Space rock is a music genre characterized by loose and lengthy song structures centered on instrumental textures that typically produce a hypnotic, otherworldly sound.[1] It may feature distorted and reverberation-laden guitars, minimal drumming, languid vocals, synthesizers and lyrical themes of outer space and science fiction.

The genre emerged in late 1960s psychedelia and progressive rock bands such as Pink Floyd, Hawkwind,[1] and Gong[2] who explored a "cosmic" sound. Similar sounds were pursued in the early 1970s West German kosmische Musik ("cosmic music") scene. Later, the style was taken up in the mid-1980s by Spacemen 3, whose "drone-heavy" sound was avowedly inspired by and intended to accommodate drug use. By the 1990s, space rock developed into shoegazing and post-rock[1] with bands such as the Verve, Flying Saucer Attack, and Orange Goblin.

History

Origins: 1950s-1960s

See also: Progressive rock and Psychedelic rock

Humanity's entry into outer space provided ample subject matter for rock and roll and R&B songs from the mid-1950s through the early 1960s. It also inspired new sounds and sound effects to be used in the music itself. A prominent early example of space rock is the 1959 concept album I Hear a New World by British producer and songwriter Joe Meek. The album was inspired by the space race and concerned human's first close encounter with alien life forms.[3] Meek then went on to have a UK and US No 1 success in 1961 with "Telstar", named after the newly launched communications satellite and thus intended to commemorate the new space age. Its main instrument was a clavioline, an electronic forerunner of the synthesizers.

The Beatles' song "Flying" (1967), originally titled "Aerial Tour Instrumental", was a psychedelic instrumental about the sensation of flying, whether in a craft or in your own head space.[4] Jimi Hendrix is also an early innovator of the genre, with such tracks as "Third Stone from the Sun", "1983... (A Merman I Should Turn to Be)" and "The Stars That Play with Laughing Sam's Dice".

Pink Floyd's early albums contain pioneering examples of space rock: "Lucifer Sam",[5] "Astronomy Domine",[6] "Pow R. Toc H."[7] and "Interstellar Overdrive"[8] from their 1967 debut album The Piper at the Gates of Dawn are examples. Their second album A Saucerful of Secrets contained further examples: "Let There Be More Light" and "Set the Controls for the Heart of the Sun" with explicit science fiction themes, and their third, More (1969) had "Cirrus Minor".

Hawkwind, an influential space rock band
Hawkwind, an influential space rock band

Peak: 1970s-1980s

In the early 1970s, West Germany's kosmische Musik ("cosmic music") scene developed among artists who explored "spacy", ambient instrumental soundscapes.[9] The term is frequently used as a synonym of krautrock,[10] but may also be used as a German analogue to the English term "space rock".[11] These artists often explored electronic music, synthesizers, and themes related to space or otherworldliness.[12][9] Examples included artists like Ash Ra Tempel, Tangerine Dream, Popul Vuh, and Klaus Schulze.[11]

In early 1971, Pink Floyd began writing the song that would become known as "Echoes", from the 1971 album Meddle. The song was performed from April until September 1971, with an alternative set of lyrics, written about two planets meeting in space. Before the Meddle album released, the lyrics were changed to an aquatic theme, because of the band's concern that they were being labelled as a space rock band.[citation needed]

A major album in the history of space rock was Hawkwind's Space Ritual (1973),[13] a two-disc live album advertised as "88 minutes of brain-damage" documenting Hawkwind's 1972 tour that included a liquid light show and lasers, nude dancers (notably the earth-mother figure Stacia), wild costumes and psychedelic imagery. This hard-edged concert experience attracted a motley but dedicated collection of psychedelic drug users, science-fiction fans and motorcycle riders. The science fiction author Michael Moorcock collaborated with Hawkwind on many occasions and wrote the lyrics for many of the spoken-word sections on Space Ritual. In Europe, Hungarian band Omega was the biggest space rock band with albums Time Robber (1976), Skyrover (1978), and Gammapolis (1979). Other European bands include the progressive rock groups Eloy and Nektar. Nektar, who were known for having a rhythmic liquid/slide light show at their concerts, released their album Journey to the Centre of the Eye in 1971.

Apart from Hawkwind, Marc Bolan and his band T. Rex probably had the most success with space rock, mainly appearing on album tracks such as "Ballrooms of Mars", "Venus Loon" and "Spaceball Ricochet", although he characterised his music as "cosmic rock" (at the end of his first No 1 hit in the UK – Hot Love). Like Hawkwind's Dave Brock, Bolan used pentatonic guitar progressions to design riffs.

