Poster by Alfons Mucha for performance by Sarah Bernhardt in Medée at the Théâtre de la Renaissance, Paris (1898)
Written byEuripides
ChorusCorinthian Women
Medea's two children
Date premiered431 BC
Place premieredAthens
Original languageAncient Greek
SettingBefore Medea's house in Corinth

Medea (Ancient Greek: Μήδεια, Mēdeia) is an ancient Greek tragedy written by Euripides. It is based upon the myth of Jason and Medea and was first produced in 431 BC as part of a trilogy; the two other plays have not survived. The plot centers on the actions of Medea, a former princess of the kingdom of Colchis, and the wife of Jason; she finds her position in the Greek world threatened as Jason leaves her for a Greek princess of Corinth. Medea takes vengeance on Jason by murdering his new wife as well as her own two sons, after which she escapes to Athens to start a new life.

Euripides' play has been explored and interpreted by playwrights across the centuries and the world in a variety of ways, offering political, psychoanalytical, feminist, among many other original readings of Medea, Jason and the core themes of the play.[1]

Medea, along with three other plays,[a] earned Euripides third prize in the City Dionysia. Some believe that this indicates a poor reception,[2][3] but "the competition that year was extraordinarily keen";[3] Sophocles, often winning first prize, came second.[3] The play was rediscovered with Rome's Augustan drama; again in the 16th-century; then remained part of the tragedic repertoire, becoming a classic of the Western canon, and the most frequently performed Greek tragedy in the 20th century.[4] It experienced renewed interest in the feminist movement of the late 20th century,[5] being interpreted as a nuanced and sympathetic portrayal of Medea's struggle to take charge of her own life in a male-dominated world.[4] The play holds the American Theatre Wing's Tony Award record for most wins for the same female lead character, with Judith Anderson winning in 1948, Zoe Caldwell in 1982, and Diana Rigg in 1994.


Medea was first performed in 431 BC at the City Dionysia festival.[6] Here every year, three tragedians competed against each other, each writing a tetralogy of three tragedies and a satyr play (alongside Medea were Philoctetes, Dictys and the satyr play Theristai). In 431 the competition was among Euphorion (the son of famed playwright Aeschylus), Sophocles (Euripides' main rival) and Euripides. Euphorion won, and Euripides placed third (and last).[6] Medea has survived the transplants of culture and time and continues to captivate audiences with its riveting power (Tessitore). The play's influence can be seen in the works of later playwrights, such as William Shakespeare.

While Medea is considered one of the great plays of the Western canon, Euripides' place in the competition suggests that his first audience might not have responded so favorably. A scholium to line 264 of the play suggests that Medea's children were traditionally killed by the Corinthians after her escape;[7] so Euripides' apparent invention of the filicide might have offended, as his first treatment of the Hippolytus myth did.[8] That Euripides and others took liberties with Medea's story may be inferred from the 1st century BC historian Diodorus Siculus: "Speaking generally, it is because of the desire of the tragic poets for the marvellous that so varied and inconsistent an account of Medea has been given out."[9] A common urban legend claimed that Euripides put the blame on Medea because the Corinthians had bribed him with a sum of five talents.[10]

In the 4th century BC, South-Italian vase painting offers a number of Medea-representations that are connected to Euripides' play — the most famous is a krater in Munich. However, these representations always differ considerably from the plots of the play or are too general to support any direct link to Euripides' play.[clarification needed] But the violent and powerful character of Medea, and her double nature — both loving and destructive — became a standard for later periods of antiquity. Medea has been adapted into numerous forms of media, including operas, films, and novels.

With the text's rediscovery in 1st-century Rome (the play was adapted by the tragedians Ennius, Lucius Accius, Ovid, Seneca the Younger and Hosidius Geta, among others); again in 16th-century Europe; and with the development of modern literary criticism: Medea has provoked multifarious reactions.[clarification needed][citation needed]

Form and themes

The form of the play differs from many other Greek tragedies by its simplicity. Most scenes involve only Medea and someone else. The Chorus, here representing the women of Corinth, is usually involved alongside them. The simple encounters highlight Medea's skill and determination in manipulating powerful male figures. The play is also the only Greek tragedy in which a kin-killer makes it unpunished to the end of the play, and the only one about child-killing in which the deed is performed in cold blood as opposed to in a state of temporary madness.[11] Medea's "rebellion" is that which shakes the very world everyone must inhabit. Her rebellion tells of her past history, the goddess-like figure denigrated and ultimately dethroned gives lead to why she would act the way she does.[12] Euripides displays Medea as an archetype. As a result, he reinforces the modern stereotype as a woman to be the devourer of men and children, instead of Medea, the great mother wronged.[12]

