The oldest copy of the Rule of Saint Benedict, from the eighth century (Oxford, Bodleian Library, MS. Hatton 48, fols. 6v–7r)

The Rule of Saint Benedict (Latin: Regula Sancti Benedicti) is a book of precepts written in Latin c. 530 by St Benedict of Nursia (c. AD 480–550) for monks living communally under the authority of an abbot.[1]

The spirit of Saint Benedict's Rule is summed up in the motto of the Benedictine Confederation: pax ("peace") and the traditional ora et labora ("pray and work"). Compared to other precepts, the Rule provides a moderate path between individual zeal and formulaic institutionalism; because of this middle ground, it has been widely popular. Benedict's concerns were the needs of monks in a community environment: namely, to establish due order, to foster an understanding of the relational nature of human beings, and to provide a spiritual father to support and strengthen the individual's ascetic effort and the spiritual growth that is required for the fulfillment of the human vocation, theosis.

The Rule of Saint Benedict has been used by Benedictines for 15 centuries, and thus St. Benedict is sometimes regarded as the founder of Western monasticism due to the reforming influence that his rules had on the then-current Catholic hierarchy.[2] There is, however, no evidence to suggest that Benedict intended to found a religious order in the modern sense, and it was not until the Late Middle Ages that mention was made of an "Order of Saint Benedict". His Rule was written as a guide for individual, autonomous communities, and all Benedictine Houses (and the Congregations in which they have grouped themselves) still remain self-governing. Advantages seen in retaining this unique Benedictine emphasis on autonomy include cultivating models of tightly bonded communities and contemplative lifestyles. Perceived disadvantages comprise geographical isolation from important activities in adjacent communities. Other perceived losses include inefficiency and lack of mobility in the service of others, and insufficient appeal to potential members. These different emphases emerged within the framework of the Rule in the course of history and are to some extent present within the Benedictine Confederation and the Cistercian Orders of the Common and the Strict Observance.


Christian monasticism first appeared in the Egyptian desert, before Benedict of Nursia. Under the inspiration of Saint Anthony the Great (251–356), ascetic monks led by Saint Pachomius (286–346) formed the first Christian monastic communities under what became known as an Abbot, from the Aramaic abba (father).[3]

Saint Benedict writing the rules. Painting (1926) by Hermann Nigg (1849–1928).

Within a generation, both solitary as well as communal monasticism became very popular and spread outside of Egypt, first to Palestine and the Judean Desert and thence to Syria and North Africa. Saint Basil of Caesarea codified the precepts for these eastern monasteries in his Ascetic Rule, or Ascetica, which is still used today in the Eastern Orthodox Church.

In the West in about the year 500, Benedict became so upset by the immorality of society in Rome that he gave up his studies there, at age fourteen, and chose the life of an ascetic monk in the pursuit of personal holiness, living as a hermit in a cave near the rugged region of Subiaco. In time, setting an example with his zeal, he began to attract disciples. After considerable initial struggles with his first community at Subiaco, he eventually founded the monastery of Monte Cassino in 529, where he wrote his Rule near the end of his life.[4]

In chapter 73, Saint Benedict commends the Rule of Saint Basil and alludes to further authorities. He was probably aware of the Rule written by Pachomius (or attributed to him), and his Rule also shows influence by the Rule of St Augustine of Hippo and the writings of Saint John Cassian. Benedict's greatest debt, however, may be to the anonymous document known as the Rule of the Master, which Benedict seems to have radically excised, expanded, revised and corrected in the light of his own considerable experience and insight.[5] Saint Benedict's work expounded upon preconceived ideas that were present in the religious community only making minor changes more in line with the time period relevant to his system.[6][7]

The Rule was translated into Armenian by Nerses of Lampron in the 10th century and is used by the Armenian Catholic Mekhitarists today. It was also translated into Old English by Æthelwold.[8]


The Rule opens with a hortatory preface, drawing on the Admonitio ad filium spiritualem,[9] in which Saint Benedict sets forth the main principles of the religious life, viz.: the renunciation of one's own will and arming oneself "with the strong and noble weapons of obedience" under the banner of "the true King, Christ the Lord" (Prol. 3). He proposes to establish a "school for the Lord's service" (Prol. 45) in which the "way to salvation" (Prol. 48) shall be taught, so that by persevering in the monastery till death his disciples may "through patience share in the passion of Christ that [they] may deserve also to share in his Kingdom" (Prol. 50, passionibus Christi per patientiam participemur, ut et regno eius mereamur esse consortes; note: Latin passionibus and patientiam have the same root, cf. Fry, RB 1980, p. 167).[10]

  1. Cenobites, those "in a monastery, where they serve under a rule and an abbot".
  2. Anchorites, or hermits, who, after long successful training in a monastery, are now coping single-handedly, with only God for their help.
    Regula, 1495
  3. Sarabaites, living by twos and threes together or even alone, with no experience, rule and superior, and thus a law unto themselves.[10]
  4. Gyrovagues, wandering from one monastery to another, slaves to their own wills and appetites.[10]
Saint Benedict delivering his rule to the monks of his order, Monastery of St. Gilles, Nimes, France, 1129

Outline of the Benedictine life

Ora et Labora (Pray and Work). This 1862 painting by John Rogers Herbert depicts monks at work in the fields.