In the 1980s, UK band Mournblade, cited in the music press as 'Hawkwind influenced', blended space rock with a harder, more NWOBHM edge and linked into the emerging 'grebo revival' scene of the late 1980s. From 1980s to 1990s, Magic Mushroom Band and Ozric Tentacles released space rock albums.[14]

1990s revival

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Ed Wynne of space rock band Ozric Tentacles
Ed Wynne of space rock band Ozric Tentacles

Shoegazing, stoner rock/metal and noise pop genres emerged into the mainstream with the explosion of bands such as Julian Cope, Swervedriver, Slowdive, the Verve, My Bloody Valentine, Flying Saucer Attack, Klaus Schulze, Ride, the Flaming Lips, Orange Goblin, Spacemen 3, Spiritualized, Mercury Rev, Godspeed You! Black Emperor, Monster Magnet, The Brian Jonestown Massacre, Richard Ashcroft, David Jackson, Magic Mushroom Band,[15] and Ozric Tentacles.[16] The sonic experimentation and emphasis placed on texture by these bands led them to be dubbed "space rock".

In the mid-1990s, a number of bands built on the space rock styles of Hawkwind and Gong appeared in America. Some of these bands were signed to Cleopatra Records, which then proceeded to release numerous space rock compilations. Starting in 1997, Daevid Allen of Gong, along with members of Hawkwind and other space rock bands, started to perform with Spirits Burning, a studio project created to celebrate space rock.

The Strange Daze festivals from 1997 to 2001 showcased the American space rock scene in three-day outdoor festivals. A Michigan-based space rock scene included Burnt Hair Records, Darla Records, and bands such as Windy & Carl, Mahogany, Sweet Trip, Füxa and Auburn Lull. This was a modern movement of the traditional "space rock" sound and was pinned Detroit Space Rock.

French band Air released albums Moon Safari, 10,000 Hz Legend and Le voyage dans la lune.

21st century

In 2005, Tom DeLonge formed the rock supergroup Angels & Airwaves, who are known for having space rock influences in both its music and lyrics, in addition to having space-themed imagery and artwork.

In 2009 an off-duty NASA worker from the shuttle program synchronised footage of a Discovery launch with the Flowers Of Hell's "Sympathy For Vengeance" in an online video which became popular amongst staff at the Kennedy Space Center.[17][18]

The progressive rock band Starset is heavily influenced by space and astronomy, and many of their songs reference themes commonly associated with space.

In 2006 the british rock band Muse released the song Knights of Cydonia which is heavily inspired by the song Telstar from the Tornados.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c "Space rock". AllMusic. Retrieved 9 March 2017.
  2. ^ Nickson, Chris. "Shapeshifter – Gong | AllMusic". allmusic.com. Retrieved 11 November 2018.
  3. ^ "Joe Meek: The RGM Legacy". Archived from the original on 8 October 2012. Retrieved 7 January 2021.
  4. ^ AllMusic Review by Richie Unterberger
  5. ^ A.Robbins "The Trouser Press record guide" (Collier Books, 1991), ISBN 0-02-036361-3
  6. ^ Bruce Eder, Astronomy Domine song review, AllMusic
  7. ^ Nicholas Schaffner, "Saucerful of secrets: the Pink Floyd odyssey", (Dell, 1992), ISBN 0-385-30684-9, p.66.
  8. ^ Richie Unterberger, Interstellar Overdrive song review, AllMusic
  9. ^ a b Adelt 2016.
  10. ^ Seabrook, Thomas Jerome (2008). Bowie in Berlin: A New Career in a New Town. Jawbone Press. p. 85. ISBN 978-1-906002-08-4. Retrieved 25 April 2019.
  11. ^ a b Horn, David; Shepherd, John, eds. (2017). Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World, Volume 11. Bloomsbury Academic. p. 177.
  12. ^ Harden, Alexander C (31 December 2016). "Kosmische Musik and its Techno-Social Context". IASPM Journal. 6 (2): 154–173. doi:10.5429/2079-3871(2016)v6i2.9en. Retrieved 18 August 2017.
  13. ^ Wilson Neate, Space Ritual review, AllMusic
  14. ^ "Ozric Tentacles – Freakbeat 1990". Ozrics.elementfx.com. Retrieved 30 March 2022.
  15. ^ MMB Retrieved 29 March 2022
  16. ^ "Space rock". AllMusic. Retrieved 29 March 2022.
  17. ^ [1][permanent dead link]
  18. ^ "Archive of Sympathy for Vengeance + Space Shuttle Discovery mashup". Smg.photobucket.com. Retrieved 7 January 2021.