Euripides' characterization of Medea exhibits the inner emotions of passion, love, and vengeance. The character of Medea has variously been interpreted both as fulfilling her role of "mother and wife" and as acting as a "proto-feminist".[13] Feminist readings have interpreted the play as either a "sympathetic exploration" of the "disadvantages of being a woman in a patriarchal society",[5] or as an expression of misogynist attitudes.[14] In conflict with this sympathetic undertone (or reinforcing a more negative reading) is Medea's barbarian identity, which some argue could antagonize[need quotation to verify] a 5th-century BC Greek audience.[15]

It can be argued that in the play Euripides portrays Medea out to be an enraged woman who kills her children to get revenge on her husband Jason because of his betrayal of their marriage. Medea is often cited as an example of the "madwoman in the attic" trope, in which women who defy societal norms are portrayed as mentally unstable.[16] Although, Medea is not the only character in the play to use deception; other characters, such as Jason and Creon, also use lies and manipulation. A competing interpretation is that Medea kills her children out of kindness because she cares and worries for them and their well-being. Once Medea commits to her plan to kill Creon and Jason's new bride, she knows her children are in danger of being murdered. Medea is not paranoid. In another version of the myth, the people of Corinth kill her children to avenge the deaths of Creon and his daughter Glauke. At this time in myth and history, helping one's friends and hurting one's enemies was considered a virtue. Thus, by this ethic, the Corinthians will do right by avenging their king and princess. Conversely, a focus on Medea's rage leads to the interpretation that "Medea becomes the personification of vengeance, with her humanity 'mortified' and 'sloughed off'" (Cowherd, 129).[17] Medea's heritage places her in a position more typically reserved for the male in her time. Hers is the power of the sun, appropriately symbolized by her great radiance, tremendous heat and boundless passion.[12] In this view Medea is inhuman and her suffering is self-inflicted just as Jason argues in his debate with her. And yet, if we see events through Medea's eyes, we view a wife intent on vengeance and a mother concerned about her children's safety and the life they can be expected to live. Thus, Medea as wife kills Creon and Glauke in the act of vengeance. Medea as a mother thinks that her children will be better off killed by her kind hand than left to suffer at the hands of an enemy, intent on vengeance. And so, Medea saves her children from this brutality and a worse fate by killing them herself, providing them with as peaceful an outcome as she can.

Euripides’ tragic character, Medea, is often described as having a “heroic temper,” (Lush, 2014). With this temper, the motive behind much of Medea’s behavior is to avoid the laughter of her enemies, “even at the cost of decisions that contradict self-interest, personal safety, or strongly held moral beliefs,” (Lush, 2014). Although some may say that her motive is jealousy over Jason’s new bride, Glauce, such reasoning does not fully explain the severity of Medea’s actions. Medea’s temperament suggests that she was more embarrassed than she was angry. She was unwilling to let her enemies, in this case Jason and his new wife, be happy or look down upon her. Medea denied that “her enemies [would] cause her pain and rejoice,” and stated that her priority was to “avoid her enemies’ derision,” (Lush, 2014). Although the murder of her children would cause her pain, Medea’s temperament caused her to prioritize Jason’s unhappiness over anything else.

Lush, B. (2014). Combat Trauma and Psychological Injury in Euripides’ Medea. Helios, 41(1), 25–57.


Medea is centered on Medea's calculated desire for revenge against her unfaithful husband. Medea is of divine descent and had the gift of prophecy. She married Jason and used her magic powers and advice to help him find and retrieve the golden fleece. The play is set in Corinth some time after Jason's quest for the Golden Fleece, where he met Medea. The play begins with Medea in a blind rage towards Jason for arranging to marry Glauce, the daughter of king Creon. The nurse, overhearing Medea's grief, fears what she might do to herself or her children.

