Afghan diaspora
Persian: مهاجران افغان
Pashto: بهر مياشت افغانان
Regions with significant populations
 Iranc. 2-3 million (2023)[1]
 Pakistanc. 4.4-3.7 million (2023)[2][3]
 Germany425,000 (2022)[4]
 United States300,000 (2022)[5]
 United Arab Emirates300,000 (2023)[6][7]
 Russia150,000 (2017)[8]
 Canada132,015 (2023)[9][10]
 Turkey129,323 (2021)[11][12]
 United Kingdom79,000 (2019)[13]
 Sweden60,858 (2020)[14]
 Australia59,797 (2021)[15]
 Netherlands51,830 (2021)[16]
 France41,174 (2021)[17]
 Greece21,456 (2021)[18]
 Ukraine20,000 (2001)[19]
 Denmark18,018 (2017)[20]
 India15,806 (2021)[11][21]
 Austria44,918 (2023)[22]
  Switzerland14,523 (2021)[18]
 Finland12,044 (2021)[23]
 Italy11,121-12,096 (2021)[18][24]
 Norway19,072 (2023)[25]
 Uzbekistan10,000 (2022)[26]
 Israel10,000 (2012)[27]
 Indonesia7,629 (2021)[11]
 Tajikistan6,775 (2021)[28]
 Qatar4,000 (2012)[29]
 Japan3,509 (2020)[30]
 New Zealand3,414 (2013)[31]
 Brazil2,800+ (2023)[32]
 Malaysia2,661 (2021)[11][33]
 Kazakhstan2,500+ (2021)[34][35]
 Romania2,384 (2020)[36]
 Kyrgyzstan2,000 (2002)[37]
 Ireland1,200 (2019)[38]
 Ecuador300–2,500 (2018)[39]
 Portugal883[40]
Languages
Dari Persian, Pashto, and languages spoken in the respective country of residence
Religion
Sunni Islam (majority)
Shia islam, Hinduism and Sikhism (minorites)

Afghan diaspora refers to the Afghan people that reside and work outside of Afghanistan. They include natives and citizens of Afghanistan who have immigrated to other countries. The majority of the diaspora has been formed by Afghan refugees since the start of the Soviet–Afghan War in 1979; the largest numbers temporarily reside in Iran and Pakistan. As stateless refugees or asylum seekers, they are protected by the well-established non-refoulement principle and the U.N. Convention Against Torture.[41] The ones having at least one American parent are further protected by United States laws.[42][43]

Outside the immediate region of Afghanistan, the largest and oldest communities of Afghans exist in Germany; large communities also exist in the United States, the United Arab Emirates, Russia, Turkey, Canada, United Kingdom, Sweden, Netherlands, Australia and Austria. Some are nationals and citizens of the countries in those continents, especially those in the United States, Canada, Germany, Australia and New Zealand.[44][45][43]

Traditionally, the borders between Afghanistan and its southern and eastern neighboring countries have been fluid and vague.[46] Like other nations that were created by European empires, the borders of Afghanistan with neighboring countries often do not follow ethnic divisions, and several native ethnic groups are found on both sides of Afghanistan's border. This means that historically there was much movement across present day barriers.[47]

History

The April 1978 Saur Revolution led to the 1980s Soviet–Afghan War. These events compelled millions of Afghans to migrate to neighboring Pakistan and Iran on a temporary basis, i.e., until threats of torture, persecution and mistreatment disappear in Afghanistan.

After the 1979 Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, Afghan civilians began escaping to neighboring Pakistan and Iran where they were welcomed by the governments of those countries. From there many immigrated to North America, Europe and Oceania. Smaller number went north and began residing in various cities across the then Soviet Union. Some went to India, Saudi Arabia, and elsewhere within the Asian continent.[48]

After the withdrawal of Soviet forces in February 1989, large number of Afghans began returning to their homeland,[49] but after the mujahideen took control of the country in 1992 they again began migrated to neighboring countries. From there the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), the International Organization for Migration (IOM), the United States Refugee Admissions Program (USRAP) and many others began helping Afghans to resettle in Europe, North America and Oceania.

