The Bhangi Misl (Punjabi pronunciation: [pə̃˨ŋɡiː mɪsəl]) was a large and powerful Sikh Misl[1] headquartered in Amritsar. It was founded in the early 18th century by Sardar Chhajja Singh Dhillon,[1][2][3] who was baptised by Banda Singh Bahadur.[4][5] The misl received its name "Bhangi" because Chhajja Singh and his soldiers frequently used the herbal intoxicant bhang (drink made from cannabis sativa).[6][7] It was a first misl to established a Khalsa Raj and publish Khalsa currency coins.[citation needed] The Bhangi Kingdom/Misl was founded by Dhillon Jats.[8]

List of Sardars (Chiefs)

  1. Chhajja Singh Bhangi
  2. Bhima (Bhuma) Singh
  3. Hari Singh
  4. Jhanda Singh
  5. Ganda Singh
  6. Charhat Singh Dhillon (died nearly immediately)
  7. Desu Singh Dhillon
  8. Gulab Singh Dhillon
  9. Gurdit Singh Dhillon


Expanse of Bhangi Misl

It grew in strength and territory to cover an area from Gujrat to Multan and emerged as the strongest power in the western Punjab region.[10] However, deaths among the leadership during the late 1760s reduced the Misl's power.[10] On 16 April 1765, the Bhangi sardars Gujjar Singh and Lehna Singh Kahlon, allied with Sobha Singh of the Kanhaiya Misl, conquered Lahore.[11] They did not plunder the city as it was the birthplace of Guru Ram Das, the fourth Sikh guru.[12]

Decline of power

The Bhangi misl engaged in numerous power struggles with the Sukerchakia Misl until they were severely weakened at the Battle of Basin and the loss of Lahore to Ranjit Singh in 1799[13].[citation needed]

Bhangi Misl held the possession of Zamzama, the famous cannon, which was at the time named Bhangi Toap, Bhangianwala Toap and Bhangian di Top, names it retains to this day.[14]


See also


  1. ^ a b Sikh History (2004). "The Bhangi Misal" Archived 4 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine, History of the Sikhs, 2004. Retrieved on 7 September 2016
  2. ^ Singh, Rishi (2015). State Formation and the Establishment of Non-Muslim Hegemony:Post-Mughal 19th-century Punjab. India: Sage Publications India Pvt Ltd, New Delhi, 23 April 2015. ISBN 9789351500759
  3. ^ Dhavan, Purnima (2011). When Sparrows Became Hawks: The Making of the Sikh Warrior Tradition, 1699-1799, p.60. OUP USA Publisher, 3 November 2011.
  4. ^ Jaspreet Kaur (2000). Sikh Ethos: Eighteenth Century Perspective, p.99. Vision & Venture, Patiala, 2000.
  5. ^ Jain, Harish (2003). The Making of Punjab, p. 201. Unistar Books Pvt. Ltd, Chandigarh.
  6. ^ Singh, Bhagata (1993). A History of The Sikh Misals, p. 89. Publication Bureau, Punjabi University, Patiala, 1993.
  7. ^ Seetal, Sohan Singh (1981). The Sikh Misals and the Punjab States, p.11. India: Lahore Book Shop, Ludhiana, 1981.
  8. ^ Sidhu, Kuldip Singh (1994). Ranjit Singh's Khalsa Raj and Attariwala Sardars. National Book Shop. ISBN 978-81-7116-165-2.
  9. ^ Singh, Bhagat (1993). A History Of Sikh Misals (1st ed.). Publication Bureau Punjabi University, Patiala. pp. 89–102.
  10. ^ a b McLeod, W. H. (2005). Historical dictionary of Sikhism. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 35. ISBN 978-0-8108-5088-0.
  11. ^ Chowdhry, Mohindra S. (2018). Defence of Europe by Sikh soldiers in the World Wars. Kibworth Beauchamp. p. 41. ISBN 978-1-78901-098-5. OCLC 1032183994.
  12. ^ Chowdhry, Mohindra S. (2018). Defence of Europe by Sikh soldiers in the World Wars. Kibworth Beauchamp. p. 41. ISBN 978-1-78901-098-5. OCLC 1032183994.
  13. ^ "Ranjit Singh | Maharaja, Biography, Family, & History | Britannica".
  14. ^ Singh, Khushwant A History of the Sikhs, Volume 1: 1469-1839. Oxford University Press, 2004, Page 198, Footnote 11