American studies or American civilization is an interdisciplinary field of scholarship that examines American literature, history, society, and culture.[1] It traditionally incorporates literary criticism, historiography and critical theory.

Scholarship in American studies focuses on the United States. In the past decades, however, it has also broadened to include Atlantic history and interactions with countries across the globe.[2] Subjects studied within the field are varied, but often examine the literary themes, histories of American communities, ideologies, or cultural productions. Examples might include topics in American social movements, literature, media, tourism, folklore, and intellectual history.

Fields studying specific American ethnic or racial groups are considered to be both independent of and included within the broader American studies discipline. This includes European American studies, African American studies, Latino studies, Asian American studies, American Indian studies, and others.

Founding notions

Vernon Louis Parrington is often cited as the founder of American studies for his three-volume Main Currents in American Thought, which combines the methodologies of literary criticism and historical research; it won the 1928 Pulitzer Prize. In the introduction to Main Currents in American Thought, Parrington described his field:

I have undertaken to give some account of the genesis and development in American letters of certain germinal ideas that have come to be reckoned traditionally American—how they came into being here, how they were opposed, and what influence they have exerted in determining the form and scope of our characteristic ideals and institutions. In pursuing such a task, I have chosen to follow the broad path of our political, economic, and social development, rather than the narrower belletristic.[3]

The "broad path" that Parrington describes formed a scholastic course of study for Henry Nash Smith, who received a PhD from Harvard's interdisciplinary program in history and American civilization in 1940, setting an academic precedent for present-day American studies programs.[4][citation needed]

The first signature methodology of American studies was the "myth and symbol" approach, developed in such foundational texts as Henry Nash Smith's Virgin Land in 1950, John William Ward's Andrew Jackson: Symbol for an Age in 1955 and Leo Marx's The Machine in the Garden in 1964.[citation needed] Myth and symbol scholars claimed to find certain recurring themes throughout American texts that served to illuminate a unique American culture. Later scholars such as Annette Kolodny and Alan Trachtenberg re-imagined the myth and symbol approach in light of multicultural studies.

Beginning in the 1960s and 1970s, these earlier approaches were criticized for continuing to promote the idea of American exceptionalism—the notion that the US has had a special mission and virtue that makes it unique among nations. Several generations of American studies scholars moved away from purely ethnocentric views, emphasizing transnational issues surrounding race, ethnicity, gender and sexuality, among other topics. But recent studies critique the exceptionalist nature of the transnational turn.[5] "The transnational turn has positioned American Studies in a nationalist rut", observes Jeffrey Herlihy-Mera, in After American Studies: Rethinking the Legacies of Transnational Exceptionalism:

In these transnational turns ... the unhyphenated-American phenomenon tends to have colonial characteristics: English-language texts and their authors are promoted as representative; a piece of cultural material may be understood as unhyphenated—and thus archetypal—only when authors meet certain demographic criteria; any deviation from these demographic or cultural prescriptions are subordinated to hyphenated status.[6]

Institutionally, in the last decade the American Studies Association has reflected the interdisciplinary nature of the field, creating strong connections to ethnic studies, gender studies, cultural studies and post- or de-colonial studies. Environmental perspectives, in ascendance in related fields, such as literature and history, have not penetrated the mainstream of American studies scholarship.[7] A major theme of the field in recent years has been internationalization[citation needed]—the recognition that much vital scholarship about the US and its relations to the wider global community has been and is being produced outside the United States.

Debate on use of the term American

Until the mid-2000s, the use of American for this multidisciplinary field was widely defended. In 1998, Janice Radway argued, "Does the perpetuation of the particular name, American, in the title of the field ... support the notion that such a whole exists even in the face of powerful work that tends to question its presumed coherence? Does the field need to be reconfigured conceptually?" She concluded, "the name American studies will have to be retained."[8] In 2001, Wai Chee Dimmock argued that the field "is largely founded on this fateful adjective. [American] governs the domain of inquiry we construct, the range of questions we entertain, the kind of evidence we take as significant. The very professionalism of the field rests on the integrity and the legitimacy of this founding concept."[9] In 2002, Heinz Ickstadt argued that American studies "should accept its name as its limitation and its boundary."[10] In 2006, Dimmock affirmed that the field "does stand to be classified apart, as a nameable and adducible unit."[11]