Creon, in anticipation of Medea's wrath, arrives and reveals his plans to send her into exile. Medea pleads for one day's delay and eventually Creon acquiesces. In order to be accepted Medea must become trickier and must totally conceal her position. Crouching at Creon's feet, she begs him in the name of her children to allow her only one day. At this Creon is moved and grants to her one more day in Corinth. Medea's unexpected power of persuasion or even of fascination lies in her change of attitude: instead of preaching to Creon about the unpopularity of the sophoi she plays the role of a desperate mother, needing one day to prepare for exile.[18] Medea is aware of the humiliating quality of this tactic, but she justifies it on the grounds of a gain and of her need to remain in Corinth: "Do you think that I would ever have flattered that man unless I had some gain to make or some device to execute? I wouldn't have even spoken or touched him with my hands".[18] In the next scene Jason arrives to explain his rationale for his apparent betrayal. He explains that he could not pass up the opportunity to marry a royal princess, as Medea is only a barbarian woman, but hopes to someday join the two families and keep Medea as his mistress. Medea, and the chorus of Corinthian women, do not believe him. She reminds him that she left her own people for him ("I rescued you [...] I betrayed both my father and my house [...] now where should I go?"),[19] and that she saved him and slew the dragon. Jason promises to support her after his new marriage ("If you wish me to give you or the children extra money for your trip into exile, tell me; I'm ready to give it with a lavish hand"),[20] but Medea spurns him: "Go on, play the bridegroom! Perhaps [...] you've made a match you'll one day have cause to lament."[21]

In the following scene Medea encounters Aegeus, king of Athens. He reveals to her that despite his marriage he is still without children. He visited the oracle who merely told him that he was instructed "not to unstop the wineskin's neck". Medea relays her current situation to him and begs for Aegeus to let her stay in Athens if she gives him drugs to end his infertility. Aegeus, unaware of Medea's plans for revenge, agrees.

Medea then returns to plotting the murders of Glauce and Creon. She decides to poison some golden robes (a family heirloom and gift from the sun god Helios, her grandfather) and a coronet, in hopes that the bride will not be able to resist wearing them, and consequently be poisoned. Medea resolves to kill her own children as well, not because the children have done anything wrong, but because she feels it is the best way to hurt Jason. She calls for Jason once more and, in an elaborate ruse, apologizes to him for overreacting to his decision to marry Glauce. When Jason appears fully convinced that she regrets her actions, Medea begins to cry in mourning of the exile. She convinces Jason to allow their two sons to give gifts to Glauce in hopes that Creon to lift the exile against the children. Eventually Jason agrees.

Forgive what I said in anger! I will yield to the decree, and only beg one favor, that my children may stay. They shall take to the princess a costly robe and a golden crown, and pray for her protection.

Medea kills her son, Campanian red-figure amphora, c. 330 BC, Louvre (K 300).

In the next scene a messenger recounts Glauce and Creon's deaths. When the children arrived with the robes and coronet, Glauce gleefully put them on and went to find her father. The poison overtook her and she fell to the floor, dying horribly and painfully. Creon clutched her tightly as he tried to save her and, by coming in contact with the robes and coronet, was poisoned and died as well.

Alas! The bride had died in horrible agony; for no sooner had she put on Medea's gifts than a devouring poison consumed her limbs as with fire, and in his endeavor to save his daughter the old father died too.

While Medea is pleased with her current success she decides to take it one step further. Since Jason brought shame upon her for trying to start a new family, Medea resolves to destroy the family he was willing to give up by killing their sons. Medea does have a moment of hesitation when she considers the pain that her children's deaths will put her through. However, she steels her resolve to cause Jason the most pain possible and rushes offstage with a knife to kill her children. Determined to stop Medea, the chorus runs after her only to hear the children scream. Jason then rushes onto the scene to confront Medea about murdering Creon and Glauce, and he quickly discovers that his children have been killed as well. Medea then appears above the stage with the bodies of her children in a chariot given to her by the sun god Helios. When this play was put on, this scene was accomplished using the mechane device usually reserved for the appearance of a god or goddess. She confronts Jason, reveling in his pain at being unable to ever hold his children again:

I do not leave my children's bodies with thee; I take them with me that I may bury them in Hera's precinct. And for thee, who didst me all that evil, I prophesy an evil doom.

