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Anderlecht
The Place de la Vaillance in Anderlecht
Flag
Coat of arms
Anderlecht
Anderlecht
Location in Belgium
Anderlecht municipality in the Brussels-Capital Region
Coordinates: 50°50′N 04°20′E / 50.833°N 4.333°E / 50.833; 4.333Coordinates: 50°50′N 04°20′E / 50.833°N 4.333°E / 50.833; 4.333
CountryBelgium
CommunityFlemish Community
French Community
RegionBrussels
ArrondissementBrussels
Government
 • MayorEric Tomas (PS)
 • Governing party/iesLB - PS-SP.A-CDH
Area
 • Total17.74 km2 (6.85 sq mi)
Population
 (2018-01-01)[1]
 • Total118,382
 • Density6,700/km2 (17,000/sq mi)
Postal codes
1070
Area codes02
Websitewww.anderlecht.be

Anderlecht (French: [ɑ̃dɛʁlɛkt], Dutch: [ˈɑndərlɛxt] (About this soundlisten)) is one of the 19 municipalities of the Brussels-Capital Region, Belgium. Located in the south-western part of the region, it is bordered by the City of Brussels, Forest, Molenbeek-Saint-Jean, and Saint-Gilles, as well as the Flemish municipalities of Dilbeek and Sint-Pieters-Leeuw. In common with all of Brussels' municipalities, it is legally bilingual (French–Dutch).

There are several historically and architecturally distinct districts within Anderlecht. As of 1 February 2015, the municipality had a population of around 118,414.[2] The total area is 17.74 km2 (6.85 sq mi), which gives a population density of 6,610/km2 (17,100/sq mi). Its upper area is greener and less densely populated.

History

Origins and medieval times

The first traces of human activity on the right bank of the Senne date from the Stone Age and Bronze Age. The remnants of a Roman villa and of a Frankish necropolis were also found on the territory of Anderlecht. The first mention of the name Anderlecht, however, dates only from 1047 under the forms Anrelech, then Andrelet (1111), Andreler (1148), and Anderlech (1186). At that time, this community was already home to a chapter of canons and to two feudal manors, those of the powerful lords of Aa and of Anderlecht.

In 1356, Louis of Male, Count of Flanders, fought against Brussels on the territory of Anderlecht, in the so-called Battle of Scheut, supposedly over a monetary matter. Although he defeated his sister-in-law, Joanna, Duchess of Brabant, and briefly took her title, she regained it the following year with the help of Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor. In 1393, Joanna's charter made Anderlecht a part of Brussels. It is also around this time that the church of Saint Guy was rebuilt above the earlier Romanesque crypt in the Brabantian Gothic style.

Collegiate Church of St. Peter and St. Guido

15th–18th centuries

The city of Anderlecht became a beacon of culture in the 15th and 16th centuries. In 1521, Erasmus lived in the canons' house for a few months. Charles, Duke of Aumale and Grand Veneur of France also had a residence here.

The 17th and 18th centuries were marked by the wars between the Low Countries and France. On 13 November 1792, right after the Battle of Jemappes, General Dumouriez and the French Revolutionary army routed the Austrians here once again. Among the consequences were the disbanding of the canons and Anderlecht being proclaimed an independent municipality by the French.

19th century and later

Anderlecht Town Hall
Anderlecht Town Hall

The 19th century saw a remarkable population growth, mainly because of the proximity to a rapidly expanding Brussels. Remarkable new urban developments and garden cities such as La Roue/Het Rad, Moortebeek and Bon Air/Goede Lucht were built at the beginning of the 20th century to house the influx of newcomers. Today, the name Anderlecht rings a bell in every Belgian ear thanks to its very successful football club.

Districts

Historical centre

The historical centre of Anderlecht is the municipality's central district. Formerly known as Rinck, it is divided into several sectors: the Saint-Guidon/Sint Guido district, also called the Vaillance (Dutch: Dapperheid) district, is the meeting point for those who hail to the heart of Anderlecht. It is also where the Place de la Vaillance/Dapperheidsplein with its Collegiate Church, the Place de Linde/De Linde Plein, as well as Anderlecht's main schools are located. Rue Wayez/Wayezstraat is the municipality's main shopping street. It is centred on the Place of the Resistance/Verzetsplein and some neighbouring streets. The Aumale district mainly comprises Rue d'Aumale/Aumalestraat and its surrounding streets. It includes Erasmus House, the old beguinage and the Bibliothèque de l'Espace Maurice Carême public French-speaking library.

Cureghem/Kuregem

Located in the east of Anderlecht, the Cureghem (Dutch: Kuregem) district is one of the municipality's largest and most populated neighbourhoods. It developed during the Industrial Revolution along the Brussels–Charleroi Canal and is currently in a fragile social and economic situation due to the decline of its economy and the poor quality of some of its housing. Between 1836 and 1991, the district housed the Royal School of Veterinary Medicine, now moved to Liège but often still referred to as 'Cureghem'. The old campus, listed as protected heritage, is currently facing a large process of rehabilitation.

