The Natural-law argument for the existence of God states that the observation of governing laws and existing order in the universe indicates the existence of a superior being who enacted these laws.[1] The argument was popularised by Isaac Newton, René Descartes, and Robert Boyle.[2] The argument of natural laws as a basis for God was changed by Christian figures such as Thomas Aquinas, in order to fit biblical scripture and establish a Judeo-Christian teleological law. Bertrand Russell criticized the argument, arguing that many of the things considered to be laws of nature, in fact, are human conventions.[3]


  1. ^ "The Natural Law Argument".
  2. ^ Harrison, Peter; Roberts, Jon H. (2019). Science without God? rethinking the history of scientific naturalism (First ed.). Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780198834588.
  3. ^ Why I Am Not A Christian, Bertrand Russell, 1927