China Sea, Pacific Ocean Primary river[42]
69 Africa Zambezi 2,574 1,599 1,331,000 4,134 Indian Ocean Primary river[43]
70 Asia Kolyma 2,129 1,317 644,000 4,130 East Siberian Sea, Arctic Ocean Primary river
71 Europe Kama 1,805 1,122 507,000 4,100 Volga River Tributary river
72 South America Apaporis 1,370 847 54,300 4,092 Japurá River Tributary river
73 South America Aripuanã 870 540 145,000 4,087 Madeira River Tributary river
74 South America Vaupés/Uaupes 1,050 649 67,800 4,040 Rio Negro Tributary river
75 South America Teles Pires 1,638 1,013 141,718 4,000 Tapajós River Tributary river
76 Oceania Digul 853 45,600 4,000 Arafura Sea Primary river
77 South America Huallaga 1,138 704 95,000 3,796 Marañón River Tributary river
78 Asia Nizhnyaya Tunguska 2,989 1,848 473,000 3,697 Yenisei River Tributary river
79 Asia Upper Meghna 1,040 643 82,000 3,600 Lower Meghna River Tributary river
80 South America Caura 723 449 52,000 3,545 Orinoco River Tributary river
81 Asia Godavari 1,465 910 312,812 3,505 Bay of Bengal, Indian Ocean Primary river
82 North America Fraser 1,375 854 220,000 3,475 Pacific Ocean Primary river
83 Asia Kaladan 450 278 3,468 Bay of Bengal, Indian Ocean Primary river
84 South America Jutai 1,200 742 74,000 3,462 Amazon Tributary river
85 Asia Northern Dvina 744 462 357,052 3,332 White Sea, Barents Sea, Arctic Ocean Primary river[1]
86 Asia Khatanga 1,636 1,012 364,000 3,320 Khatanga Gulf, Laptev Sea, Arctic Ocean Primary river
87 Oceania Kikori 405 250 23,309 3,274 Gulf of Papua, Coral Sea, Pacific Ocean Primary river
88 South America Inírida 1,300 804 54,000 3,200 Guaviare River Tributary river
89 Asia Ghaghara 1,080 671 127,950 2,993 Ganga River Tributary river[44]
90 Asia Irtysh 4,248 2,627 1,673,470 2,980 Ob River Tributary river
91 Asia Yamuna 1,376 855 366,223 2,949 Ganga River Tributary river[44]
92 South America São Francisco 2,830 1,758 641,000 2,943 Atlantic Ocean Primary river[citation needed]
93 Europe Rhine 1,233 820 198,735 2,900 North Sea, Atlantic Ocean Primary river[45]
94 South America Beni 1,100 680 131,500 2,875 Madre de Dios River Tributary river
95 Asia Gan 599 372 103,107 2,861 Yangtze River Tributary river
96 South America Trombetas 1,060 656 135,239 2,855 Amazon River Tributary river
97 Asia Min 735 133,000 2,850 Yangtze River Tributary river[46]
98 Africa Nile 6,853 4,258 3,400,000 2,830 Mediterranean Sea, Atlantic Ocean Primary river[1]
99 North America Koksoak 137 85 133,400 2,800 Ungava Bay, Arctic Ocean Primary river
100 South America Pastaza 740 458 41,000 2,770 Marañón River Tributary river
101 South America Iriri 1,300 810 130,000 2,745 Xingu River Tributary river
102 South America Tigre 940 581 54,200 2,720 Marañón River Tributary river
103 Africa Kwango 1,100 680 263,500 2,700 Kasai River Tributary river
104 Asia Yellow 5,464 3,395 752,000 2,571 East China Sea, Pacific Ocean Primary river
105 South America Atrato 750 466 36,231 2,569 Atlantic Ocean Primary river[47]
106 Asia Pyasina 818 508 182,000 2,550 Kara Sea, Arctic Ocean Primary river
107 Asia Amu Darya 2,400 1,491 534,739 2,525 Aral Sea Primary river
108 Africa Sankuru 1,200 756 156,000 2,500 Kasai River Tributary river
109 South America Tietê 1,150 715 150,000 2,500 Paraná River Tributary river
110 Asia Koshi 729 453 69,300 2,500 Ganga River Tributary river[44]
111 Africa Sangha 790 489 213,400 2,471 Congo River Tributary river
112 Asia Songhua 1,434 887 557,180 2,463 Amur River Tributary river
113 Europe Neva 74 46 281,000 2,445 Baltic Sea, Atlantic Ocean Primary river[48]
