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Early stagecraft master Robert Edmond Jones drawing at a high table (c. 1920).

Stagecraft is a technical aspect of theatrical, film, and video production. It includes constructing and rigging scenery; hanging and focusing of lighting; design and procurement of costumes; make-up; stage management; audio engineering; and procurement of props. Stagecraft is distinct from the wider umbrella term of scenography. Considered a technical rather than an artistic field, it is primarily the practical implementation of a scenic designer's artistic vision.

In its most basic form, stagecraft may be executed by a single person (often the stage manager of a smaller production) who arranges all scenery, costumes, lighting, and sound, and organizes the cast. Regional theaters and larger community theaters will generally have a technical director and a complement of designers, each of whom has a direct hand in their respective designs. Within significantly larger productions, for example a modern Broadway show, effectively bringing a show to opening night requires the work of skilled carpenters, painters, electricians, stagehands, stitchers, wigmakers, and the like. Modern stagecraft is highly technical and specialized: it comprises many sub-disciplines and a vast trove of history and tradition.


Ancient Greece

Greek theatre made extensive use of stagecraft, and Greek vocabulary and practice continue to influence contemporary Western stagecraft. The defining element of a Greek theatre's stage was the skene, a structure at the back of the stage, often featuring three doors. The usual setting for a classical Greek tragedy was a palace, and skenes were decorated to support that setting.[1]

On the audience-side of the skene, what are now known as flats could be hung. Flats evolved from one-sided to two-sided painted flats, which would be mounted and centered on a rotating pin. Rope would run around each consecutive pin, allowing the flats to be turned for scene changes. The double-sided-flat eventually evolved into the periaktos.

Greek stagecraft was essential to the storytelling of its works. An ekkyklema, similar to a contemporary wagon, was used to present the death of a character by rolling out their dead body, instead of showing their death onstage.[2] The mechane, a crane for lifting actors over the skene, supported the conclusions of plays, whose storylines were often suddenly resolved by the introduction of a god. The mechane is the literal source for the contemporary phrase deus ex machina.[3] Performances were lit by sunlight, often taking advantage of the particular time of day to support the story.[4]


Plays of Medieval times were held in different places such as the streets of towns and cities, performed by traveling, secular troupes. Some were also held in monasteries, performed by church-controlled groups, often portraying religious scenes. The playing place could represent many different things such as indoors or outdoors (as in the Cornish plen-an-gwary amphitheatres). They were played in certain places so the props could be used for the play. Songs and spectacles were often used in plays to enhance participation.[5][page needed]

More modern stagecraft was developed in England between 1576 and 1642. There were three different types of theaters in London – public, private and court. The size and shape varied but many were suggested to be round theaters. Public playhouses such as the Globe Theatre used rigging housed in a room on the roof to lower and raise scenery or actors, and used the raised stage by developing the practice of using trap-doors in theatrical productions. Most of the theaters had circular-design, with an open area above the pit to allow sunlight to enter and light the stage.[6]

Proscenium stages, or picture-box stages, were constructed in France around the time of the English Restoration, and maintain the place of the most popular form of stage in use to-date, and originally combined elements of the skene in design, essentially building a skene on-stage. Lighting of the period would have consisted of candles, used as foot-lights, and hanging from chandeliers above the stage.

Stagecraft during the Victorian era in England developed rapidly with the emergence of the West End. Prompted by and influx of urbanites in the greater London area, Parliament was forced to do away with previous licensing laws and allowed all theaters to perform straight plays in 1843. Electric lighting and hydraulics were introduced to draw large audiences to see on-stage storms, explosions, and miraculous transformations. Technologies developed during the latter part of the 19th-century paved the way for the development of special effects to be used in film.[7]

Lighting continued to develop. In England, a form lamp using a blowpipe to heat lime to incandescence was developed, for navigation purposes – it was soon adapted to theatrical performances and the limelight became a widespread form of artificial light for theaters. To control the focus of the light, a Fresnel lens was used.

