Senegalese Armed Forces
Forces armées du Sénégal
Founded1962
Service branches
Leadership
PresidentMacky Sall
Minister of the Armed ForcesSidiki Kaba
Chief of the General StaffGeneral of Air Corps Mbaye Cissé
Personnel
Available for
military service
1,158,893 (2000 est.), age 15–49 (2,218,920 (2000 est.))
Fit for
military service
109,381 (2000 est.), age 15–49 (2,218,920 (2000 est.))
Reaching military
age annually
(2,218,920 (2000 est.))
Active personnel17,000
Expenditures
Budget~ $350 million (FY2018)
Percent of GDP~1.5% (FY2018 est.)
Industry
Foreign suppliers Canada
 France
 India
 Vietnam
 United States
 Haiti
Related articles
HistoryMauritania–Senegal Border War
Casamance conflict
Gulf War
Guinea-Bissau Civil War
Insurgency in the Maghreb
2008 invasion of Anjouan
Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen
Invasion of the Gambia
RanksMilitary ranks of Senegal

The Armed Forces of Senegal (French: Forces armées du Sénégal) consists of about 17,000 personnel in the army, air force, navy, and gendarmerie. The Senegal military force receives most of its training, equipment, and support from France and the United States. Germany also provides support but on a smaller scale.

Military noninterference in political affairs has contributed to Senegal's stability since independence. Senegal has participated in many international and regional peacekeeping missions. Most recently, in 2000, Senegal sent a battalion to the Democratic Republic of Congo to participate in MONUC, the United Nations peacekeeping mission.

Senegal also agreed to deploy a United States-trained battalion to Sierra Leone to participate in UNAMSIL, another UN peacekeeping mission. The training operation was designated Operation Focus Relief and involved U.S. Army Special Forces from 3rd Special Forces Group training a number of West African battalions, including Nigerian ones.

As one of the largest troop contributors in Africa (per capita) to African Union missions, United Nations missions, and other regional security organizations, the Senegalese military has proven itself to be one of the most effective and reliable militaries on the African continent. This is remarkable given that Senegal is poorer than the average Sub-Saharan African country. Most importantly, the army of Senegal is multi-ethnic, not coup-proofed, and has never attempted a coup d'état, which is a rarity in Africa. Harmonious Senegalese civil-military relations since independence have permitted the creation of an effective 'military enclave' that is a capable institution not a threat to the political leadership in Dakar.[1]

Summary of past military actions

Commando battalion of Thiès.

The Army (Armée de Terre) is the leading force within the Senegalese armed forces and provides the chief of staff and the Inspecteur général des forces armées.

Army

Senegalese soldiers during a training exercise.

Since independence from France in 1960, the army has gone through a large number of reorganisations. The army's heritage includes the Tirailleurs sénégalais. In 1978, Senegal dispatched a battalion to the Inter-African Force in Zaire, in the aftermath of the Shaba II fighting. The Senegalese contingent was under the command of Colonel Osmane Ndoye.[4] The Senegalese force comprised a parachute battalion from Thiaroye.

The Army currently consists of two divisions, the Operations Division and the Logistic Division. The IISS estimated in 2012 that the Army had a strength of 11,900 soldiers, three armoured battalions the 22nd, 24th, and 25th (at Bignona) and the 26th Bataillon de reconnaissance et d'Appui at Kolda; there are six infantry battalions numbered 1st to 6th.[5] 3rd Battalion may have been at Kaolack with 4th at Tambacounda at one point.[6]

Also reported is the 12th Battalion of the 2nd Military Zone at Saint Louis (Dakhar Bango),[7] along with the Prytanée militaire de Saint-Louis, a military secondary school.

Although the Senegalese Air Force is geared towards supporting it, the army may have previously maintained its own very small aviation branch, called the "Aviation Légère de l'Armée de Terre" (like the French army's equivalent), which may have counted up to five light helicopters and two SA330 Puma transport helicopters. The IISS Military Balance 2012 does not list any helicopters in army service.

National Gendarmerie

Main article: Senegalese Gendarmerie

Red Guard of Senegal.

The Gendarmerie is a military force which provides policing and security. It includes a Territorial Gendarmerie with general policing duties, and a Mobile Gendarmerie for special tasks and serious public disorder.

