There are several types of protected areas of the Czech Republic. The main form of landscape protection is delimitation of special protected areas. All the types of protected areas are determined by law.
There are six types of special protected areas distinguished by their size and importance. The types of large-scale protected areas are national park and protected landscape area; the types of small-scale protected areas are national nature reserve, nature reserve, national nature monument, and nature monument.
National park (Czech: národní park, abbreviated as NP) are defined as a large areas with a typical relief and geological structure and a predominant occurrence of natural or man-made ecosystems, unique and significant on a national or international scale in terms of ecology, science, education or awareness. They are established by the Czech Government. As of 2021 there are 4 national parks in the Czech Republic:
|Short name||Full name||Established||Area||Protective zone area|
|Krkonoše||Krkonošský národní park (KRNAP)||1963||363.27 km2||140.26 sq mi||186.42 km2||71.98 sq mi|
|Podyjí||Národní park Podyjí||1991||63 km2||24 sq mi||29 km2||11 sq mi|
|Šumava||Národní park Šumava||1991||685.2 km2||264.6 sq mi||944.8 km2||364.8 sq mi *|
|Bohemian Switzerland||Národní park České Švýcarsko||2000||79 km2||31 sq mi|
|* The Šumava Protective Zone constitutes the Šumava PLA|
Protected landscape area (abbreviated PLA; Czech: chráněná krajinná oblast, abbreviated CHKO) is a large area of harmonic landscape with a typical relief, with a considerable share of natural forest and permanent grassy ecosystems, there can also be preserved human settlement monuments. They are established by the Czech Government. As of 2021 there were 26 protected landscape areas in the Czech Republic:
|Czech name||English translation||Established||Area|
|Český ráj||Bohemian Paradise||1955||181.52 km2||70.09 sq mi|
|Moravský kras||Moravian Karst||1956||92 km2||36 sq mi|
|Šumava||Bohemian Forest||1963||944.8 km2||364.8 sq mi|
|Jizerské hory||Jizera Mountains||1968||368 km2||142 sq mi|
|Jeseníky||Ash Mountains||1969||740 km2||286 sq mi|
|Orlické hory||Eagle Mountains||1969||200 km2||77 sq mi|
|Žďárské vrchy||Žďár Highlands||1970||715 km2||276 sq mi|
|Český kras||Bohemian Karst||1972||132 km2||51 sq mi|
|Labské pískovce||Elbe Sandstone Mountains||1972||245 km2||95 sq mi|
|Beskydy||Beskids||1973||1,196.96 km2||462.15 sq mi|
|Slavkovský les||Slavkov Forest||1974||640 km2||247 sq mi|
|České středohoří||Central Bohemian Uplands||1976||1,070 km2||413 sq mi|
|Kokořínsko – Máchův kraj||Kokořín Area – Mácha's Region||1976||410 km2||158 sq mi|
|Lužické hory||Lusatian Mountains||1976||350 km2||135 sq mi|
|Pálava||Pálava||1976||70 km2||27 sq mi|
|Křivoklátsko||Křivoklát Area||1978||630 km2||243 sq mi|
|Třeboňsko||Třeboň Basin||1979||700 km2||270 sq mi|
|Bílé Karpaty||White Carpathians||1980||71.5 km2||27.6 sq mi|
|Blaník||Blaník||1981||40 km2||15 sq mi|
|Blanský les||Blanský Forest||1989||212.35 km2||81.99 sq mi|
|Litovelské Pomoraví||Litovel Morava Basin||1990||96 km2||37 sq mi|
|Broumovsko||Broumov Area||1991||410 km2||158 sq mi|
|Poodří||Oder Basin||1991||81.5 km2||31.5 sq mi|
|Železné hory||Iron Mountains||1991||380 km2||147 sq mi|
|Český les||Upper Palatine Forest||2005||470 km2||181 sq mi|
|Brdy||Brdy||2016||345 km2||133 sq mi|
|Novohradské hory||Gratzen Mountains||pending||219 km2||85 sq mi|
|Střední Poohří||Central Ohře (Eger) Basin||pending||240 km2||93 sq mi|
National nature reserve (Czech: národní přírodní rezervace, abbreviated NPR) is a smaller area of exceptional nature value, where a typical relief of typical geological composition is combined with ecosystems important on an international or national level. They are established by the Czech Ministry of Environment.
Nature reserve (Czech: přírodní rezervace, abbreviated PR) is a smaller area with concentrated nature features and ecosystems typical for a given geographical region. They are established by the appropriate Regional Government (Czech: krajský úřad) or Management of a National Park or Landscape Protected Area.
National Nature monument (Czech: národní přírodní památka, abbreviated as NPP) is a nature formation of a smaller area, usually geological or geomorphological formation, mineral or fossil collection locality or a habitat of endangered plants or animals in parts of ecosystems with a local environmental, scientific or esthetic importance. They are established by the Czech Ministry of Environment.
Nature Monument (Czech: přírodní památka, abbreviated as PP) is a nature formation of a smaller area, usually geological or geomorphological formation, mineral or fossil collection locality or a habitat of endangered plants or animals in parts of ecosystems with an international or national environmental, scientific or esthetic importance. They are established by the appropriate Regional Government or Management of a national park or protected landscape area.
Nature park (Czech: přírodní park) is usually a large area serving the protection of a landscape against activities that could decrease its natural and esthetic value. They can be established by any State Environment Protection body.
Memorable tree, group of trees or alley (Czech: památný strom, skupina stromů nebo stromořadí). They can be established by any State Environment Protection body.
Notable landscape feature (Czech: významný krajinný prvek) is usually a natural, cultural or historical feature typical for a given locality or region. They can be established by any State Environment Protection body.
Specially protected species of plants and animals (Czech: Zvláště chráněné druhy rostlin a živočichů) are those species or subspecies which are very rare, generally endangered, scientifically or culturally important. They are listed in a Czech Ministry of Environment regulation. As of 2003, there are 477 plant species, 27 mushroom species and 191 animals on the list.