More recently, scholars have questioned American as a categorizing term. "In consideration of the limitations of conventional terms," Jeffrey Herlihy-Mera argued in 2018, instead of American, terms like "spaces claimed by the political body" and "residents of spaces claimed by the political body" would offer a "more sensitive and attuned description ... of the regions, critical artifacts, communities, and individuals in question, one that is less charged with the ambiguities and colonial ties that weigh down the traditional disciplinary nomenclatures."[12] In "the interests of justice and along the lines most suitable to our emergent age," argued Markha Valenta in 2017, scholars should consider "abandoning America as the field identifier."[13]

Imperial American studies

"One of the central themes of American historiography," argued William Appleman Williams, "is that there is no American Empire""[14] Contesting such assertions has been a central part of the Imperial Turn in the field. Amy Kaplan maintained that "an imperial unconscious of national identity" lead to "overseas expansion, conquest, conflict, and resistance which have shaped the cultures of the United States."[15] More recently, scholars have examined how cultural imperialism occurs within the US borders. Jeffrey Herlihy-Mera described the phenomenon as an attempt to transition the "cultural symbols of the invading communities from 'foreign' to 'natural,' 'domestic,'" through three discrete and sequential phases:

People in new space Objective
(1) Merchants

Also termed "explorers" e.g., Lewis and Clark

Encounter resources

E.g., minerals, trade routes, spices, furs, communities

to tax or conscript, fertile agricultural zones, strategic

geography, etc.

(2) Military

An invasion force

Control resources

Implement martial law so that the metropolitan may

exploit resources; establish "Fort" cities, e.g., Fort

Lauderdale, Fort Worth etc. that facilitate metropolitan

settlement.

(3) Politicians

Socialize the space into a new province of the metropolitan

Social engineering

Acculturize the space into a region of the metropolitan

through saturation of symbol, legend, and myth.

Establish laws and norms that promote the metropolitan

(invading system) as dominant culture and prohibit or

criminalize other systems; offer citizenship to conquered

peoples in exchange for submission to metropolitan

cultural norms and abandonment of original or other (in

the case of immigrants) social tendencies.

(Herlihy-Mera, Jeffrey. 2018. After American Studies: Rethinking the Legacies of Transnational Exceptionalism. Routledge. p. 24)

While the third phase continues "in perpetuity," the imperial appropriation tends to be "gradual, contested (and continues to be contested), and is by nature incomplete."[16] The Americanization of the continent has been described as a cultural engineering project that strives to "isolate residents within constructed spheres of symbols" such that they (eventually, in some cases after several generations) abandon other cultures and identify with the new symbols. "The broader intended outcome of these interventions might be described as a common recognition of possession of the land itself."[16]

Outside the United States

European centers for American studies include the British Association for American Studies, the Center for American Studies in Brussels, Belgium, and most notably the John F. Kennedy-Institute for North American Studies in Berlin, Germany. Other centers for American studies in Germany include the Bavarian America-Academy, the University of Munich, the Heidelberg Center for American Studies (HCA) and the Center for North American Studies (Zentrum für Nordamerikaforschung or ZENAF) at Goethe University Frankfurt. Graduate studies in the field of North American studies can also be undertaken at the University of Cologne, which works together in joint partnership with the North American studies program at the University of Bonn.[17] American Studies Leipzig at the University of Leipzig is a center for American studies on the territory of former East Germany. Founded in 1992, the Center for American Studies at the University of Southern Denmark now offers a graduate program in American studies. In the Netherlands the University of Groningen and the Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen offer a complete undergraduate and graduate program in American studies. The University of Amsterdam, the University of Leiden and the University of Utrecht only offer a graduate program in American studies. Both the University of Sussex and the University of Nottingham in England offer both a number of postgraduate and undergraduate programs. In Sweden, the Swedish Institute for North American Studies at Uppsala University offers a minor in American studies.[18] In Slovakia, the University of Presov and Pavol Jozef Safarik University offer a complete undergraduate and graduate program in American studies combined with British studies. The Eccles Centre for American Studies at the British Library also offers a range of events and fellowships, as well as promoting the American collections held at the British Library.[19]

Russia's main center for American studies is the Institute for US and Canadian Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

In the Middle East, the oldest American Studies program is the American Studies Center[20] at the University of Bahrain in Sakhir which was founded in 1998.[21] An American studies program is offered at the University of Tehran within the Faculty of World Studies.[22]

In Oceania, the University of Canterbury in Christchurch New Zealand operated a full undergraduate and graduate American studies[23] program until 2012, and in Australia, a postgraduate program in US Studies is run by the United States Studies Centre at the University of Sydney.