Since March 2002, around 4.4 million Afghan refugees have been repatriated to Afghanistan with the assistance of the UNHCR and IOM.[50][51][52][3] Nearly 1.3 million still remain in Pakistan[53] and 2.5 million or so in Iran.[54] A number of countries that were part of the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) have granted permanent residency to tens of thousands of eligible Afghans.[55][56][57][58][59][60] This creates a legal pathway for those Afghans to become citizens of those countries. Native people of Afghanistan now reside in at least 96 countries around the world.[18] Some of those returning from Pakistan have complained that "they have been beaten and slapped and told nobody in Pakistan wants them anymore."[61] Others have regarded Pakistan as their home because they were born there.[62] Returnees from Iran experience similar or worst punishments.[63] A number of returnees to Afghanistan make new journeys to the European Union (EU) to seek asylum there.[64][65]

Afghan diaspora around the world

Map of the Afghan diaspora in the world (includes Afghans of any ethnicity, ancestry or citizenship).
  Afghanistan
  + 1,000,000
  + 100,000
  + 10,000
  + 1,000

Numerous local places around the world with a high concentration of Afghans have been dubbed "Little Kabul", including Centerville District in Fremont, California, U.S.,[66] Steindamm in Hamburg, Germany,[67] Lajpat Nagar in Delhi, India,[68] and Hotel Sevastopol in Moscow, Russia.[69]

Western Asia

Main articles: Afghans in Iran, Afghans in Turkey, and Afghans in Qatar

Approximately 780,000 registered citizens of Afghanistan are temporarily residing in Iran under the care and protection of the UNHCR.[54][70][71] According to Afghanistan's Ministry of Refugees, the total number of Afghans in Iran is around 3 million.[72] The UNHCR stated in 2020 that little over 2 million undocumented citizens of Afghanistan were residing in various parts of the country.[54][71] According to IOM, over 1.1 million of them were repatriated to Afghanistan in 2021.[50][51] Over 600,000 have returned to Afghanistan in 2022.[73][74] According to Iran's Ambassador Hassan Kazemi Qomi, half of Iran's foreign investors are Afghans.[75]

Significant number of Afghans also reside in Turkey. They include business investors, registered refugees, migrant workers, and those trying to make their way to Europe.[11][76][77][12] Around 300,000 reside in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) where many are investors in Dubai and Abu Dhabi.[6][78][7] Some of them could be Iranians or Pakistanis using false Afghan passports.[79] Approximately 10,000 Afghans reside in Israel. They are Israelis by nationality.[27] Between 3,500 and 4,000 Afghans reside in Qatar.[29]

The UAE authorities were criticized was keeping thousands of Afghan asylum seekers in cramped and miserable conditions for more than 15 months. Afghans between 2,400-2,700 were being arbitrarily detained in Emirates Humanitarian Cities in Abu Dhabi. Several Afghans interviewed said they were not allowed to leave the site freely and were allowed visits to necessary hospitals only under close supervision by security forces and camp guards. HRW called for the UAE to release those arbitrarily detained, and to allow them a fair and efficient procedure to determine their status and protection needs.[80]

South Asia

Main articles: Afghans in Pakistan and Afghans in India

Islamabad, Pakistan

As of October 2023, the United Nations estimates that nearly 3.7 million Afghans reside in Pakistan, while Pakistani authorities believe the number to be as high as 4.4 million.[2][81][82] Of these, only 2.7 million hold the required documentation allowing them to legally stay in Pakistan.[2] As of June 2023, approximately 1,333,749 registered refugees still remain in Pakistan according to UNHCR.[83] They are also under the care and protection of the UNHCR.[84][85][86][87][88][89][90] On 3 October 2023, the Interior Minister of Pakistan Sarfraz Bugti ordered that all undocumented immigrants, mainly nearly 1.73 million Afghan nationals, to voluntarily leave the country by 1 November 2023, or face deportation in a crackdown.[91]

Around 15,806 Afghans reside in India, mostly in the capital Delhi.[11][21][92][93]

A small number also reside in Nepal.[94] Most of these fled Afghanistan as refugees but came to the capital Kathmandu via Delhi in search of job opportunities.[95]

North and Central Asia

Main articles: Afghans in Russia and Afghans in Tajikistan

Moscow, Russia

There may be as much as 150,000 Afghan refugees in Russia, a third of them reside and work in Moscow.[96][97]

Approximately 10,000 Afghans are said to be residing in Uzbekistan.[98] Around 1,000 are believed to be in Tashkent.[26] In 2005, their total number in that country was approximately 2,500.[99]

