Burgess Meredith
Burgess Meredith 1954.JPG
Meredith in a publicity photo (1954)
Born(1907-11-16)November 16, 1907
Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.
DiedSeptember 9, 1997(1997-09-09) (aged 89)
Alma materAmherst College
  • Actor
  • filmmaker
Years active1929–1997
Political partyDemocratic
  • Helen Derby
    (m. 1933; div. 1935)
  • Margaret Perry
    (m. 1936; div. 1938)
  • (m. 1944; div. 1949)
  • Kaja Sundsten
    (m. 1950)
Military career
Allegiance United States
US Army Air Corps Hap Arnold Wings.svg
United States Army Air Forces
Years of service1942–1945
US-O3 insignia.svg
UnitFirst Air Force
Office of War Information
Battles/warsWorld War II
American Campaign Medal ribbon.svg
American Campaign Medal
World War II Victory Medal ribbon.svg
World War II Victory Medal
Acting President of the Actors' Equity Association
In office
Preceded byFrank Gillmore
Succeeded byArthur Byron

Oliver Burgess Meredith (November 16, 1907 – September 9, 1997)[1][2] was an American actor and filmmaker whose career encompassed theater, film, and television.

Active for more than six decades, Meredith has been called "a virtuosic actor" and "one of the most accomplished actors of the century".[3][4][1] A lifetime member of the Actors Studio,[5][6] he won several Emmys,[7] was the first male actor to win the Saturn Award for Best Supporting Actor twice, and was nominated for two Academy Awards.[7]

He established himself as a leading man in Hollywood with critically acclaimed performances as Mio Romagna in Winterset (1936), George Milton in Of Mice and Men (1939), and Ernie Pyle in The Story of G.I. Joe (1945).

Meredith was known later in his career for his appearances on The Twilight Zone and for portraying both arch-villain the Penguin in the 1960s TV series Batman and boxing trainer Mickey Goldmill in the Rocky film series. For his performances in The Day of the Locust (1975) and Rocky (1976), he received nominations for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor. He later appeared in the comedy Foul Play (1978) and the fantasy film Clash of the Titans (1981). He narrated numerous films and documentaries during his long career.[8]

"Although those performances renewed his popularity," observed Mel Gussow in The New York Times, "they represented only a small part of a richly varied career in which he played many of the more demanding roles in classical and contemporary theater—in plays by Shakespeare, O'Neill, Beckett and others."[1]

Early life

Meredith was born in 1907 in Cleveland, Ohio, the son of Ida Beth (née Burgess) and Dr. William George Meredith, a Canadian-born physician of English descent.[1][9][10] His mother came from a long line of Methodist revivalists,[1] a religion to which he adhered throughout his lifetime. He graduated from Hoosac School in 1926 and then attended Amherst College (class of 1931). He left Amherst and became a reporter for the Stamford Advocate.[11]



In The Remarkable Mr. Pennypacker (1951)
In The Remarkable Mr. Pennypacker (1951)

In 1929, he became a member of Eva Le Gallienne's Civic Repertory Theatre company in New York City. Although best known to the larger world audience for his film and television work, Meredith was an influential actor and director for the stage. He made his Broadway debut as Peter in Le Gallienne's production of Romeo and Juliet (1930) and became a star in Maxwell Anderson's Winterset (1935), which became his film debut the following year. His early life and theatre work were the subject of a New Yorker profile.[12] In 1935, he starred along with Hugh Williams at the Martin Beck Theatre in John Van Druten's Flowers of the Forest.[13]

He garnered critical acclaim in the 1935 Broadway revival of The Barretts of Wimpole Street starring Katharine Cornell.[citation needed] She subsequently cast him in several of her later productions. Other Broadway roles included Van van Dorn in High Tor (1937), Liliom in Liliom (1940), Christy Mahon in The Playboy of the Western World (1946), and Adolphus Cusins in Major Barbara (1956). He created the role of Erie Smith in the English-language premiere of Eugene O'Neill's Hughie at the Theater Royal in Bath, England in 1963. He played Hamlet in avant garde theatrical and radio productions of the play.[14]

A distinguished theatre director, he earned a Tony Award nomination for his 1974 Broadway staging of Ulysses in Nighttown, a theatrical adaptation of the "Nighttown" section of James Joyce's Ulysses. Meredith also shared a Special Tony Award with James Thurber for their collaboration on A Thurber Carnival (1960).[15] In the late seventies, he directed Fionnula Flanagan's one-woman multi-role play James Joyce's Women, which toured for several years.[16]


Meredith in Second Chorus
Meredith in Second Chorus
Burgess Meredith is The Rear Gunner (1943).