114 North America Missouri 3,767 2,341 1,371,010 2,445 Mississippi River Tributary river[1]
115 North America Liard 1,115 693 277,100 2,434 Mackenzie River Tributary river
116 South America Guapore 1,260 783 341,000 2,430 Mamoré River Tributary river
117 South America Rio Grande 1,360 841 143,000 2,400 Paraná River Tributary river
118 Africa Benue 1,370 847 2,400 Niger River Tributary river
119 North America Nelson 2,575 1600 982,900 2,370 Hudson Bay, Arctic Ocean Primary river[citation needed]
120 South America Cauca 1,180 730 59,840 2,364 Magdalena River Tributary river
121 South America Yarí 620 383 31,650 2,360 Japurá River Tributary river
122 South America Urubamba 724 448 60,300 2,330 Ucayali River Tributary river
123 South America Apure 1,038 645 121,400 2,300 Orinoco River Tributary river
124 Asia Krishna River 1,400 870 258,948 2,213 Bay of Bengal, Indian Ocean Primary river
125 Asia Xiang 948 589 94,721 2,157 Yangtze River Tributary river
126 North America St. Marys 120 75 127,700 2,135 Lake Huron Tributary river
127 Asia Jialing 1,345 836 160,000 2,120 Yangtze River Tributary river[46]
128 Asia Mahanadi 858 533 141,600 2,119 Bay of Bengal, Indian Ocean Primary river
129 North America Peace 1,923 1,195 306,000 2,110 Slave River Tributary river
130 Asia Olyokma 1,436 892 210,000 2,110 Lena River Tributary river
131 South America San Juan 380 240 15,000 2,055 Pacific Ocean Primary river
132 Asia Hongshui 669.6 416.1 141,674 2,049 Xi River Tributary river
133 Asia Gandaki 814 506 46,300 2,025 Ganga River Tributary river
134 South America Ventuari 520 322 40,000 2,000 Orinoco River Tributary river
135 South America Vichada 580 359 25,000 2,000 Orinoco River Tributary river
136 Africa Aruwimi 1,030 640 116,100 2,000 Congo River Tributary river
Relative Size of the Largest Rivers on Earth
Relative Size of the Largest Rivers on Earth

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Because it has a larger discharge than the Mississippi River at their confluence, The Ohio River is technically the main stream of the Mississippi River System
  2. ^ If considered a river. The Detroit River may also be seen as a strait connecting Lake St. Clair with Lake Erie and separating the Lower Peninsula of Michigan from the Ontario Peninsula.

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Rivers of the Earth[unreliable source?] Archived August 14, 2004, at the Wayback Machine
  2. ^ a b c d Gupta, Avijit (2007). Large rivers: geomorphology and management. John Wiley and Sons. p. 31. ISBN 978-0-470-84987-3. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
  3. ^ "Archived copy". Beijing: Chinese Academy of Sciences. 2011-08-22. Archived from the original on 2016-05-03. Retrieved 2017-02-17. ((cite journal)): Cite journal requires |journal= (help)CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  4. ^ "Britannica". britannica.com. Retrieved 6 January 2020.
  5. ^ (PDF) https://bibliofep.fundacionempresaspolar.org/media/1378189/agua_ti_cap03.pdf. ((cite web)): Missing or empty |title= (help)
  6. ^ Monente, José A. (1997). "Factores que controlan el caudal del Orinico" [Factors that control the flow of the Orinoco] (PDF). Memoria - Sociedad de Ciencias Naturales la Salle (in Spanish). 57 (147): 81–99.
  7. ^ Seyler, Patrick; Laurence Maurice-Bourgoin; Jean Loup Guyot. "Hydrological Control on the Temporal Variability of Trace Element Concentration in the Amazon River and its Main Tributaries". Geological Survey of Brazil (CPRM). Retrieved 24 July 2010.
