Skeletal formula of methylamine with all explicit hydrogens added
Ball and stick model of methylamine
Ball and stick model of methylamine
Spacefill model of methylamine
Spacefill model of methylamine
Pronunciation /ˌmɛθələˈmn/
(METH-ə-lə-MEEN), /ˌmɛθəˈlæmən/
(METH-ə-LA-mən), /məˈθɪləˌmn/
Preferred IUPAC name
Other names
  • Aminomethane
  • Monomethylamine
3D model (JSmol)
Abbreviations MMA
ECHA InfoCard 100.000.746 Edit this at Wikidata
EC Number
  • 200-820-0
MeSH methylamine
RTECS number
  • PF6300000
UN number 1061
  • InChI=1S/CH5N/c1-2/h2H2,1H3 checkY
  • CN
Molar mass 31.058 g·mol−1
Appearance Colorless gas
Odor Fishy, ammoniacal
Density 0.6562 g/cm3 (at 25 °C)
Melting point −93.10 °C; −135.58 °F; 180.05 K
Boiling point −6.6 to −6.0 °C; 20.0 to 21.1 °F; 266.5 to 267.1 K
1008 g/L (at 20 °C)
log P −0.472
Vapor pressure 186.10 kPa (at 20 °C)
1.4 mmol/(Pa·kg)
Acidity (pKa) 10.66
Conjugate acid [CH3NH3]+ (Methylammonium)
-27.0·10−6 cm3/mol
Viscosity 230 μPa·s (at 0 °C)
1.31 D
−23.5 kJ/mol
GHS labelling:
GHS02: Flammable GHS05: Corrosive GHS07: Exclamation mark
H220, H315, H318, H332, H335
P210, P261, P280, P305+P351+P338, P410+P403
NFPA 704 (fire diamond)
NFPA 704 four-colored diamondHealth 3: Short exposure could cause serious temporary or residual injury. E.g. chlorine gasFlammability 4: Will rapidly or completely vaporize at normal atmospheric pressure and temperature, or is readily dispersed in air and will burn readily. Flash point below 23 °C (73 °F). E.g. propaneInstability 0: Normally stable, even under fire exposure conditions, and is not reactive with water. E.g. liquid nitrogenSpecial hazards (white): no code
Flash point −10 °C; 14 °F; 263 K (liquid, gas is extremely flammable)[3]
430 °C (806 °F; 703 K)
Explosive limits 4.9–20.7%
Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):
100 mg/kg (oral, rat)
1860 ppm (mouse, 2 hr)[3]
NIOSH (US health exposure limits):
PEL (Permissible)
TWA 10 ppm (12 mg/m3)[3]
REL (Recommended)
TWA 10 ppm (12 mg/m3)[3]
IDLH (Immediate danger)
100 ppm[3]
Safety data sheet (SDS)
Related compounds
Related alkanamines
ethylamine, dimethylamine, trimethylamine
Related compounds
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
☒N verify (what is checkY☒N ?)

Methylamine is an organic compound with a formula of CH3NH2. This colorless gas is a derivative of ammonia, but with one hydrogen atom being replaced by a methyl group. It is the simplest primary amine.

Methylamine is sold as a solution in methanol, ethanol, tetrahydrofuran, or water, or as the anhydrous gas in pressurized metal containers. Industrially, methylamine is transported in its anhydrous form in pressurized railcars and tank trailers. It has a strong odor similar to rotten fish. Methylamine is used as a building block for the synthesis of numerous other commercially available compounds.

Industrial production

Methylamine is prepared commercially by the reaction of ammonia with methanol in the presence of an aluminosilicate catalyst. Dimethylamine and trimethylamine are co-produced; the reaction kinetics and reactant ratios determine the ratio of the three products. The product most favored by the reaction kinetics is trimethylamine.[4]

CH3OH + NH3 → CH3NH2 + H2O

In this way, an estimated 115,000 tons were produced in 2005.[5]

Laboratory methods

Methylamine was first prepared in 1849 by Charles-Adolphe Wurtz via the hydrolysis of methyl isocyanate and related compounds.[5][6] An example of this process includes the use of the Hofmann rearrangement, to yield methylamine from acetamide and bromine.[7][8]

In the laboratory, methylamine hydrochloride is readily prepared by various other methods. One method entails treating formaldehyde with ammonium chloride.[9]

[NH4]Cl + CH2O → [CH2=NH2]Cl + H2O
[CH2=NH2]Cl + CH2O + H2O → [CH3NH3]Cl + HCOOH

The colorless hydrochloride salt can be converted to an amine by the addition of a strong base, such as sodium hydroxide (NaOH):

[CH3NH3]Cl + NaOH → CH3NH2 + NaCl + H2O

Another method entails reducing nitromethane with zinc and hydrochloric acid.[10]

Another method of methylamine production is spontaneous decarboxylation of glycine with a strong base in water.[citation needed]

Reactivity and applications

Methylamine is a good nucleophile as it is an unhindered amine.[11] As an amine it is considered a weak base. Its use in organic chemistry is pervasive. Some reactions involving simple reagents include: with phosgene to methyl isocyanate, with carbon disulfide and sodium hydroxide to the sodium methyldithiocarbamate, with chloroform and base to methyl isocyanide and with ethylene oxide to methylethanolamines. Liquid methylamine has solvent properties analogous to those of liquid ammonia.[12]

