The Antakirinja, otherwise spelt Antakarinya, and alternatively spoken of as the Ngonde,[a] are an indigenous Australian people of South Australia.


Their tribal ethnonym generally signifies "westerners", from andakara / antakiri, apparently meaning 'west,' with the suffix -nja denoting 'name'.[2]


Antakirinya is a Western Desert language belonging to the Wati language family of the Pama-Nyungan languages.


Norman Tindale estimated the total range of lands to extend over roughly 24,500 square miles (63,000 km2). They lived around the headwaters of four rivers, the Hamilton, Alberga, Wintinna, and Lora, and northwards over the modern border as far as Kulgera in the Northern Territory. Their southern frontiers, just before the start of the gibber desert terrain, ran down to Mount Willoughby, Arckaringa, and the Stuart Range, close to the Kokata territory at Coober Pedy. The line separating them from the Matuntara tribe roughly coincides with the northern reaches of the bluebush plains.[1]

Social organization

The Antakarinya were composed of several hordes.

According to Christopher Giles, a Telegrapoh Stationmaster as Charlotte Waters, writing in 1875, they had four class names:

The marriage relations of the four were tabulated in the following manner:[4][5]

Male Marries Children are
Parroola Panungka Koomurra
Panungka Parroola Booltara
Booltara Koomurra Poonungka (sic)
Koomurra Booltara Parroola

Alternative names


  1. ^ "An alternative that may be more valid is Ngonde, but this term has been said by some aborigines to embrace also the Jangkundjara, being applied to two hordes in the Everard Range area."[1]


  1. ^ a b c d Tindale 1974, p. 210.
  2. ^ Tindale 1974, pp. 136, 210.
  3. ^ a b Giles & Taplin 1879, p. 89.
  4. ^ Giles & Taplin 1879, p. 90.
  5. ^ Giles, Fison & Howitt 1880, p. 65.
  6. ^ Elkin 1931, p. 63.