  8. ^ Agência Nacional de Águas (ANA) e Secretaria Nacional de Recursos Hídricos ([1])
  9. ^ R. Ziesler and G.D. Ardizzone: The Inland Waters of Latin America. COPESCAL Technical Paper No. 1, FAO, Fishery Information, Data and Statistics Service, Rome 1979 [2]
  10. ^ a b c d Balance hídrico en la Cuenca del Plata. Disponibilidad y usos, considerando escenarios futuros. Modelos de gestión [Water balance in the La Plata Basin. Availability and uses, considering future scenarios. Management models] (PDF) (in Spanish). Comité Intergubernamental Coordinador de los Países de la Cuenca del Plata. December 2016. ISBN 978-987-4187-09-3.[page needed]
  11. ^ "Scientists pinpoint sources of four major international rivers". Xinhua News Agency. 22 August 2011. Archived from the original on 3 May 2016. Retrieved 8 September 2015.
  12. ^ "Station: Igarka". Yenisei Basin. UNH / GRDC. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 31 March 2013.
  13. ^ C B Sharma (11 January 2021). Applied Environmental Sciences & Engineering. BFC Publications. ISBN 9780313380075.
  14. ^ Kammerer, J.C. (May 1990). "Largest Rivers in the United States". U.S. Geological Survey. Archived from the original on June 30, 2017. Retrieved February 22, 2011.
  15. ^ "USGS Surface-Water Annual Statistics for Louisiana". United States Geological Survey.
  16. ^ a b c GRDC Database Archived 2011-07-22 at the Wayback Machine
  17. ^ Kalugin, A. S. (1 October 2018). "Variations of the Present-Day Annual and Seasonal Runoff in the Far East and Siberia with the Use of Regional Hydrological and Global Climate Models". Water Resources. 45 (1): 102–111. doi:10.1134/S0097807818050366. S2CID 134779637.
  18. ^ http://www.abratsev.narod.ru/biblio/sokolov/p1ch23b.html, Sokolov, Eastern Siberia // Hydrography of USSR. (in russian)
  19. ^ Benke, Arthur C.; Cushing, Colbert E. (2005). Rivers of North America. Academic Press. pp. 989–990. ISBN 978-0-12-088253-3. Retrieved 21 March 2011.
  20. ^ a b c d Lynch, Christine (2012). "The Amazon River Basin; CE 397 – Transboundary Waters" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-05-28.
  21. ^ Colquehuanca Quispe, Jannet Vaneza (2015). Estudio hidrogeológico en la cabecera de la sub cuenca de Macuya, mediante Prospección Geofísica [Hydrogeological study at the head of the Macuya sub-basin, through Geophysical Prospecting] (Thesis) (in Spanish).
  22. ^ The Hydrographi Region of The Amazon
  23. ^ (PDF) https://www.unece.org/fileadmin/DAM/env/water/blanks/assessment/okhotsk_japan.pdf. ((cite web)): Missing or empty |title= (help)
  24. ^ Becker, M.; Papa, F.; Frappart, F.; Alsdorf, D.; Calmant, S.; Da Silva, J. Santos; Prigent, C.; Seyler, F. (2018). "Satellite-based estimates of surface water dynamics in the Congo River Basin". International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation. 66: 196–209. Bibcode:2018IJAEO..66..196B. doi:10.1016/j.jag.2017.11.015.
  25. ^ "Chapter 5: Plate D-6 — GES DISC: Goddard Earth Sciences, Data & Information Services Center". Disc.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov. Archived from the original on 2013-02-03. Retrieved 2012-11-08.
  26. ^ Leeden, Frits van der; Fcrimson L. Troise; David Keith Todd (1990). The Water Encyclopedia (2nd ed.). Chelsea, Mich.: Lewis Publishers. p. 126. ISBN 0-87371-120-3.
  27. ^ (PDF) https://portoflewiston.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/07/Appendix-U.pdf. ((cite web)): Missing or empty |title= (help)
  28. ^ "The Fly River catchment Papua New Guinea : A regional environmental assessment". 29 January 2016.