The number of Afghans in Tajikistan is approximately 6,775 as of 2021.[28] Hundreds are also known to be residing elsewhere.[100] It is believed some 2,500 and probably over 3,000 are in Kazakhstan.[34][35]

East and Southeast Asia

In December 2020, there were 7,629 registered Afghan refugees residing in Indonesia under the care and protection of the UNHCR.[11][101][102][103] The government of Japan reported 3,509 natives of Afghanistan residing in its country.[30] Malaysia has approximately 1,100 Afghans.[33] In China, there are "a few thousand" Afghans residing there,[104] including traders based in the international trade city of Yiwu.[105] Small number of natives from Afghanistan also reside and work in Thailand, South Korea, Hong Kong, and in the Philippines.[18]

Europe

Main articles: Afghans in Germany, Afghans in the United Kingdom, Afghans in Sweden, Afghans in Ukraine, Afghans in the Netherlands, and Afghans in Finland

Hamburg, Germany

Native people from Afghanistan can be found all over Europe.[106][107] Germany has the largest Afghan community in Europe. In the end of 2022, a total of 425,000 persons of Afghan descent[108] resided in Germany, including refugees and asylum seekers and Germans of Afghan descent. There were around 377,000 Afghan citizens residing in Germany at the end of 2022.[109] In the city of Hamburg alone being home to 50,000[110] people of Afghan descent and Hamburg and has the largest Afghan community in Europe. They came first in 1990s due to Afghan conflict to Germany where many people decided to live in Hamburg. Today Hamburg has many Afghan restaurants, shops and cafes. They are the second largest foreign group residing and working in Hamburg, after the Turks.

Elsewhere in Europe various size communities of Afghans exist in the United Kingdom, Sweden, Austria, the Netherlands, Denmark, Norway, Belgium, Switzerland, France, Greece, Italy, Finland, Republic of Ireland, etc.[111][60][112][113][114][115] Some have long been citizens of those countries while others are there to seek asylum. The ones that are denied such relief are sent back to Afghanistan.[116] It was reported in 2001 that about 20,000 Afghans were residing in Ukraine. Of these, 15,000 were living in Kyiv and remaining in the Dnieper region.[19]

Between 1992 and 2002, Germany received the highest asylum requests from Afghans in Europe, a total of 57,600. The Netherlands received 36,500 refugees and asylum seekers, the United Kingdom received 29,400, Austria 25,800, Denmark 7,300 and Sweden 3,100. All other countries in the (pre-2004) EU received less than 2,000 asylum requests each from Afghan citizens.[107] Many also arrived during the recent migrant crisis, especially to Germany, Sweden and Austria.[117]

Americas

Main articles: Afghan Americans and Afghan Canadians

Northern Virginia in the United States

The United States has one of the largest and oldest Afghan population in the Americas, with about 250,000 residing in that country as of 2022.[118][119] The early ones had arrived before the 1930s.[45][44] Most were lawfully admitted under 8 U.S.C. § 1157(c) after the Refugee Act of 1980 went into effect. They became Americans in accordance with 8 U.S.C. § 1159(a)(2), 8 U.S.C. § 1427, 8 U.S.C. § 1436, 8 U.S.C. § 1452, etc., including under the Child Citizenship Act of 2000.[43] They reside and work in nearly all U.S. states, including in California, New York, Arizona, Texas, Georgia, Michigan, Idaho, Missouri, Illinois, Pennsylvania, Florida, North Carolina, Massachusetts, Washington, Maryland, Connecticut, Colorado, Ohio, Utah, New Mexico, Oregon, and Tennessee.[120][121] Their total number is expected to increase in the coming years.[55][122][123][124][125][126][127]

Afghan Canadians form the second largest Afghan community in North America after Afghan Americans. Over 83,995 Afghan natives are settled in Canada and are Canadian citizens.[128] The overwhelming majority of them reside in and around the city of Toronto. The remaining can be found in Vancouver, Ottawa, Montreal, Winnipeg, Edmonton, Calgary, etc.[57]

A month after the Taliban took over Afghanistan in August 2021, Brazil became one of the few nations issuing humanitarian visas to persecuted Afghans, with embassies in Islamabad, Tehran, Moscow, Ankara, Doha, and Abu Dhabi licensed to process visa requests for humanitarian shelter.[129][130] As of June 2023, 11,576 visas had been granted and about 4,000 Afghans had arrived in the South American country. The refugees have faces problems to settle in the country, with over 200 of them living in the São Paulo/Guarulhos International Airport while waiting for residencies.[131]

