|Original author(s)||Joe Bowser, Michael Brooks, Rob Ellis, Dave Johnson, Anis Kadri, Brian Leroux, Jesse MacFadyen, Filip Maj, Eric Oesterle, Brock Whitten, Herman Wong, Shazron Abdullah|
11.0.0 / 21 December 2021
Windows (8.1, 10, Phone 8.1)
|Type||Mobile development framework|
|License||Apache License 2.0|
The software was previously called just "PhoneGap", then "Apache Callback".
PhoneGap was Adobe's commercial version of Cordova along with its associated ecosystem. Many other tools and frameworks are also built on top of Cordova, including Ionic, Monaca, VoltBuilder, TACO, Onsen UI, GapDebug, App Builder, Cocoon, Framework7, Quasar Framework, Evothings Studio, NSB/AppStudio, Mobiscroll, and Telerik Platform. These tools use Cordova, and not PhoneGap for their core tools.
Contributors to the Apache Cordova project include Adobe, BlackBerry, Google, IBM, Intel, Microsoft, Mozilla, and others.
First developed at an iPhoneDevCamp event in San Francisco, PhoneGap went on to win the People's Choice Award at O'Reilly Media's 2009 Web 2.0 Conference, and the framework has been used to develop many apps. Apple Inc. has confirmed that the framework has its approval, even with the change to clause 3.3.1 of the Apple iPhone SDK developer license agreement 4.0 adopted in 2010. The PhoneGap framework is used by several mobile application platforms such as Monaca, appMobi, Convertigo, ViziApps, and Worklight as the backbone of their mobile client development engine.
Adobe officially announced the acquisition of Nitobi Software (the original developer) on October 4, 2011. Coinciding with that, the PhoneGap code was contributed to the Apache Software Foundation to start a new project called Apache Cordova. The project's original name, Apache Callback, was viewed as too generic. Then, it also appears in Adobe Systems as Adobe PhoneGap and also as Adobe PhoneGap Build. The Phonegap Blog shows more details, why finally the name "Cordova" was chosen. It says: "While genesis stories of PhoneGap often vary with the teller, most committers can agree the project was born at Nitobi, when the office was on Cordova Street in Vancouver."
However, the use of Web-based technologies leads some Apache Cordova applications to run slower than native applications with similar functionality.
As of version 9, Apache Cordova currently supports development for the operating systems Apple iOS, Google Android, Windows 8.1, Windows Phone 8.1 , Windows 10 and Electron (software framework) (which in turn runs on Windows, Linux and macOS). Earlier version of Apache Cordova used to support Bada, BlackBerry, Firefox OS, LG webOS, Microsoft Windows Phone (7 and 8), macOS, Nokia Symbian OS, Tizen (SDK 2.x), and Ubuntu Touch. The table below is a list of supported features for each operating system for Adobe PhoneGap/ Apache Cordova 3.
However, HTML5 has some limitations. Most prominent is the lack of API to access device hardware and sensors such as accelerometer, compass, GPS, etc. While native applications can access device hardware, they lack the portability that Web apps provide. Thus, a solution is to code a hybrid application, which cumulatively uses the benefits of native and Web apps.