Map of protected areas of the Czech Republic: national parks (grey) and protected landscape areas (green)
Map of protected areas of the Czech Republic: national parks (grey) and protected landscape areas (green)
Řežabinec a Řežabinecké tůně National Nature Reserve
Řežabinec a Řežabinecké tůně National Nature Reserve

There are several types of protected areas of the Czech Republic. The main form of landscape protection is delimitation of special protected areas. All the types of protected areas are determined by law.[1]

Special protected areas

There are six types of special protected areas distinguished by their size and importance. The types of large-scale protected areas are national park and protected landscape area; the types of small-scale protected areas are national nature reserve, nature reserve, national nature monument, and nature monument.[1]

National park

National park (Czech: národní park, abbreviated as NP) are defined as a large areas with a typical relief and geological structure and a predominant occurrence of natural or man-made ecosystems, unique and significant on a national or international scale in terms of ecology, science, education or awareness. They are established by the Czech Government. As of 2021 there are 4 national parks in the Czech Republic:[1]

Short name Full name Established Area Protective zone area
Krkonoše Krkonošský národní park (KRNAP) 1963 363.27 km2 140.26 sq mi 186.42 km2 71.98 sq mi
Podyjí Národní park Podyjí 1991 63 km2 24 sq mi 29 km2 11 sq mi
Šumava Národní park Šumava 1991 685.2 km2 264.6 sq mi 944.8 km2 364.8 sq mi *
Bohemian Switzerland Národní park České Švýcarsko 2000 79 km2 31 sq mi
* The Šumava Protective Zone constitutes the Šumava PLA

Protected landscape area

Entrance to Moravian Karst PLA
Entrance to Moravian Karst PLA

Protected landscape area (abbreviated PLA; Czech: chráněná krajinná oblast, abbreviated CHKO) is a large area of harmonic landscape with a typical relief, with a considerable share of natural forest and permanent grassy ecosystems, there can also be preserved human settlement monuments. They are established by the Czech Government. As of 2021 there were 26 protected landscape areas in the Czech Republic:[1]

Czech name English translation Established Area
Český ráj Bohemian Paradise 1955 181.52 km2 70.09 sq mi
Moravský kras Moravian Karst 1956 92 km2 36 sq mi
Šumava Bohemian Forest 1963 944.8 km2 364.8 sq mi
Jizerské hory Jizera Mountains 1968 368 km2 142 sq mi
Jeseníky Ash Mountains 1969 740 km2 286 sq mi
Orlické hory Eagle Mountains 1969 200 km2 77 sq mi
Žďárské vrchy Žďár Highlands 1970 715 km2 276 sq mi
Český kras Bohemian Karst 1972 132 km2 51 sq mi
Labské pískovce Elbe Sandstone Mountains 1972 245 km2 95 sq mi
Beskydy Beskids 1973 1,196.96 km2 462.15 sq mi
Slavkovský les Slavkov Forest 1974 640 km2 247 sq mi
České středohoří Central Bohemian Uplands 1976 1,070 km2 413 sq mi
Kokořínsko – Máchův kraj Kokořín Area – Mácha's Region 1976 410 km2 158 sq mi
Lužické hory Lusatian Mountains 1976 350 km2 135 sq mi
Pálava Pálava 1976 70 km2 27 sq mi
Křivoklátsko Křivoklát Area 1978 630 km2 243 sq mi
Třeboňsko Třeboň Basin 1979 700 km2 270 sq mi
Bílé Karpaty White Carpathians 1980 71.5 km2 27.6 sq mi
Blaník Blaník 1981 40 km2 15 sq mi
Blanský les Blanský Forest 1989 212.35 km2 81.99 sq mi
Litovelské Pomoraví Litovel Morava Basin 1990 96 km2 37 sq mi
Broumovsko Broumov Area 1991 410 km2 158 sq mi
Poodří Oder Basin 1991 81.5 km2 31.5 sq mi
Železné hory Iron Mountains 1991 380 km2 147 sq mi
Český les Upper Palatine Forest 2005 470 km2 181 sq mi
Brdy Brdy 2016 345 km2 133 sq mi
Novohradské hory Gratzen Mountains pending 219 km2 85 sq mi
Střední Poohří Central Ohře (Eger) Basin pending 240 km2 93 sq mi

National nature reserve

National nature reserve (Czech: národní přírodní rezervace, abbreviated NPR) is a smaller area of exceptional nature value, where a typical relief of typical geological composition is combined with ecosystems important on an international or national level. They are established by the Czech Ministry of Environment.

Nature reserve

Nature reserve (Czech: přírodní rezervace, abbreviated PR) is a smaller area with concentrated nature features and ecosystems typical for a given geographical region. They are established by the appropriate Regional Government (Czech: krajský úřad) or Management of a National Park or Landscape Protected Area.

National nature monument

National Nature monument (Czech: národní přírodní památka, abbreviated as NPP) is a nature formation of a smaller area, usually geological or geomorphological formation, mineral or fossil collection locality or a habitat of endangered plants or animals in parts of ecosystems with a local environmental, scientific or esthetic importance. They are established by the Czech Ministry of Environment.

Nature monument

Hroby Nature Monument in Radenín
Hroby Nature Monument in Radenín

Nature Monument (Czech: přírodní památka, abbreviated as PP) is a nature formation of a smaller area, usually geological or geomorphological formation, mineral or fossil collection locality or a habitat of endangered plants or animals in parts of ecosystems with an international or national environmental, scientific or esthetic importance. They are established by the appropriate Regional Government or Management of a national park or protected landscape area.

Other forms of landscape protection

Nature park

Buděticko Nature Park with Rabí Castle
Buděticko Nature Park with Rabí Castle

Nature park (Czech: přírodní park) is usually a large area serving the protection of a landscape against activities that could decrease its natural and esthetic value. They can be established by any State Environment Protection body.

Memorable tree, group of trees or alley

Memorable tree, group of trees or alley (Czech: památný strom, skupina stromů nebo stromořadí). They can be established by any State Environment Protection body.

Notable landscape feature

Notable landscape feature (Czech: významný krajinný prvek) is usually a natural, cultural or historical feature typical for a given locality or region. They can be established by any State Environment Protection body.

Specially protected species of plants and animals

Specially protected species of plants and animals (Czech: Zvláště chráněné druhy rostlin a živočichů) are those species or subspecies which are very rare, generally endangered, scientifically or culturally important. They are listed in a Czech Ministry of Environment regulation. As of 2003, there are 477 plant species, 27 mushroom species and 191 animals on the list.

References

  1. ^ a b c d "Zákon č. 114/1992 Sb. o ochraně přírody a krajiny". zakonyprolidi.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 2022-03-01.

Further reading