Small number of natives from Afghanistan are also reported to be residing and working in Ecuador, Cuba, Chile, Argentina, Venezuela, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Uruguay, Panama, Costa Rica, Mexico, Cayman Islands, and Trinidad and Tobago.[18]

Oceania

Main articles: Afghan Australians and Afghan New Zealanders

Melbourne, Australia

Afghans have immigrated to Australia since the mid-19th century. The Ghan passenger train that travels between Adelaide in the south and Darwin in the north is named after them. There are over 59,797 Afghan Australians. They reside in a number of cities but mainly in Melbourne, Sydney, Adelaide, Perth and Brisbane.[132] Around 3,414 Afghans reside in New Zealand. They are all citizens of those two countries.[133][31] Small number of natives from Afghanistan reportedly reside and work in the islands of Papua New Guinea, Nauru, and Fiji.[18]

Africa

Small number of natives from Afghanistan are also reported to be residing and working in Egypt, Kenya, Madagascar, South Africa, Morocco, Algeria, Chad, Ethiopia, and Nigeria.[18]

2,000 Afghan refugees have been accepted into Uganda following August 2021, along with 250 in Rwanda.[134]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Iran's Interior Minister - The presence of more than 5 million Afghan immigrants in Iran". www.isna.ir. Retrieved 2023-09-17.
  2. ^ a b c "Pakistan issues final warning to illegal immigrants to leave voluntarily before the November 1 deadline". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty. 2023-10-26. Retrieved 2023-10-31. The United Nations estimates that 3.7 million Afghans reside in Pakistan, while Pakistani authorities believe the number to be as high as 4.4 million. Of these, just 2.7 million Afghans hold the required documentation enabling them to legally stay in Pakistan.
  3. ^ a b "Registered Afghan Refugees in Pakistan". UNHCR. 30 June 2022. Retrieved 2023-01-28.
  4. ^ "Bevölkerung in Privathaushalten 2022 nach Migrationshintergrund". 20 April 2023.
  5. ^ "Welcome allied-media.com - BlueHost.com". Allied-media.com. Retrieved 2022-12-24.
  6. ^ a b Hakimi, Bibi Amina (January 19, 2023). "Afghan Investors in UAE to Form Delegation to Share Problems with Kabul". TOLOnews. Retrieved 2023-01-28.
  7. ^ a b Shahbandari, Shafaat (November 30, 2012). "Afghans take hope from UAE's achievements". Gulf News. Retrieved 2013-11-05.
  8. ^ "Moscow's 'Little Kabul'". Radio Free Europe / Radio Liberty. 25 December 2017.
  9. ^ "Canada Census Profile 2021". Census Profile, 2021 Census. Statistics Canada Statistique Canada. 7 May 2021. Retrieved 3 January 2023.
  10. ^ "Permanent Residents – Monthly IRCC Updates – Canada – Admissions of Permanent Residents by Country of Citizenship". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 3 January 2022.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g Onward Movements of Afghan Refugees (PDF), UNHCR, March–April 2021, retrieved 2021-08-10
  12. ^ a b "The Afghan refugee crisis brewing on Turkey's eastern border". The New Humanitarian. August 3, 2021. Retrieved 2021-08-13.
  13. ^ "Table 1.3: Overseas-born population in the United Kingdom, excluding some residents in communal establishments, by sex, by country of birth, January 2019 to December 2019". Office for National Statistics. 21 May 2020. Retrieved 17 October 2020. Figure given is the central estimate. See the source for 95% confidence intervals.
  14. ^ "Foreign-born persons by country of birth, age, sex and year". Statistics Sweden. Retrieved 2021-07-29.
  15. ^ "People in Australia who were born in Afghanistan". Australian Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 27 February 2023.
  16. ^ "CBS Statline".
  17. ^ "Afghanistan. Comment sont répartis les réfugiés afghans dans le monde ?". 2 September 2021.