Representative commercially significant chemicals produced from methylamine include the pharmaceuticals ephedrine and theophylline, the pesticides carbofuran, carbaryl, and metham sodium, and the solvents N-methylformamide and N-methylpyrrolidone. The preparation of some surfactants and photographic developers require methylamine as a building block.[5]

Biological chemistry

Methylamine arises as a result of putrefaction and is a substrate for methanogenesis.[13]

Additionally, methylamine is produced during PADI4-dependent arginine demethylation.[14]


The LD50 (mouse, s.c.) is 2.5 g/kg.[15]

The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) have set occupational exposure limits at 10 ppm or 12 mg/m3 over an eight-hour time-weighted average.[16]


In the United States, methylamine is controlled as a List 1 precursor chemical by the Drug Enforcement Administration[17] due to its use in the illicit production of methamphetamine.[18]

In popular culture

Fictional characters Walter White and Jesse Pinkman use methylamine as part of a process to synthesize methamphetamine in the AMC series Breaking Bad.[19][20]

See also


  1. ^ Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry: IUPAC Recommendations and Preferred Names 2013 (Blue Book). Cambridge: The Royal Society of Chemistry. 2014. p. 670. doi:10.1039/9781849733069-00648. ISBN 978-0-85404-182-4.
  2. ^ "Methylamine Definition & Meaning". Retrieved 22 April 2022.
  3. ^ a b c d e NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. "#0398". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).
  4. ^ Corbin D.R.; Schwarz S.; Sonnichsen G.C. (1997). "Methylamines synthesis: A review". Catalysis Today. 37 (24): 71–102. doi:10.1016/S0920-5861(97)00003-5.
  5. ^ a b c Karsten Eller, Erhard Henkes, Roland Rossbacher, Hartmut Höke "Amines, Aliphatic" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 2005. doi:10.1002/14356007.a02_001
  6. ^ Charles-Adolphe Wurtz (1849) "Sur une série d'alcalis organiques homologues avec l'ammoniaque" (On a series of homologous organic alkalis containing ammonia), Comptes rendus … , 28 : 223-226. Note: Wurtz's empirical formula for methylamine is incorrect because chemists in that era used an incorrect atomic mass for carbon (6 instead of 12).
  7. ^ Mann, F. G.; Saunders, B. C. (1960). Practical Organic Chemistry (4th ed.). London: Longman. p. 128. ISBN 9780582444072.
  8. ^ Cohen, Julius (1900). Practical Organic Chemistry (2nd ed.). London: Macmillan and Co., Limited. p. 72.
  9. ^ Marvel, C. S.; Jenkins, R. L. (1941). "Methylamine Hydrochloride". Organic Syntheses; Collected Volumes, vol. 1, p. 347.
  10. ^ Gatterman, Ludwig & Wieland, Heinrich (1937). Laboratory Methods of Organic Chemistry. Edinburgh, UK: R & R Clark, Limited. pp. 157–158.
  11. ^ Peter Scott, ed. (13 October 2009). Linker Strategies in Solid-Phase Organic Synthesis. John Wiley & Sons. p. 80. ISBN 9780470749050. unhindered amine such as methylamine
  12. ^ Debacker, Marc G.; Mkadmi, El Bachir; Sauvage, François X.; Lelieur, Jean-Pierre; Wagner, Michael J.; Concepcion, Rosario; Kim, Jineun; McMills, Lauren E. H.; Dye, James L. (1996). "The Lithium−Sodium−Methylamine System: Does a Low-Melting Sodide Become a Liquid Metal?". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 118 (8): 1997. doi:10.1021/ja952634p.
  13. ^ Thauer, R. K. (1998). "Biochemistry of methanogenesis: A tribute to Marjory Stephenson:1998 Marjory Stephenson Prize Lecture". Microbiology. 144 (9): 2377–406. doi:10.1099/00221287-144-9-2377. PMID 9782487.
  14. ^ Ng, SS; Yue, WW; Oppermann, U; Klose, RJ (February 2009). "Dynamic protein methylation in chromatin biology". Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences. 66 (3): 407–22. doi:10.1007/s00018-008-8303-z. PMC 2794343. PMID 18923809.
  15. ^ The Merck Index, 10th Ed. (1983), p.864, Rahway: Merck & Co.
  16. ^ CDC - NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards
  17. ^ Title 21 Code of Federal Regulations
  18. ^ Frank, R. S. (1983). "The Clandestine Drug Laboratory Situation in the United States". Journal of Forensic Sciences. 28 (1): 18–31. doi:10.1520/JFS12235J. PMID 6680736.
  19. ^ Matthews, Dylan (15 August 2013). "Here's what 'Breaking Bad' gets right, and wrong, about the meth business". Washington Post. Archived from the original on 3 February 2023.
  20. ^ Harnisch, Falk; Salthammer, Tunga. "The Chemistry of Breaking Bad". Chemistry Views. Chemistry Europe. Archived from the original on 8 February 2024.