|A pancreatic pseudocyst as seen on CT|
|Symptoms||Abdominal pain, bloating, nausea, vomiting and lack of appetite|
|Complications||Infection, hemorrhage, obstruction|
|Causes||Pancreatitis (chronic), Pancreatic neoplasm |
|Diagnostic method||Cyst fluid analysis|
|Differential diagnosis||Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm|
A pancreatic pseudocyst is a circumscribed collection of fluid rich in pancreatic enzymes, blood, and non-necrotic tissue, typically located in the lesser sac of the abdomen. Pancreatic pseudocysts are usually complications of pancreatitis, although in children they frequently occur following abdominal trauma. Pancreatic pseudocysts account for approximately 75% of all pancreatic masses.
Signs and symptoms of pancreatic pseudocyst include abdominal pain, bloating, nausea, vomiting and lack of appetite.
Complications of pancreatic pseudocysts include infection, hemorrhage, obstruction and rupture. For obstruction, it can cause compression in the GI tract from the stomach to colon, compression in urinary system, biliary system, and arteriovenous system.[medical citation needed]
Pancreatic pseudocyst can occur due to a variety of reasons, among them pancreatitis (chronic), pancreatic neoplasm and/or pancreatic trauma.
Pancreatic pseudocysts are sometimes called false cysts because they do not have an epithelial lining. The wall of the pseudocyst is vascular and fibrotic, encapsulated in the area around the pancreas. Pancreatitis or abdominal trauma can cause its formation. Treatment usually depends on the mechanism that brought about the pseudocyst. Pseudocysts take up to 6 weeks to completely form.
Diagnosis of pancreatic pseudocyst can be based on cyst fluid analysis:
The most useful imaging tools are:
Pancreatic pseudocyst treatment should be aimed at avoiding any complication (1 in 10 cases become infected). They also tend to rupture, and have shown that larger cysts have a higher likelihood to become more symptomatic, even needing surgery. If no signs of infection are present, initial treatment may include conservative measures such as bowel rest (NPO), parenteral nutrition (TPN), and observation. If symptoms do not improve, then endoscopic drainage may be necessary. The majority of pseudocysts can be treated endoscopically; surgical intervention is rarely necessary.
In the event of surgery:
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