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h "How the US and the UK accept far fewer Afghan refugees than other countries". New Statesman. August 19, 2021. Retrieved 2021-08-19.
  19. ^ a b "Афганська громада України". October 8, 2001. Retrieved 2021-07-29.
  20. ^ "Denmark". Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Afghanistan). January 1, 2017. Retrieved 2021-07-30. The number of Afghan immigrants living in Denmark per January 1st 2017 is 13240. There are also 4778 persons who are descendants of Afghan immigrants.
  21. ^ a b "Afghan refugees in India cast adrift amid coronavirus pandemic". DW News. May 10, 2020. Retrieved 2021-07-29.
  22. ^ "Bevölkerung nach Staatsangehörigkeit und Geburtsland". 18 May 2018.
  23. ^ "Foreigners in Finland". Statistics Finland. June 9, 2021. Retrieved 2021-07-30.
  24. ^ Istituto Nazionale di Statistica (2020). Cittadini Stranieri. Popolazione residente e bilancio demografico al 31 dicembre 2019 [Foreign Citizens. Resident population and demographic balance as in 31 Dec 2019] (Report) (in Italian). Rome: Istat. Retrieved 15 August 2021. Italia - Asia Centro-Meridionale
    Afghanistan [...] Totale: 11121
    [Italy - Center-Southern Asia
    Afghanistan [...] Total: 11,121]
  25. ^ Statistics Norway – [https://www.ssb.no/statbank/table/13880/tableViewLayout1/
  26. ^ a b Afghanistan's Ghani Visits Uzbekistan on Mission to Plug Into Central Asia, Eurasianet, December 5, 2017
  27. ^ a b Arbabzadah, Nushin (28 February 2012). "The story of the Afghan Jews is one of remarkable tolerance". The Guardian. Retrieved 2017-04-12.
  28. ^ a b "Afghanistan Situation". UNHCR. August 31, 2021. Retrieved 2022-01-10.
  29. ^ a b Snoj, Jure (18 December 2013). "Population of Qatar by nationality". bq magazine. Archived from the original on 12 February 2017.
  30. ^ a b "Statistics on foreign residents in Japan (formerly registered alien statistics) - statistics table", Immigration Services of Japan (in Japanese)
  31. ^ a b "2013 Census ethnic group profiles". archive.stats.govt.nz.
  32. ^ ""Brazil, the unlikely last hope of Afghan refugees" - El País - elpais.com". 14 February 2023.
  33. ^ a b "Afghan refugees in Malaysia find hope in Theatre of the Oppressed". Turkey: TRT World. September 4, 2017. Retrieved 2021-07-29.
  34. ^ a b ""Салт-дәстүрін аялай білген халық" - ақпараттық-танымдық сайт - Еl.kz". 7 November 2020.
  35. ^ a b ""Босқындарды қабылдауға үзілді-кесілді қарсымын" - Қазақстандағы ауған диаспорасының басшысы".
  36. ^ "Romania: Refugee and migrant figures for 2020". March 30, 201. Retrieved 2021-07-30.
  37. ^ IFRC document
  38. ^ "Up to 500 relatives of Afghans in State to be offered temporary residency". The Irish Times.
  39. ^ "Los afganos latinoamericanos". www.trt.net.tr. TRT Español.
  40. ^ "Portugal: New agency for migration and asylum".
  41. ^ See generally
  42. ^ See, e.g., generally 18 U.S.C. § 249; 18 U.S.C. § 876; 18 U.S.C. § 1958; 18 U.S.C. § 2332; 18 U.S.C. § 2441; "United States v. Morin, 80 F.3d 124". Fourth Circuit. Harvard Law School. April 5, 1996. p. 126. Retrieved 2021-08-02.
  43. ^ a b c
  44. ^ a b "Khan v. Barber, 253 F.2d 547". U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit. Harvard Law School. March 11, 1958. p. 548. Retrieved 2021-08-01.
  45. ^ a b "In the Matter of K, 2 I&N Dec. 253". Board of Immigration Appeals. Casetext.com. May 26, 1945. Retrieved 2021-08-01.
  46. ^ "The Durand line: History, Consequences, and Future" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 June 2021. Retrieved 4 June 2014.
  47. ^ "Afghan-Pakistani Forces Exchange Fire Along Shared Border". NPR. May 7, 2013. Retrieved 2021-08-01.
  48. ^ Bose, Nayana (March 10, 2006). "Afghan refugees in India become Indian, at last". UNHCR. Retrieved 2013-11-07.