Although Jason calls Medea most hateful to gods and men, the fact that the chariot is given to her by Helios indicates that she still has the gods on her side. As Bernard Knox points out, Medea's last scene with concluding appearances parallels that of a number of indisputably divine beings in other plays by Euripides. Just like these gods, Medea "interrupts and puts a stop to the violent action of the human being on the lower level, … justifies her savage revenge on the grounds that she has been treated with disrespect and mockery, … takes measures and gives orders for the burial of the dead, prophesies the future," and "announces the foundation of a cult."[22]

She then escapes to Athens in the divine chariot. The chorus is left contemplating the will of Zeus in Medea's actions:

Manifold are thy shapings, Providence! / Many a hopeless matter gods arrange / What we expected never came to pass / What we did not expect the gods brought to bear / So have things gone, this whole experience through!

This deliberate murder of her children by Medea appears to be Euripides' invention, although some scholars believe Neophron created this alternate tradition.[23] Her filicide would go on to become the standard for later writers.[24] Pausanias, writing in the late 2nd century AD, records five different versions of what happened to Medea's children after reporting that he has seen a monument for them while traveling in Corinth.[25] The play's popularity in ancient Greece may have been due in part to its portrayal of a strong, independent woman who defies patriarchal norms.

Modern productions and adaptations


Olivia Sutherland stars in MacMillan Films' Medea
Angelique Rockas as Medea, Theatro Technis directed by George Eugeniou