In Canada, the University of Alberta has the Alberta Institute for American Studies.[24] The University of Western Ontario has a Centre for American Studies[25] that has both an undergraduate and master's program in American studies, with specializations at the graduate level in American Cultural Studies, and Canadian-American Relations.[26] York University offers an undergraduate program in United States Studies.[27]

American studies centers in China include the American Studies Center[28] (Beijing Foreign Studies University) in 1979, the Institute of American Studies[29] (Chinese Academy of Social Science) in 1981, Center for American Studies[30] (Fudan University) in 1985, American Studies Center[31] (Peking University) in 1980, Center for American Studies[32] (Tongji University), American Studies Center[33] (Sichuan University) in 1985, Johns Hopkins University-Nanjing University Center for Chinese and American Studies in 1986, American Social and Cultural Studies Center (China Foreign Affairs University) and Center for American Studies[34] (East China Normal University) in 2004. These centers do not have undergraduate programs. Based on the requirement of the curriculum setup of the China Department of Education, these centers only have graduate programs. In addition, there are also scholarly journals, such as American Studies Quarterly[35] and Fudan American Review.[36]

In the Republic of Korea, Sogang University[37] (Seoul, Korea) is the sole institution that offers regular degree program both in bachelor (BA) and master (MA) degree in American studies, named American culture. The American culture division is run by the Department of English along with English literature and linguistics. Keimyung University (Daegu, Korea), Hansung University (Seoul, Korea), Pyeongtaek University (Pyeongtaek, Gyeonggi-do, Korea), Kyunghee University (Yongin, Gyonggi-do, Korea) also provide a major in American studies. Seoul National University (Seoul, Korea) and Yonsei University (Seoul, Korea) offers undergraduate interdisciplinary courses in American studies. The American Studies Association of Korea (ASAK) is one of the country's foremost research associations devoted to the interdisciplinary study of American culture and society within the Korean context.[38]

International American Studies Association

Founded at Bellagio, Italy, in 2000, the International American Studies Association[39] has held World Congresses at Leyden (2003), Ottawa (2005), Lisbon (2007), Beijing (2009), Rio de Janeiro (2011), The Sixth World Congress of IASA[40] at Szczecin, Poland, August 3–6, 2013, and Alcalá de Henares, Madrid (2019).[41] The IASA is the only worldwide, independent, non-governmental association for Americanists. Furthering the international exchange of ideas and information among scholars from all nations and various disciplines who study and teach America regionally, hemispherically, nationally, and transnationally, IASA is registered in the Netherlands as a non-profit, international, educational organization with members in more than forty countries around the world.

Associations and scholarly journals

Main category: American studies journals

The American Studies Association was founded in 1950. It publishes American Quarterly, which has been the primary outlet of American studies scholarship since 1949. The second-largest American studies journal, American Studies, is sponsored by the Mid-America American Studies Association and University of Kansas. Today there are 55 American studies journals in 25 countries.[42]