  49. ^ "Refugees From Afghanistan: The world's largest single refugee group" (PDF). www.refworld.org. November 16, 1999. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2020-11-11. Retrieved December 11, 2021.
  50. ^ a b "Over 1.1m Afghans repatriated from Iran, Pakistan last year". Pajhwok Afghan News. January 3, 2022. Retrieved 2022-01-07.
  51. ^ a b "IOM Afghanistan Highlights" (PDF). International Organization for Migration. January 5, 2022. Retrieved 2022-01-07.
  52. ^ "UNHCR in Pakistan". Retrieved 2021-07-30. Since 2002, in what has become the world's largest assisted return programme, UNHCR has been facilitating voluntary repatriation of millions of Afghan refugees from Pakistan. Ten years after programme began, UNHCR has directly helped around 4.4 million Afghans to return home.
  53. ^ Ahmed, Amin (June 4, 2022). "Verification of Afghan refugees completed". Dawn. Retrieved 2023-01-28.
  54. ^ a b c "Refugees in Iran". UNHCR. October 2020. Retrieved 2023-01-28.
  55. ^ a b "The U.S. Extends SIV Plus Extra 4,000 Visas to Afghans". Khaama Press. December 31, 2022. Retrieved 2023-01-28.
  56. ^ Strochlic, Nina (December 15, 2021). "Afghan refugees are finding a warm welcome in small-town America". National Geographic. Archived from the original on December 15, 2021. Retrieved January 7, 2022.
  57. ^ a b "First Resettled Afghan Refugees and Families Arrive in Canada". U.S. News & World Report. August 5, 2021. Retrieved 2021-08-05.
  58. ^ Stainburn, Samantha (May 22, 2013). "UK, Denmark to give Afghan interpreters visas". GlobalPost. Retrieved November 5, 2013.
  59. ^ "Let more Afghan interpreters resettle in UK, say ex-military chiefs". BBC. July 29, 2021. Retrieved 2021-07-29.
  60. ^ a b "Afghans who worked for France get a chance at asylum – and spark an exodus". France 24. June 30, 2021. Retrieved 2021-07-31.
  61. ^ Goldstein, Joseph (February 23, 2015). "Refugees Are Pushed to Exits in Pakistan". The New York Times. Retrieved February 24, 2015.
  62. ^ "Feature: Afghan refugees regard Pakistan as home". www.xinhuanet.com. Xinhua. June 21, 2019. Archived from the original on June 21, 2019. Retrieved 2019-09-14.
  63. ^ Goldstein, Joseph (September 13, 2015). "For $14.50, Afghan Refugees Make a Desperate Bet on a Way Out". The New York Times. Retrieved September 15, 2015.
  64. ^ "Afghan refugees are reaching Turkey in greater numbers". The Economist. July 31, 2021. Retrieved 2021-08-03.
  65. ^ "Turkey accelerates security wall construction along Iranian border amid migrants' flow". Arab News. July 29, 2021. Retrieved 2021-08-03.
  66. ^ Curiel, Jonathan (4 June 2011). "Little Kabul". The New York Times.
  67. ^ "How does Europe's largest Afghan diaspora view the crisis back home?". 20 September 2021.
  68. ^ "Delhi's Little Kabul: A culinary reminder of home for Afghans in the capital | Delhi News - Times of India". The Times of India.
  69. ^ "Moscow's 'Little Kabul'".
  70. ^ "Afghanistan: How many refugees are there and where will they go?". BBC News. 31 August 2021. Retrieved 2022-01-06.
  71. ^ a b "Refugees and internally displaced persons". The World Factbook. Retrieved 2021-07-29.
  72. ^ "Iran provides residency permits to one million Afghan refugees". Ariana News. January 2, 2023. Retrieved 2023-01-28.
  73. ^ "727,000 Afghans return in past 10 months: UNFPA". Pajhwok Afghan News. 15 December 2022.
  74. ^ "More than 600,000 Afghans return home in past year". Ariana News. August 14, 2022.
  75. ^ "Afghan nationals responsible for half of Iran's 2022 foreign investment". Iran Press. 15 December 2022. Retrieved 2022-12-16.
  76. ^ "57,000 illegal Afghans deported from Turkey". Ariana News. November 13, 2022. Retrieved 2023-01-28.
  77. ^ "Turkey pushing tens of thousands of Afghans back at Iran border: HRW". Ariana News. November 18, 2022. Retrieved 2023-01-28.
