Maresciallo Anarseo Guadagnini, 1927

The Italian military rank of maresciallo ([mareʃˈʃallo]; marshal) is classified as a "sub-officer" and is the highest rank of non-commissioned officer in the Italian Armed Forces. It is higher than the rank of sergeant but lower than that of ensign/second lieutenant. There are from three to five grades within the rank, according to the different branches of the armed forces. The rank is achieved through merit or attending the Scuola Allievi Marescialli (School of Student Marshals). Marshal is an intermediate rank of the armed forces which is currently granted to NCOs with the training and technical competence to carry out specialised executive roles, and to command smaller and technically complex units.[1]

History

The rank of marshal in Italy was initially provided only as the marescialli d'alloggio (lodging marshals) of the Royal Carabinieri. In 1902 [2] the rank was established for the Royal Army. The rank was unique and higher than that of furiere maggiore (senior quartermaster). Subsequently in 1907 [3] the ranks of quartermaster and quartermaster were abolished and the rank of marshal was divided into three classes: 1st, 2nd and 3rd class marshal who were then renamed Maresciallo maggiore, and Maresciallo ordinario , respectively. The badges of rank were regulated only on January 22, 1907 by a circular. In the Regia Marina (Royal Navy), the equivalent ranks were those of capo di 1ª, 2ª e 3ª classe.

At the entrance of Italy in World War One, the ranks of maresciallo ordinario, maresciallo capo and maresciallo Maggiore existed and were retitled as Maresciallo di Compagnia, Maresciallo di Battaglione, and Maresciallo di Reggimento, In 1916 the degree of Aiutanti di Battaglia (Battalion Adjutant) was established, reachable from both the non-commissioned officers and troops solely for war merits, regardless of the previously covered degree. [4] Until 1972 the marshals were framed in three hierarchical levels: maresciallo ordinario, maresciallo capo and maresciallo maggiore and had a distinctive respectively one, two or three mottled golden stripes of black placed vertically on the shoulder straps. In 1972, maresciallo maggiore aiutante was added, above the other degrees, but always subordinate to the degree of aiutante di battaglia. This degree was distinguished as it was reachable by promotion to choice and not for seniority, and had the same distinctive of Marshal Maggiore, but with the mottled rods of red. After 1972 for all marshal ranks were reoriented horizontally.

Insignia of the Royal Italian Army pre-World War One

Shoulder strap
Grade Maresciallo maggiore Maresciallo capo Maresciallo ordinario

Insignia of the Royal Italian Army (WWI)


Insignia of grade (1916)
Insignia of grade (1915) Original insignia
Grade Aiutante di battaglia Maresciallo di reggimento Maresciallo di battaglione Maresciallo di compagnia


Insignia of the Maresciallo of the Royal Italian Army during World War II

Italy Italy
Aiutante di battaglia Maresciallo maggiore Maresciallo Capo Maresciallo Ordinario

Insignia 1945-1972

''Controspallina (since 1945)
Grade Aiutante di battaglia Maresciallo maggiore Maresciallo capo Maresciallo ordinario


Insignia 1972-current

Italy Italy
Primo Maresciallo Luogotenente Primo Maresciallo Maresciallo Capo Maresciallo Ordinario Maresciallo

New Maresciallo insignia added in 2018

Primo luogotenente q.s.[5][6]

Modern Italian military

Italian army insignia

In the Italian Army a marshal is a non-commissioned officer. The grades of marshal are as follows beginning with the lowest:[7]

In the Italian Navy the grades of marshal are as follows:

In the Italian Air Force the grades of marshal are as follows:

Italian gendarmerie

Carabinieri insignia

In the uniformed sectors - the Carabinieri and Guardia di Finanza - those at the marshal level are called inspectors and are distinguished from supervisors and were once non-commissioned officers. Their grades resemble those in the Italian army:

Adjutant marshal retains the rank of Official Substitute of Public Safety; lieutenant is not meaningfully a rank and dates from 2001.[12]

See also

References

  1. ^ ^ Page of the Italian Army (Esercito Italiano) home site - http://www.esercito.difesa.it Archived 2017-07-16 at the Wayback Machine.
  2. ^ Legge nº 266 del 3 luglio 1902
  3. ^ Legge del 19 luglio 1906, esecutiva dal 1º gennaio del 1907.
  4. ^ "Sottufficiali e Truppa". Archived from the original on 2011-10-18.
  5. ^ q.s. – (qualifica speciale: "special rank")
  6. ^ "Riordino delle carriere del 27/02/2018" (PDF).
  7. ^ ^ ^ to b c d and f Decree legislative 28 February 2001, n. 82 - "integrating and corrective Dispositions of the 12 decree legislative May 1995, n. 196, in matter of the reordering of roles, modification of recruitment norms, state and advancement of the non-directing staff of the armed forces".
  8. ^ ^ Page of the Italian Army (Esercito Italiano) home site - http://www.esercito.difesa.it Archived 2017-07-16 at the Wayback Machine.
  9. ^ ^ Page of the Italian Army (Esercito Italiano) home site - http://www.esercito.difesa.it Archived 2017-07-16 at the Wayback Machine.
  10. ^ ^ Page of the Italian Army (Esercito Italiano) home site - http://www.esercito.difesa.it Archived 2017-07-16 at the Wayback Machine.
  11. ^ ^ Page of the Italian Carabinieri home site - http://www.carabinieri.it
  12. ^ ^ Arm of the Police officers: legislative decree of 28 February 2001, n. 83 - "integrating and corrective dispositions of the legislative decree of 12 May 1995, n. 198, in the matter of the reordering of roles, modification of recruitment norms, state and advancement of the non-directing and non-managing staff of the police." Financial police: legislative decree of 28 February 2001, n. 67 - "integrating and corrective dispositions of the legislative decree of 12 May 1995, n. 199, in the matter of the new organization of the non-directing and non-managing staff of the financial police."