English translations


  1. ^ Macintosh, Fiona; Kenward, Claire; Wrobel, Tom (2016). Medea, a performance history. Oxford: APGRD.
  2. ^ Gregory (2005), p. 3
  3. ^ a b c Euripides (2001). "Medea", in Euripides I. David Kovacs (ed. & tr.). Cambridge, MA; London, England: Loeb Classical Library, Harvard University Press. p. 277. ISBN 9780674995604.
  4. ^ a b Helene P. Foley. Reimagining Greek Tragedy on the American Stage. University of California Press, 1 Sep 2012, p. 190
  5. ^ a b See (e.g.) Rabinowitz (1993), pp. 125–54; McDonald (1997), p. 307; Mastronarde (2002), pp. 26–8; Griffiths (2006), pp. 74–5; Mitchell-Boyask (2008), p. xx
  6. ^ a b Allan, William (2002). Euripides: Medea. Duckworth. pp. 11–12. ISBN 9781472539779.
  7. ^ Ewans (2007), p. 55
  8. ^ This theory of Euripides' invention has gained wide acceptance. See (e.g.) McDermott (1989), p. 12; Powell (1990), p. 35; Sommerstein (2002), p. 16; Griffiths (2006), p. 81; Ewans (2007), p. 55.
  9. ^ Diodorus Siculus 4.56
  10. ^ "Korinthian Women and the Plot Against Medea". 26 March 2017. Retrieved 1 June 2018.
  11. ^ Hall, Edith. 1997. "Introduction" in Medea: Hippolytus; Electra; Helen Oxford University Press. pp. ix–xxxv.
  12. ^ a b c Lootens, Barbara J. (1986). "Images of Women in Greek Drama". Feminist Teacher. 2 (1): 24–28. ISSN 0882-4843. JSTOR 25680553.
  13. ^ Macintosh, Fiona (2007). "Oedipus and Medea on the Modern Stage". In Brown, Sarah Annes; Silverstone, Catherine (eds.). Tragedy in Transition. Malden, Mass.: Blackwell. p. 193. ISBN 978-1-40-513546-7. [Medea] has successfully negotiated her path through very diverse cultural and political contexts: either by being radically recast as 'exemplary' mother and wife, or by being seen as proto-feminist wrongly abandoned by a treacherous husband.
  14. ^ Williamson, Margaret (1990). "A Woman's Place in Euripides' Medea". In Powell, Anton (ed.). Euripides, Women, and Sexuality (1st ed.). London, UK: Routledge. pp. 16–31. ISBN 0-415-01025-X.
  15. ^ DuBois (1991), pp. 115–24; Hall (1991), passim; Saïd (2002), pp. 62–100
  16. ^ Haralu, L. (2017). Madwomen and Mad Women: An Analysis of the Use of Female Insanity and Anger in Narrative Fiction, From Vilification to Validation. ProQuest Dissertations Publishing. (Accession No. 10643100)
  17. ^ [Carrie E. Cowherd. "The Ending of the 'Medea.'" The Classical World, vol. 76, no. 3, 1983, pp. 129–35. JSTOR, Accessed 6 Dec. 2022.]
  18. ^ a b Pucci, Pietro (1980). The Violence of Pity In Euripides' "Medea". Vol. 41. Cornell University Press. ISBN 978-0-8014-1190-8. JSTOR 10.7591/j.cttq44w0.
  19. ^ Medea. 476, 483, 502, trans. Esposito, S. 2004
  20. ^ Med. 610-12
  21. ^ Med. 624-26
  22. ^ B.M.W. Knox. Word and Action: Essays on the Ancient Theatre. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1979, p. 303.
  23. ^ See McDermott 1985, 10-15.
  24. ^ Hyginus Fabulae 25; Ovid Met. 7.391ff.; Seneca Medea; Bibliotheca 1.9.28 favors Euripides' version of events, but also records the variant that the Corinthians killed Medea's children in retaliation for her crimes.
  25. ^ Pausanias 2.3.6-11
  26. ^ "Electric Medea holds the stage". The Globe and Mail, 3 July 1978.
  27. ^ Dunning, Jennifer (31 August 1986). "KABUKI AND NOH FLAVOR A 'MEDEA' IN CENTRAL PARK". The New York Times. Retrieved 1 June 2018.
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  30. ^ Chaillet, Ned (21 January 1982). "Medea". The Times.
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  33. ^ Brown, Joe (19 July 1985). "'Kabuki Medea': Furious Fusion". The Washington Post. Retrieved 1 June 2018.
  34. ^ a b From the programme and publicity materials for this production.
  35. ^ Kaggelaris, N. (2016). "Sophocles' Oedipus in Mentis Bostantzoglou's". Κοράλλι: 74–81. Retrieved 1 June 2018. Medea" [in Greek] in Mastrapas, A. N. - Stergioulis, M. M. (eds.) Seminar 42: Sophocles the great classic of tragedy, Athens: Koralli
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  39. ^ Archive of the National Theatre of Greece, Photo of Kostas Triantafyllopoulos as Creon in Euripides' Medea at the State Theatre of Sydney, Australia on 22 – 24 May 1998"].
  40. ^ Medea: Anguish, Freeze-Dried and Served With Precision – New York Times review on Medea accompanied with a picture of Karyofyllia Karambeti (Medea) with Kostas Triantafyllopoulos (Creon) from the opening night at City Center Theatre, Manhattan, New York on 23 September 1998. Peter Marks (picture by Michael Quan), The New York Times, 25 September 1998. Retrieved 10 December 2010.
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  42. ^ Lahrissa Behrendt, Contemporary Indigenous Plays Currency Press (2007)
  43. ^ "'Medea Project' in Santa Ana Brings Greek Tragedy to Today". Orange County Register. 3 August 2016.
  44. ^ "paperStrangers Performance Group". 22 August 2012. Archived from the original on 22 August 2012. Retrieved 1 June 2018.
  45. ^ Eschen, Nicole (University of California, Los Angeles). "The Hungry Woman: A Mexican Medea (review)." Theatre Journal. Volume 58, Number 1, March 2006 pp. 103–106 | 10.1353/tj.2006.0070 – At: Project MUSE, p. 103
  46. ^ "이혜영 "'메디아'는 일생일대의 도전…신화 아닌 오늘날 이야기"" (in Korean). Asiae. 13 February 2017. Retrieved 26 February 2017.
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  48. ^ Christian Science Monitor Zoe Caldwell's 'Medea,' a theatrical mountaintop; Medea Tragedy by Euripides, freely adapted by Robinson Jeffers. Directed by Robert Whitehead
  49. ^ Medea: Freely adapted from the Medea of Euripides (1948) Robinson Jeffers (translator)
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  64. ^ Fisher, Mark (3 October 2012). "Medea – review". The Guardian. Retrieved 1 June 2018.
  65. ^ Stuttard, David, Looking at Medea: Essays and a translation of Euripides' tragedy (Bloomsbury Academic 2014)
  66. ^ Ewans, Michael 'Euripides' Medea; translation and theatrical commentary' (Routledge 2022)
  1. ^ Philoctetes, Dictys, and Theristai, all three of which are now lost

Further reading