  78. ^ "UAE is our haven: The Afghan community". Khaleej Times. December 16, 2016. Retrieved 2021-07-29.
  79. ^ "Fraud in Passport Office Revealed After Iranian National Got Afghan Passport". TOLOnews. August 22, 2015. Retrieved 2021-07-28. It is now said many Iranians and Pakistanis seek out Afghan passports in order to get easier access to the UAE.
  80. ^ "Saudi Arabia: Alarming crackdown on online expression". HRW. Retrieved 15 February 2023.
  81. ^ Ahmed, Munir. "Pakistan announces big crackdown on migrants in the country illegally, including 1.7 million Afghans". ABC News. Retrieved 2023-10-31.
  82. ^ "Can Pakistan deport 1.7 million Afghan refugees? – DW – 10/04/2023". dw.com. Retrieved 2023-10-31.
  83. ^ "Registered Afghan Refugees in Pakistan". UNHCR. 30 June 2022. Retrieved 2022-11-30.
  84. ^ "75,000 Afghan refugee families impacted by COVID-19 received emergency cash". ReliefWeb. 29 Jan 2021. Retrieved 2021-07-30.
  85. ^ "Asylum system in Pakistan". UNHCR. Retrieved 2021-07-30.
  86. ^ "200,000 CNICs fraudulently obtained by Afghans cancelled". Pakistan: Dawn News. January 3, 2021. Retrieved 2021-07-28.
  87. ^ "Pakistan scraps 200,000 ID cards issued to Afghans". Pajhwok Afghan News. January 3, 2021. Retrieved 2021-07-28.
  88. ^ "Pakistan cancels 200,000 fake citizen ID cards held by Afghan refugees". The Hindu. January 3, 2021. Retrieved 2021-07-28.
  89. ^ "Nadra cancels ex-senator Hamdullah's citizenship". Pakistan: Dawn News. October 27, 2019. Retrieved 2021-07-28.
  90. ^ "Families of Afghan Taliban Live in Pakistan, Interior Minister Says". Voice of America. June 27, 2021. Retrieved 2021-07-28. Pakistan's interior minister said Sunday that the families of Afghanistan's Taliban reside in his country, including in areas around the capital, Islamabad, and the insurgent group's members receive some medical treatment in local hospitals.
  91. ^ "Pakistan wants undocumented migrants to leave by November 1 or get deported". Al Jazeera. October 3, 2023.
  92. ^ "Afghan refugees in search of Indian identity". UNHCR. May 19, 2005. Retrieved 2019-05-01.
  93. ^ "Tough times follow Afghan refugees fleeing Taliban to Delhi". The Indian Express. Associated Press. July 24, 2013. Retrieved 2013-11-07.
  94. ^ "Afghans in Nepal await resettlement".
  95. ^ "Kathmandu's Little Kabul".
  96. ^ Moscow's 'Little Kabul', RFE/RL, December 25, 2017
  97. ^ Thousands of Afghan Refugees Still In Russia, Voice of America, October 29, 2009, retrieved 2021-08-20
  98. ^ "First Part of Joint Market Opens on Border with Uzbekistan". TOLOnews. December 27, 2022. Retrieved 2023-01-28.
  99. ^ Uzbekistan Gives Afghans No Reason to Stay, IWRP, November 20, 2005
  100. ^ Refugees from Central Asia and in Central Asia, Voices on Central Asia, May 27, 2020
  101. ^ "Indonesia fact sheet" (PDF), UNHCR, December 2020, retrieved 2021-07-30
  102. ^ "The 'forgotten' Afghan refugees taking their own lives". BBC News. April 29, 2021. Retrieved 2021-07-30.
  103. ^ "A Taliban escapee, an English baby - and the dramatic story that followed". BBC News. November 13, 2019. Retrieved 2021-07-30.
  104. ^ "China, Afghanistan, and the Belt and Road Initiative: Diplomacy and Reality".
  105. ^ Marsden, Magnus (2020). "Commodities, merchants, and refugees: Inter‐Asian circulations and Afghan mobility". Global Networks. 20 (4): 746–765. doi:10.1111/glob.12272. S2CID 211461831.
  106. ^ "Afghan Nationals Remain the Second Top Nation With Most EU+ Asylum Applications, EASO Reports". June 25, 2021. Retrieved 2021-07-29.
  107. ^ a b Aurin Fouraschen (August 2011), Afghan Dutch or Dutch Afghan?, University of Tilburg
  108. ^ "Bevölkerung in Privathaushalten 2022 nach Migrationshintergrund". 20 April 2023.
  109. ^ "Foreign population by place of birth and selected citizenships". Statistisches Bundesamt. March 29, 2021. Retrieved 2021-03-29.