See also

References

  1. ^ Winfried Fluck (2003). Theories of American Culture, Theories of American Studies. Gunter Narr Verlag. ISBN 3-8233-4173-1. Retrieved June 21, 2011.
  2. ^ Rowe, Juan Carlos. "Transnationalism and American Studies". American Studies Association. American Studies Association. Archived from the original on September 16, 2015. Retrieved September 11, 2015.
  3. ^ Parrington, Vernon Louis (1927). Main Currents In American Thought Volume One 1620-1800 The Colonial Mind. Harcourt, Brace and Company, Inc. p. ix. Retrieved April 22, 2017.
  4. ^ "Texas State Historical Association".
  5. ^ Herlihy-Mera, Jeffrey (2018). "After American Studies: Rethinking the Legacies of Transnational Exceptionalism |". Transversal: International Journal for the Historiography of Science. Routledge (6): 111. Retrieved August 21, 2019.
  6. ^ Herlihy-Mera, Jeffrey (2018). "After American Studies: Rethinking the Legacies of Transnational Exceptionalism |". Transversal: International Journal for the Historiography of Science. Routledge (6): 5. Retrieved August 21, 2019.
  7. ^ Schneider-Mayerson, Matthew (January 1, 1970). "Necrocracy in America: American Studies Begins to Address Fossil Fuels and Climate Change | Matthew Schneider-Mayerson". American Quarterly. Academia.edu. Retrieved December 12, 2015.
  8. ^ Radway, Janice (November 20, 1998). What's in a Name? (Speech). Presidential Address to the American Studies Association. Retrieved February 16, 2021.
  9. ^ Dimock, Wai Chee (2001). "Deep Time: American Literature and World History". American Literary History. 13 (4): 755–775. doi:10.1093/alh/13.4.755.
  10. ^ Ickstadt, Heinz (2002). "American Studies in an Age of Globalization". American Quarterly. 54 (4): 543–562. doi:10.1353/aq.2002.0036. S2CID 144862489.
  11. ^ Dimock, Wai Chee (2006). Through Other Continents: American Literature Across Deep Time. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. p. 4.
  12. ^ Herlihy-Mera, Jeffrey (2018). "After American Studies: Rethinking the Legacies of Transnational Exceptionalism |". Transversal: International Journal for the Historiography of Science. Routledge (6): x. Retrieved January 1, 2021.
  13. ^ Valenta, Valenta (2017). "Abandoning America The Better to Save American Studies". Review of International American Studies. 10 (1): 139–171.
  14. ^ Williams, William Appleman (1955). "The Frontier Thesis and American Foreign Policy". Pacific Historical Review. 24 (4): 379–395. doi:10.2307/3635322. JSTOR 3635322.
  15. ^ Kaplan, Amy (1993). Cultures of United States Imperialism. Durham, NC: Duke University Press. pp. 4, 5.
  16. ^ a b Herlihy-Mera, Jeffrey (2018). "After American Studies: Rethinking the Legacies of Transnational Exceptionalism |". Transversal: International Journal for the Historiography of Science. Routledge (6): 24. Retrieved August 2, 2020.
  17. ^ "Home". Northamericanstudies.de. October 1, 2015. Retrieved December 12, 2015.
  18. ^ "Swedish Institute of North American Studies home page". Retrieved May 31, 2023.
  19. ^ "American Collections blog".
  20. ^ "American Studies Center at the University of Bahrain". Archived from the original on March 7, 2009. Retrieved April 2, 2009.
  21. ^ "American Studies Center". userspages.uob.edu.bh. Archived from the original on October 1, 2008.
  22. ^ "دانشکده مطالعات جهان". دانشکده مطالعات جهان. Archived from the original on November 11, 2021. Retrieved December 28, 2008.
  23. ^ "College of Arts - School of Humanities and Creative Arts - University of Canterbury - New Zealand".
  24. ^ "Home - University of Alberta". Americanstudies.ualberta.ca. Archived from the original on December 22, 2015. Retrieved December 12, 2015.
  25. ^ "CAS Main page - Western University". Center for American Studies Program Information. Cas.uwo.ca. October 1, 2015. Archived from the original on March 9, 2015. Retrieved December 12, 2015.
  26. ^ "Program Information - CAS - Western University". CAS. Archived from the original on March 7, 2016. Retrieved December 12, 2015.
  27. ^ "United States Studies | Future Students | York University". Futurestudents.yorku.ca. Archived from the original on December 22, 2015. Retrieved December 12, 2015.
  28. ^ "Home - 北京外国语大学英语学院美国研究中心-American Studies Center SEIS,BFSU,美国信息中心-Info USA @BFSU". Archived from the original on November 10, 2014. Retrieved November 14, 2014.
  29. ^ "中国社会科学院美国研究所".
  30. ^ "复旦大学美国研究中心".
  31. ^ "北京大学美国研究中心". Archived from the original on November 29, 2014.
  32. ^ "同济大学美国研究中心". cas.tongji.edu.cn. Archived from the original on February 28, 2015. Retrieved May 22, 2022.
  33. ^ "四川大学美国研究中心".
  34. ^ "华东师范大学美国研究中心 - Center for American Studies, ECNU". Archived from the original on November 29, 2014. Retrieved November 14, 2014.
  35. ^ http://qk.cass.cn /mgyj/set[permanent dead link]
  36. ^ "复旦大学美国研究中心".
  37. ^ "Sogang University Department of English". english.sogang.ac.kr. Retrieved July 3, 2020.
  38. ^ "The American Studies Association of Korea".
  39. ^ "IASA - International American Studies Association". IASA.
  40. ^ "Uniwersytet Śląski". Archived from the original on September 22, 2013. Retrieved November 3, 2012.
  41. ^ "Events archivo". IASA - International American Studies Association.
  42. ^ American Studies Journals: A Directory of Worldwide Resources (updated 2015). TheASA.net. Retrieved January 22, 2015.

Further reading

Library guides

  1. ^ Meikle, Jeffrey L (January 2003). "Review: Leo Marx's The Machine in the Garden". Technology and Culture. 44 (1): 147–159. doi:10.1353/tech.2003.0036. JSTOR 25148061. S2CID 111121510.