  29. ^ (PDF) http://baloun.entu.cas.cz/png/DahlEtAlJTE13.pdf. ((cite web)): Missing or empty |title= (help)
  30. ^ Laborde, Jorge Lopez (January 2010). "Estudio Binacional de Navegabilidad del río Napo". ((cite journal)): Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  31. ^ (PDF) https://unece.org/DAM/env/documents/2019/ece/Restart/Ukraine_S1/Points_of_view_expressed_by_the_Romanian_authorutues_and_scientific_research_institute.pdf. ((cite web)): Missing or empty |title= (help)
  32. ^ Aquino, Samia; Latrubesse, Edgardo; Bayer, Maximiliano (2009). "Assessment of wash load transport in the Araguaia River (Aruanã Gauge Station), central Brazil". Latin American Journal of Sedimentology and Basin Analysis. 16 (2): 119–128.
  33. ^ Becker, M.; Papa, F.; Frappart, F.; Alsdorf, D.; Calmant, S.; da Silva, J. Santos; Prigent, C.; Seyler, F. (April 2018). "Satellite-based estimates of surface water dynamics in the Congo River Basin". International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation. 66: 196–209. Bibcode:2018IJAEO..66..196B. doi:10.1016/j.jag.2017.11.015.
  34. ^ (PDF) https://bibliofep.fundacionempresaspolar.org/media/1378189/agua_ti_cap03.pdf. ((cite web)): Missing or empty |title= (help)
  35. ^ Verkenning effecten versnelde zeespiegelstijging op dynamiek Westerschelde estuariene systeem [Exploration of the effects of accelerated sea level rise on the dynamics of the Western Scheldt estuarine system] (in Dutch). DHV Milieu en Infrastructuur BV. 18 June 1998.[page needed]
  36. ^ Khan, Abul A.; Pant, Naresh C.; Goswami, Anuj; Lal, Ravish; Joshi, Rajesh (2015). "Critical Evaluation and Assessment of Average Annual Precipitation in the Indus, the Ganges and the Brahmaputra Basins, Northern India". Dynamics of Climate Change and Water Resources of Northwestern Himalaya. Society of Earth Scientists Series. pp. 67–84. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-13743-8_7. ISBN 978-3-319-13742-1.
  37. ^ "Country Report Implementation of Demonstration Project Mamberamo River Basin INDONESIA - PDF Free Download".
  38. ^ "Strategi & Kebijakan Pengelolaan Wilayah Sungai Barito - Kapuas Dalam Rangka Mendukung Pengembangan Kawasan Perkotaan Yang Berkelanjutan | PDF".
  39. ^ "PEMODELAN KUALITAS AIR SUNGAI MAHAKAM SEBAGAI DASAR PERENCANAAN PENGELOLAAN LAHAN WILAYAH PROVINSI KALIMANTAN TIMUR - PDF Free Download".
  40. ^ https://www.researchgate.net/publication/348187946. ((cite web)): Missing or empty |title= (help)
  41. ^ (PDF) http://horizon.documentation.ird.fr/exl-doc/pleins_textes/divers14-08/25361.pdf. ((cite web)): Missing or empty |title= (help)
  42. ^ https://www.researchgate.net/publication/294892187. ((cite web)): Missing or empty |title= (help)
  43. ^ "Fragmentation and Flow Regulation of the World's Large River Systems" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-03-30. Retrieved 2011-08-16.
  44. ^ a b c Jain, Sharad K.; Agarwal, Pushpendra K.; Singh, Vijay P. (2007). Hydrology and water resources of India. Springer. p. 341. ISBN 978-1-4020-5179-1. Retrieved 26 April 2011.
  45. ^ Rhine case study; Technical documents in hydrology: PC-CP series; Vol.:17; 2003
  46. ^ a b Shen, Zhiliang (23 January 2019). Studies of the Biogeochemistry of Typical Estuaries and Bays in China. ISBN 9783662581698.
  47. ^ "Chapter 14" (PDF). The Pacific and Caribbean Rivers of Colombia: Water Discharge, Sediment Transport and Dissolved Loads. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-03-25. Retrieved 2011-07-13.
  48. ^ Nezhihovsky, R. A. (1981). Neva River and Neva Bay. Gidrometeoizdat.