  110. ^ Bevölkerung mit Migrationshintergrund in Hamburger Stadtteilen 2021, Statistical Office of Hamburg and Schleswig-Holstein, May 2022
  111. ^ A Guide to Afghan Diaspora Engagement in Europe (PDF), VIDC Global Dialogue, March 2020
  112. ^ "Afghans in Antwerp: 'The journey begins once we reach our destination'". Mondiaal Nieuws. March 2, 2021. Retrieved 2021-08-05.
  113. ^ "Italy warns of Afghan immigrant wave after troop pull-out". Geo News. June 23, 2021. Retrieved 2021-08-06. Italy has agreed to take in 270 people who worked with its soldiers and may accept another 400, the defence ministry said last week.
  114. ^ "The Afghan writer who made Dublin home". UNHCR. September 22, 2016. Retrieved 2021-07-31. Nasruddin Saljuqi had to flee from Afghanistan when war broke out. Now he lives in Ireland and is a writer and an advocate for integration of asylum seekers and refugees.
  115. ^ "Switzerland: 23% Decrease in Number of Asylum Applications in 2020 Due to COVID-19". schengenvisainfo.com. February 3, 2021. Retrieved 2021-07-31. Eritrean citizens (1,917), accounted for the majority number of citizenships who sought international protection in Switzerland during last year, followed by citizens of Afghanistan, Algeria as well as Syria.
  116. ^ "Switzerland to return rejected asylum-seekers to Afghanistan". Swissinfo. June 21, 2021. Retrieved 2021-08-06.
  117. ^ Migrants Protest Kabul, Stockholm Move To Deport Failed Asylum Seekers, 5 December 2015
  118. ^ "At Every Step, Afghans Coming to America Encounter Stumbling Blocks". New York Times. December 19, 2021. Retrieved 2022-01-03.
  119. ^ "2019 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates: Afghan". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2021-03-02.
  120. ^ "Country of origin: Afghanistan". Great Falls Tribune. Retrieved 2021-08-13.
  121. ^ "From Afghan interpreter to US homeless - the long road to the American dream". BBC News. July 30, 2021. Retrieved 2021-08-01.
  122. ^ "US Expands Eligibility for Afghan Refugee Resettlement". Voice of America. August 2, 2021. Retrieved 2021-08-03.
  123. ^ "US Announces New Refugee Program for Afghans". TOLOnews. August 2, 2021. Retrieved 2021-08-02.
  124. ^ "'Welcome Home': First Group of Evacuated Afghan Interpreters Arrive in US". WMAQ-TV. July 30, 2021. Retrieved 2021-07-30. The interpreters and their family members are being resettled under a visa program for those who worked with U.S. troops and now face retaliation from the Taliban amid America's withdrawal
  125. ^ "Afghan who aided U.S. arrive at Virginia base, but many others remain in peril". Los Angeles Times. July 30, 2021. Retrieved 2021-07-30.
  126. ^ "House votes to expand and speed up visa process for Afghans who helped the U.S. during war". CNBC. July 22, 2021. Retrieved 2021-07-28.
  127. ^ "H.R.3985 - Averting Loss of Life and Injury by Expediting SIVs Act of 2021". U.S. Congress. 22 July 2021. Retrieved 2021-07-23.
  128. ^ "Ethnic origin population". statcan. Statistics Canada. 2016. Retrieved 2018-10-04.
  129. ^ "Brazil to grant humanitarian visa to Afghans". Agência Brasil. 2021-09-06. Retrieved 2023-06-23.
  130. ^ "Why Afghan refugees in Brazil are making dangerous US journeys". The New Humanitarian. 2023-02-02. Retrieved 2023-06-23.
  131. ^ "Novo grupo de afegãos chega ao Brasil e mais de 200 imigrantes esperam por abrigo no Aeroporto Internacional de SP, em Guarulhos". G1 (in Brazilian Portuguese). 2023-06-22. Retrieved 2023-06-23.
  132. ^ "Greater Brisbane Afghan population". profile.id.com.au. Retrieved 2021-08-02.
  133. ^ "2016 QuickStats Country of Birth". quickstats.censusdata.abs.gov.au. Retrieved 2019-09-01.
  134. ^ "Why African Governments Are Accepting Afghan Refugees".

Further reading