Saint Benedict's model for the monastic life was the family, with the abbot as father and all the monks as brothers. Priesthood was not initially an important part of Benedictine monasticism – monks used the services of their local priest. Because of this, almost all the Rule is applicable to communities of women under the authority of an abbess. This appeal to multiple groups would later make the Rule of Saint Benedict an integral set of guidelines for the development of the Christian faith.

Saint Benedict's Rule organises the monastic day into regular periods of communal and private prayer, sleep, spiritual reading, and manual labour – ut in omnibus glorificetur Deus, "that in all [things] God may be glorified" (cf. Rule ch. 57.9). In later centuries, intellectual work and teaching took the place of farming, crafts, or other forms of manual labour for many – if not most – Benedictines.

Traditionally, the daily life of the Benedictine revolved around the eight canonical hours. The monastic timetable, or Horarium, would begin at midnight with the service, or "office", of Matins (today also called the Office of Readings), followed by the morning office of Lauds at 3am. Before the advent of wax candles in the 14th century, this office was said in the dark or with minimal lighting; and monks were expected to memorise everything. These services could be very long, sometimes lasting till dawn, but usually consisted of a chant, three antiphons, three psalms, and three lessons, along with celebrations of any local saints' days. Afterwards the monks would retire for a few hours of sleep and then rise at 6am to wash and attend the office of Prime. They then gathered in Chapter to receive instructions for the day and to attend to any judicial business. Then came private Mass or spiritual reading or work until 9am when the office of Terce was said, and then High Mass. At noon came the office of Sext and the midday meal. After a brief period of communal recreation, the monk could retire to rest until the office of None at 3pm. This was followed by farming and housekeeping work until after twilight, the evening prayer of Vespers at 6pm, then the night prayer of Compline at 9pm, and retiring to bed, before beginning the cycle again. In modern times, this timetable is often changed to accommodate any apostolate outside the monastic enclosure (e.g. the running of a school[11] or parish).

Many Benedictine Houses have a number of Oblates (secular) who are affiliated with them in prayer, having made a formal private promise (usually renewed annually) to follow the Rule of St Benedict in their private life as closely as their individual circumstances and prior commitments permit.

In recent years discussions have occasionally been held[by whom?] concerning the applicability of the principles and spirit of the Rule of Saint Benedict to the secular working environment.[12]


During the more than 1500 years of their existence, Benedictines have seen cycles of flourish and decline. Several reform movements sought more intense devotion to both the letter and spirit of the Rule of St Benedict, at least as they understood it. Examples include the Camaldolese, the Cistercians, the Trappists (a reform of the Cistercians), and the Sylvestrines.

Secular significance

Charlemagne had Benedict's Rule copied and distributed to encourage monks throughout western Europe to follow it as a standard. Beyond its religious influences, the Rule of St Benedict was one of the most important written works to shape medieval Europe, embodying the ideas of a written constitution and the rule of law. It also incorporated a degree of democracy in a non-democratic society, and dignified manual labor.

Popular motto Ora et labora

Although not stated explicitly in the rule, the motto Ora et labora is widely considered to be a shortform capturing the spirit of the rule.[13]

See also


  1. ^ Vogüé, Adalbert de; Neufville, Jean (1972). La Règle de Saint Benoît. Les Éditions du Cerf.
  2. ^ Kardong, T. (2001). Saint Benedict and the Twelfth-Century Reformation. Cistercian Studies Quarterly, 36(3), 279.
  3. ^ "abbot". Oxford English Dictionary (Online ed.). Oxford University Press. (Subscription or participating institution membership required.)
  4. ^ Chambers, Mortimer (1974). The Western Experience. Knopf. p. 188. ISBN 0-394-31733-5.
  5. ^ "OSB. About the Rule of Saint Benedict by Abbot Primate Jerome Theisen OSB". Retrieved 2008-11-10.
  6. ^ "Catholic Encyclopedia: Rule of St. Benedict". Retrieved 2017-11-29.
  7. ^ Zuidema, Jason (2012). "Understanding Decline and Renewal in the History of Life under Saint Benedict's Rule: Observations from Canada". Cistercian Studies Quarterly. 47: 456–469.
  8. ^ See Jacob Riyeff (trans.), The Old English Rule of Saint Benedict: with Related Old English Texts (Liturgical Press, 2017).
  9. ^ James Francis LePree, "Pseudo-Basil's De admonitio ad filium spiritualem: A New English Translation", The Heroic Age: A Journal of Early Medieval Northwestern Europe 13 (2010).
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainHerbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Rule of St. Benedict". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  11. ^ Alcuin Deutsch, Educational principles in the Rule of St. Benedict. Collegeville, Minn., St. John's Abbey [1912].
  12. ^ Kleymann, Birgit; Malloch, Hedley (2010). "The rule of Saint Benedict and corporate management: Employing the whole person". Journal of Global Responsibility. 1 (2): 207–224. doi:10.1108/20412561011079362.
  13. ^ "Work Is Prayer: Not! by Terrence Kardong from Assumption Abbey Newsletter (Richardton, ND 58652). Volume 23, Number 4 (October 1995)". Retrieved 2010-07-07.