Three listed buildings; the former Atlas Brewery, the old power station and the former Moulart Mill are testaments to the old industrial activities next to the waterway. The Town Hall of Anderlecht is located on the Place du Conseil/Raadsplein, at the heart of this district.

La Roue/Het Rad

Located in the south of Anderlecht, the La Roue (Dutch: Het Rad) district is one of the municipality's largest districts and one of the main garden cities of the Brussels region. Built in the 1920s, with its modest and picturesque houses, it offers a great vision of an early 20th century working class neighbourhood. It is also home to one of the largest agribusiness industry campuses in Belgium, the Food and Chemical Industries Education and Research Center (CERIA/COOVI), and other popular department stores.

Sights

Events

The annual Anderlecht fair, originally a cattle fair, was authorised by William II of the Netherlands in 1825. Since then, it has taken the form of a series of celebrations, which still include animal shows but also a large market, a floral show, and the recreation of a religious procession in honour of Saint Guy.

Economy

Great hall of the slaughterhouse of Anderlecht
Great hall of the slaughterhouse of Anderlecht

The Abattoirs of Anderlecht, located at 24, Rue Ropsy Chaudron/Ropsy Chaudronstraat in Cureghem, is the main slaughterhouse in Brussels, employing some 1,500 people. In addition to its main activities, the great hall serves as a covered market for food and flea markets.[9]

In recent years, several major international companies have set up their headquarters in Anderlecht, notably the Delhaize Group, which operates many supermarket chains, from 40, Marie Curie Square,[10] Coca-Cola Benelux at 1424, Chaussée de Mons/Bergensesteenweg,[11] as well as the Belgian chocolate company Leonidas at 41, Boulevard Jules Graindor/Jules Graindorlaan.[12]

Healthcare

Several hospitals and clinics are located in Anderlecht:

Sports

R.S.C. Anderlecht fans at the Lotto Park

Football

Anderlecht is the home of the football club RSC Anderlecht, the most successful Belgian football team in European competition as well as in the Belgian First Division with 34 titles.[15] The club's home stadium is the Lotto Park, located within Astrid Park. The team colors are white and purple.

Parks and green spaces

Further information: List of parks and gardens in Brussels

Green spaces in the commune include:[16]

Famous inhabitants

Erasmus painted by Hans Holbein the Younger (1523)
Erasmus painted by Hans Holbein the Younger (1523)

Born in Anderlecht:

International relations

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Belgium

Anderlecht is twinned with:[18]

In addition, Anderlecht has signed a friendship agreement with:[18]

References

  1. ^ "Wettelijke Bevolking per gemeente op 1 januari 2018". Statbel. Retrieved 9 March 2019.
  2. ^ "Ma commune à la loupe — fr". ibsa.brussels. Retrieved 2019-06-08.
  3. ^ Eug. De Seyn, "Geschied- en aardrijkskundig woordenboek der Belgische gemeenten" (Historic and Geographic Dictionary of Belgian communes), A. Bieleveld, Brussels 1933-1934.
  4. ^ Fun, Everything is (2017-03-10). "Museum of China - Scheut". Brussels Museums. Retrieved 2019-12-14.
  5. ^ "Musée Maurice Carême". www.mauricecareme.be. Retrieved 2019-12-14.
  6. ^ "Luizenmolen Anderlecht". users.skynet.be. Retrieved 2019-12-14.
  7. ^ "Kelders van Cureghem/Les Caves de Cureghem/The Cureghem Cellars". Retrieved 2019-12-14.
  8. ^ Fun, Everything is (2017-03-10). "ULB - Museum of Medicine". Brussels Museums. Retrieved 2019-12-14.
  9. ^ "Slaughterhouse". Retrieved 2019-12-14.
  10. ^ "Contacts Archived 2012-05-22 at the Wayback Machine." Delhaize Group. Retrieved on 16 May 2012. "Square Marie Curie 40 1070 Brussels - Belgium"
  11. ^ "Contact" (in French). Retrieved 2017-02-17.
  12. ^ "Leonidas - Bienvenue dans un monde chocolat". www.leonidas.com. Retrieved 2017-02-17.
  13. ^ "Joseph Bracops". www.his-izz.be. Retrieved 2019-12-14.
  14. ^ "St-Anne St-Remi Clinic - Our hospital sites - Chirec". chirec.be. Retrieved 2019-12-14.
  15. ^ "Belgium - List of Champions". www.rsssf.com. Retrieved 2017-02-17.
  16. ^ Decker, Frédéric De. "Parcs publics". www.anderlecht.be. Archived from the original on 2016-12-30. Retrieved 2016-12-29.
  17. ^ Guy of Anderlecht at saints.sqpn.com. Retrieved 26.March 2013
  18. ^ a b Decker, Frédéric De. "Projets européens". www.anderlecht.be (in French). Archived from the original on 2017-03-01. Retrieved 2017-02-28.

Media related to Anderlecht at Wikimedia Commons