The Senegalese gendarmerie evolved out of a French colonial Spahi detachment sent to Senegal in 1845. This detachment (which became today's Red Guard of Senegal) was the cadre around which the "Colonial Gendarmerie" was formed. On independence this became the National Gendarmerie.

The commander is General Abdoulaye Fall (a different person from the current Armed Forces Chief of Staff of the same name), whose rank is divisional general, and whose full job title is "High Commander of the Gendarmerie and Director of Military Justice".

Navy

The Senegalese patrol boat Fouladou
Senegalese patrol vessel Poponquine training with a United States Coast Guard vessel off the coast of Senegal

The navy (marine), also known as the Armée de mer, is of small size and is commanded by a ship-of-the-line captain. It is responsible for securing Senegal's 286-nautical-mile (530-kilometre) Atlantic coastline which is strategically located on the extreme west of the African continent. The coastline is divided in two by The Gambia. The navy was created in 1975.[8] The Navy operates two bases, one at Dakar and the other at Elinkine. The navy also patrols the 12-nautical-mile (22-kilometre) territorial waters as well as a declared 200-nautical-mile (370-kilometre) exclusive economic zone.[9][10]

The Navy is divided into three branches known as "groupings":[11]

Air Force

Air Force Roundel.

Main article: Senegalese Air Force

The air force (Armée de l'Air) is orientated towards providing support for ground forces and resembles an army aviation corps. It possesses air-to-air combat aeroplanes, Mil Mi-24 gunship helicopters, as well as transport and reconnaissance aircraft.

Military Areas

Senegal's Military zones.

At the present time, there are seven military zones:[12]

Each zone comprises a garrison office that caters to military issues and a social service office. The IISS Military Balance listed four zones in 2007.

Equipment

Small arms

Name Image Caliber Type Origin Notes
Pistols
Walther PP[13] .25 ACP Semi-automatic pistol  Germany
PAMAS G1[13] 9×19mm Semi-automatic pistol  Italy
 France
MAC 50[13] 9×19mm Semi-automatic pistol  France
Manurhin MR 73[13] .357 Magnum Revolver  France
Submachine guns
MAS-38[14] 7.65×20mm Submachine gun  France
MAT-49[13] 9×19mm Submachine gun  France
Rifles
FAMAS[15] 5.56×45mm Bullpup
Assault rifle
 France
M16[15] 5.56×45mm Assault rifle  United States
M4[16] 5.56×45mm Carbine
Assault rifle
 United States
CAR-15[13] 5.56×45mm Carbine
Assault rifle
 United States
Taurus T4[17] 5.56×45mm Carbine
Assault rifle
 Brazil
Norinco CQ[18] 5.56×45mm Assault rifle  China
Daewoo K1[19] .223 Remington Carbine
Assault rifle
 South Korea Received 280 K1A rifles in 2003.
Daewoo K2[20][21] 5.56×45mm Carbine
Assault rifle
 South Korea
IWI Tavor[22] 5.56×45mm Bullpup
Assault rifle
 Israel
IWI Tavor X95[23] 5.56×45mm Bullpup
Assault rifle
 Israel
KNT-76[24] 7.62×51mm Assault rifle  Turkey
Heckler & Koch G3[13] 7.62×51mm Battle rifle  West Germany
 France
French-made G3s
SIG SG 540[13] 7.62×51mm Battle rifle   Switzerland
MAS-36[25] 7.5×54mm Bolt-action rifle  France
MAS-49/56[26] 7.5×54mm Semi-automatic rifle  France
Sniper rifles
SVD[27] 7.62×54mmR Sniper rifle
Designated marksman rifle
 Soviet Union
IWI Galatz[15] 5.56×45mm Designated marksman rifle  Israel
Machine guns
IWI Negev[15] 5.56×45mm Light machine gun  Israel
AA-52[13] 7.62×51mm General-purpose machine gun  France
Heckler & Koch HK21[13] 7.62×51mm General-purpose machine gun  West Germany
M60[28] 7.62×51mm General-purpose machine gun  United States
Browning M2[13] .50 BMG Heavy machine gun  United States
Rocket propelled grenade launchers
RPG-7[13] 40mm Rocket-propelled grenade  Soviet Union
LRAC F1[29] 89mm Shoulder-launched missile weapon  France

Anti-tank weapons

Name Image Type Origin Caliber Notes
MILAN[30] Anti-tank missile  France
 West Germany
496

Anti-aircraft weapons

Name Image Type Origin Quantity Status Notes
Bofors L/60[31] Autocannon  Sweden 12 INS
20 mm modèle F2 gun Autocannon  France 21 INS Used for air defence.