After candles, came gas lighting, using pipes with small openings which were lit before every performance, and could be dimmed by controlling the flow of gas, so long as the flame never went out. With the turn of the 20th century, many theater companies making the transition from gas to electricity would install the new system right next to the old one, resulting in many explosions and fires due to the electricity igniting the gas lines.

Modern theatrical lighting is electrically-based. Many lamps and lighting instruments are in use today, and the field is rapidly becoming one of the most diverse and complex in the industry.[8]


For a topical guide, see Outline of stagecraft.

A wide range of disciplines are included in stagecraft, all of which are crucial to creating compelling and immersive theatrical productions. Stagecraft is the foundation of any theatrical play, impacting the audience's experience, from the skilled application of lighting to the elaborate creation of scenery and costumes. Stagecraft promotes flawless performance execution and amplifies the emotional impact of storytelling by coordinating the interaction of visual and aural elements. Stagecraft is essential to producing captivating and unforgettable theatrical moments, whether it is through the creative application of makeup and wigs, the inventive use of mechanical scenery, or the well-planned fusion of sound and visual effects. Stagecraft brings dramatic dreams to life by a fusion of artistic innovation and technical mastery, making a profound impact on audiences all over the world.

Stagecraft comprises many disciplines, typically divided into a number of main disciplines:


Performance of Gijsbrecht van Aemstel in Amsterdam (c. 1904-1905).

The theater designer, responsible for orchestrating the visual and auditory aspects of a stage production, is traditionally known as the set designer. This convention has emerged for practical reasons, ensuring efficiency in the design process.[9] Upon entering a theater, viewers are immediately drawn to the set design, shaping their initial impression of the show. In this moment, designers establish the show's concept, define its style, evoke mood and atmosphere, and establish the tone by revealing the date and setting. Stage designers intentionally select elements to craft the audience's perception of the depicted worlds in a play, rather than simply replicating settings realistically. For much of theatrical history, there was no dedicated scenic designer role. Instead, theater practitioners relied on stock scenery or utilized the space itself to establish settings.

Stage Management

While playwrights, producers, directors, designers, and performers all have specific roles to play, the stage manager is the one who manages the intricate collaboration between all of these important participants. Serving as the production's center point, the stage manager makes sure that every aspect, from staff to materials, works in unison to realize the theatrical concept.[10] Their responsibilities are broad and include managing backstage operations, organizing technical cues, and arranging rehearsals. In addition, the stage manager plays a pivotal role in mediating issues and fostering constructive communication between the actors and the creative team during the course of the production. As a result, even if the actors and directors receive most of the attention, the stage manager's hard work and knowledge behind the scenes preserves the integrity and professionalism of live theater production.

See also


  1. ^ Wilson, Edwin; Goldfarb, Alvin (2012). Living theatre: history of the theatre (6th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill. p. 46. ISBN 978-0-07-338220-3.
  2. ^ Eis, Joel D. (2016). "Confirming an Ekkyklēma in Sophocles' Acrisius". Acta Classica. 59: 193–202. doi:10.15731/AClass.059.10. ISSN 0065-1141. JSTOR 26347107. Retrieved 1 April 2023.
  3. ^ Wilson & Goldfarb 2012, p. 47.
  4. ^ Wilson & Goldfarb 2012, p. 44.
  5. ^ Coldewey, John (2001). Drama: Classical to Contemporary. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, ISBN 978-0130884411
  6. ^ Styan, John L. (1967). Shakespeare's Stagecraft, Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521094356[page needed]
  7. ^ Bratton, Jacky (15 March 2015). "Theatre in the 19th century". Discovering Literature: Romantics & Victorians. The British Library. Archived from the original on 10 July 2022. Retrieved 1 April 2023.
  8. ^ White, Timothy R. (2015). Blue-Collar Broadway: The Craft and Industry of American Theater. University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 978-0812246629.[page needed]
  9. ^ Di Benedetto, Stephen (2012). An introduction to theatre design. London ; New York: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-54753-6.
  10. ^ Lawrence, Stern (2012). Stage Management (10th ed.). Pearson. ISBN 9780205006137.