Spite or spitefulness as a sentiment, action, or a personality trait has several possible meanings.[1] According to the American Psychological Association there is "no standard definition of spitefulness. Spite can be broadly defined to include any vindictive or mean-spirited actions. Alternatively, a narrower definition includes the requirement that spiteful acts involve some degree of self-harm."[1] One possible definition of spite is to intentionally annoy, hurt, or upset even when there might be no (apparent) gain, and even when those actions might cause the person spiting harm, as well.[2] Spiteful words or actions are delivered in such a way that it is clear that the person is delivering them just to annoy, hurt, or upset.[3]

In his 1929 examination of emotional disturbances, Psychology and Morals: An Analysis of Character, J. A. Hadfield uses deliberately spiteful acts to illustrate the difference between disposition and sentiment.[4]

Spite has also been studied as a trait of human personality;[5] although in general spite has been largely ignored in academic literature.[6] University of Washington researchers David K Marcus, Virgil Zeigler-Hill, Sterett H Mercer, and Alyssa L Norris were the first to develop a personality scale designed to measure and assess the trait of spitefulness which was published in 2014 in Psychological Assessment.[1]

Spite in literature

The Underground Man, in Fyodor Dostoevsky's novella Notes from Underground, is an example of spite. His motivation remains constantly spiteful, undercutting his own existence and ability to live.

Further reading

  • "Why We Behave Spitefully: Spitefulness is expensive. So why do we do it?". Psychology Today. October 9, 2021.
  • Leon F. Seltzer (June 19, 2019). "Spite: What We Do for the Sweet Sake of Revenge". Psychology Today.
  • Maanvi Singh (April 23, 2014). "Why Are We Spiteful, Even Though It Bites Us Back?". NPR.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c Marcus, David K.; Norris, Alyssa L. (2016). "Spite". The dark side of personality: Science and practice in social, personality, and clinical psychology. American Psychological Association. pp. 121–133. doi:10.1037/14854-007. ISBN 978-1-4338-2187-5.
  2. ^ Neel V Patel (29 August 2018). "10 Scientific Facts About Spite". Mental Floss.
  3. ^ "Spite". Oxford English Dictionary. Archived from the original on April 19, 2014.
  4. ^ Hadfield, J. A. (22 December 2015). Psychology and Morals: An Analysis of Character. ISBN 9781317235804. Retrieved 2016-05-02.
  5. ^ Marcus, David K; Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; Mercer, Sterett H; Norris, Alyssa L (February 17, 2014). "The psychology of spite and the measurement of spitefulness". Psychological Assessment. 26 (2): 563–574. doi:10.1037/a0036039. PMID 24548150.
  6. ^ "Psychological study of spite: 'Virtually ignored' by researchers". ScienceDaily. April 23, 2014.