Artillery

Name Image Type Origin Quantity Status Notes
Rocket artillery
Bastion-01 Multiple rocket launcher  Ukraine 6[32] INS
Field artillery
M101 Howitzer  United States 6[31] INS
M-50 Howitzer  France 6[33] INS
TRF1 Howitzer  France 8[34] INS
Mortars
MO-120-RT-61 Towed mortar  France 32 INS

Tank destroyers

Name Image Type Origin Quantity Status Notes
WMA-301 Tank destroyer  China 12[35] INS

Infantry fighting vehicles

Name Image Type Origin Quantity Status Notes
Ratel IFV Infantry fighting vehicle  South Africa 26[36] INS

Armored personnel carriers

Name Image Type Origin Quantity Status Notes
Panhard M3 Armoured personnel carrier  France 16[33] INS
M3 half-track Half-track
Armored personnel carrier
 United States 12[33] INS
WZ-551 Command post  China 1[35] INS
EE-11 Urutu Amphibious Armored personnel carrier  Brazil Unknown[37] INS
RG-31 Nyala Infantry mobility vehicle  South Africa Unknown INS
Dozor-B Infantry mobility vehicle  Ukraine 6[38] INS

Reconnaissance

Name Image Type Origin Quantity Status Notes
Panhard AML Armored car  France 53[33] INS
Eland-90 Armored car  South Africa 47[39] INS
RAM MK3 Armored Car  Israel 55[15] INS

Mine-Resistant Ambush Protected

Name Image Type Origin Quantity Status Notes
Casspir MRAP  South Africa 9[40] INS
PUMA M26-15 MRAP  South Africa 30[15] INS
Ejder Yalçın MRAP  Turkey 25[41] INS

Utility vehicles

Name Image Type Origin Quantity Status Notes
Humvee Light utility vehicle  United States 23[42] INS
M151 Utility vehicle  United States Unknown[43] INS

Aircraft

Main article: Senegalese Air Force

Navy[44]

Citations

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  2. ^ Ndiaye, Ndèye Fatou; Sané, Chamsidine (17 January 2017). "Opérations en Gambie : Il était une fois "Fodé Kaba 1" et "Fodé Kaba 2"". seneweb.com (in French).
  3. ^ "Guinea: Senegal Sends Troops To Bissau". allafrica.com. 12 June 1998.
  4. ^ "Le Potential". Archived from the original on 2014-03-29. Retrieved 2014-03-29.
  5. ^ IISS Military Balance 2012, 449.
  6. ^ "Sorry". Archived from the original on 2014-03-29. Retrieved 2012-06-30.
  7. ^ "SAINT-LOUIS - en visite au 12e bataillon : Macky Sall promet de meilleures conditions de travail". www.lequotidien.sn. Archived from the original on 18 April 2013. Retrieved 22 May 2022.
  8. ^ Gonzalez, Flor (28 January 2020). "U.S. Africa Command continues to develop Senegal's Enlisted Development Strategy". United States Africa Command. Retrieved 24 May 2020.
  9. ^ Gardiner, Chumbley & Budzbon 1995, p. 330.
  10. ^ Saunders 2009, p. 717.
  11. ^ Bryden & N'Diaye (eds), 'Security Sector Governance in Francophone West Africa, DCAF, 2011, 207.
  12. ^ État Major des Armees, Zones militaires Archived July 26, 2009, at the Wayback Machine, accessed August 2009
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Jones, Richard D. Jane's Infantry Weapons 2009/2010. Jane's Information Group; 35 edition (January 27, 2009). ISBN 978-0-7106-2869-5.
  14. ^ Gander, Terry J. (22 November 2000). "National inventories, Senegal". Jane's Infantry Weapons 2001-2002.
  15. ^ a b c d e f Binnie, Jeremy; de Cherisey, Erwan (2017). "New-model African armies" (PDF). Jane's. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 June 2017.
  16. ^ "Senegal received 2 200 M4 carbines from the US". defenceWeb. 26 July 2019.
  17. ^ "Senegal compra fuzis e submetralhadoras da Taurus". Forças Terrestres - ForTe (in Brazilian Portuguese). 2020-05-28. Retrieved 2021-05-22.
  18. ^ Jackson J Wood (2012-04-17). "Independence Day". jacksonjwood.com. Archived from the original on February 2, 2017. Retrieved 2017-01-26.
  19. ^ "ID No. 195149". Archived from the original on 2013-01-27. Retrieved 2012-11-30.((cite web)): CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  20. ^ "세네갈군의 K-2 소총과 K201".
  21. ^ "Mali: Ban urges immediate end to fighting amid rapidly deteriorating situation in Kidal". 21 May 2014.
  22. ^ "Defence Notes – Shephard Media". Archived from the original on 2017-03-25. Retrieved 2017-07-02.
  23. ^ "Tavor And Galil Rifles Plus Jericho Pistols Come to Senegal". The Firearm Blog. 2018-05-07. Retrieved 2021-04-05.
  24. ^ "Senegal Silahlı Kuvvetleri'ne KNT-76 Keskin Nişancı Tüfeği teslimatı". 26 December 2020. Retrieved 26 February 2021.
  25. ^ "Post-WWII use of the MAS-36 rifle: Part II (export users)". wwiiafterwwii.wordpress.com. 2015-08-23. Retrieved 2017-06-15.
  26. ^ Gander, Terry J. (22 November 2000). "National inventories, Senegal". Jane's Infantry Weapons 2001-2002.
  27. ^ "El Ejército asesora a Senegal". ejercito.mde.es (in Spanish). 28 August 2015. Archived from the original on 2 February 2018. Retrieved 18 June 2018.
  28. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on February 18, 2014. Retrieved 2014-03-05.((cite web)): CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  29. ^ Shea, Dan (February 2010). "LRAC F1: 89mm Shoulder Fired Launcher". Small Arms Review. Vol. 13, no. 5. Archived from the original on 2019-10-18. Retrieved 2018-12-12.
  30. ^ The Military Balance. Vol. 120. International Institute for Strategic Studies. Routledge. 2020. pp. 257–504. ISBN 978-0-367-46639-8.((cite book)): CS1 maint: others (link)
  31. ^ a b Military Balance 2016, p. 464.
  32. ^ "Senegal parades new BM-21s and armoured vehicles". Janes.com. 2017-04-11. Archived from the original on 16 May 2017. Retrieved 2017-06-01.
  33. ^ a b c d "Trade Registers". Armstrade.sipri.org. Retrieved 2014-11-20.
  34. ^ "Armée Sénégalaise – Page 7".
  35. ^ a b Binnie, Jeremy (5 April 2016). "Senegal parades new Chinese armour". IHS Jane's 360. London: IHS Jane's. Archived from the original on 10 April 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2016.
  36. ^ International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS) (2016). The Military Balance 2016. London: IISS. ISBN 978-1857438352.
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  38. ^ "Senegal parades new BM-21s and armoured vehicles". Janes.com. 2017-04-11. Archived from the original on 16 May 2017. Retrieved 2017-06-01.
  39. ^ "South African Arms Supplies to Sub-Saharan Africa" (PDF). SIPRI. January 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-06-02. Retrieved 2013-06-18.
  40. ^ Leon Engelbrecht (3 January 2011). "South African Arms Exports". Archived from the original on 22 January 2016. Retrieved 5 November 2014.
  41. ^ "Turkish armored vehicles showcased in Senegal".
  42. ^ Morgan, Scott. "The U.S. Gives 23 Humvee to the Senegalese Armed Forces". Embassy of the United States in Dakar, Senegal. Dakar. Archived from the original on 20 January 2017. Retrieved 29 January 2017.
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Part of this article is derived from the equivalent article at French Wikipedia

References