Early in his career, Meredith attracted favorable attention, especially for playing George in a 1939 adaptation of John Steinbeck's Of Mice and Men and as war correspondent Ernie Pyle in The Story of G.I. Joe (1945). He was featured in many 1940s films, including three—Second Chorus (1940), Diary of a Chambermaid (1946), and On Our Merry Way (1948) — co-starring his then-wife Paulette Goddard. As a result of the House Committee on Un-American Activities investigation, Meredith was placed on the Hollywood blacklist, and was largely absent from film for the next decade, though he remained involved in stage plays and radio during this time.[17]

Meredith was a favorite of director Otto Preminger, who cast him in Advise and Consent (1962), The Cardinal (1963), In Harm's Way (1965), Hurry Sundown (1967), Skidoo (1968), and Such Good Friends (1971).[1] He was in Madame X (with Lana Turner, 1966) and Stay Away Joe (1968), appearing as the father of Elvis Presley's character.[18] He was acclaimed by critics for his performance as Harry Greener in The Day of the Locust (1975) and received nominations for the BAFTA, Golden Globe, and Academy Award for best supporting actor.[19] Meredith then played Rocky Balboa's trainer Mickey Goldmill in the first three Rocky films (1976, 1979, and 1982).[20][21] Though his character died in the third Rocky film,[22] he returned briefly in a flashback in the fifth film, Rocky V (1990).[23] His portrayal in the first film earned him his second consecutive nomination for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor.[24]

Meredith played an old Korean War veteran Captain J. G. Williams in The Last Chase (1981) with Lee Majors.[25] He appeared in Ray Harryhausen's last stop-motion feature Clash of the Titans (also 1981) in a supporting role.[26] Meredith appeared in Santa Claus: The Movie (1985)[27] and was a voice actor in G.I. Joe: The Movie (1989). In his last years, he played Jack Lemmon's character's sex-crazed 95-year-old father in Grumpy Old Men (1993) and its sequel, Grumpier Old Men (1995).[19]

Meredith directed the movie The Man on the Eiffel Tower (1949) starring Charles Laughton, which was produced by Irving Allen. Meredith also was billed in a supporting role in this film.[28] In 1970, he directed (as well as co-wrote and played a supporting role in) The Yin and the Yang of Mr. Go, an espionage caper starring James Mason and Jeff Bridges.[29]


Meredith as Henry Bemis in The Twilight Zone episode, "Time Enough at Last"
Meredith as Henry Bemis in The Twilight Zone episode, "Time Enough at Last"

Meredith appeared in four different starring roles in the anthology TV series The Twilight Zone, tying him with Jack Klugman for the most appearances on the show in a starring role.[30]

In his first appearance in 1959, "Time Enough at Last", he portrayed a henpecked bookworm who finds himself the sole survivor of an unspecified apocalypse which leads him to contemplate suicide until he discovers the ruins of the library.[31] In 1961's "Mr. Dingle, the Strong", Meredith played the title character, a timid weakling who receives superhuman strength from an extraterrestrial experiment in human nature.[32] Also that year in "The Obsolete Man", Meredith portrayed a librarian sentenced to death in a dystopic totalitarian society.[33] Lastly, in 1963's "Printer's Devil", Meredith portrayed the Devil himself.[34] He later played two additional roles in Rod Serling's other anthology series, Night Gallery.[35] Meredith was the narrator for Twilight Zone: The Movie in 1983.[36]

He appeared in various other television programs, including the role of Christopher Norbert III, in the 1962 episode "Hooray, Hooray, the Circus Is Coming to Town" of the NBC medical drama about psychiatry, The Eleventh Hour, starring Wendell Corey and Jack Ging. He also guest starred in the ABC drama about psychiatry, Breaking Point, in the 1963 episode titled "Heart of Marble, Body of Stone".

Meredith appeared in various western series, such as Rawhide (four times), The Virginian (twice), Wagon Train, Branded, The Wild Wild West, The Travels of Jaimie McPheeters, Laredo, Bonanza, and Daniel Boone. In 1963, he appeared as Vincent Marion in a five-part episode of the last season of the Warner Bros. ABC detective series 77 Sunset Strip.[19] He appeared three times in Burke's Law (1963–1964), starring Gene Barry.

Meredith as the Penguin on the 1960s TV show Batman
Meredith as the Penguin on the 1960s TV show Batman

Meredith was also well known for his portrayal of the Penguin in the television series Batman from 1966 to 1968 and in the 1966 film based on the TV series.[19] His role as the Penguin was so well-received that the show's writers always had a script featuring the Penguin ready whenever Meredith was available.[citation needed] Meredith made 21 appearances on the series as the Penguin. He also made a brief cameo appearance as the Penguin in the 1968 episode of The Monkees titled "Monkees Blow Their Minds".

From 1972 to 1973, Meredith played V. C. R. Cameron, director of Probe Control, in the television movie/pilot Probe and then in Search, the subsequent TV series (the name was changed to avoid conflict with a program on PBS).

Meredith won an Emmy Award as Outstanding Supporting Actor in a Comedy or Drama Special for the 1977 television film Tail Gunner Joe, a fictitious study of U.S. Senator Joseph McCarthy, the anticommunist politician active in the 1950s. He was cast as crusading lawyer Joseph Welch.[37]

In 1992, Meredith narrated The Chaplin Puzzle, a television documentary that provides a rare insight into Charles Chaplin's work, circa 1914, at Keystone Studios and Essanay, where Chaplin developed his Tramp character.[38] Coincidentally, Meredith married actress Paulette Goddard in 1944 following her divorce from Chaplin.[17]

Military service

In 1942, Meredith enlisted in the United States Army Air Forces during World War II, reaching the rank of captain.[39] After transferring to the Office of War Information, he made training and education films for America's armed forces. In 1943 he performed in the USAAF's recruiting short The Rear Gunner and the U.S. Army training film A Welcome to Britain for troops heading to the UK in preparation for the liberation of Europe.[40] He was released from duty in 1944 to work on the movie The Story of G.I. Joe, in which he played the war correspondent Ernie Pyle.[41] He was discharged from the USAAF in 1945.[39]

Other work

Meredith also performed voice-over work. He provided the narration for the war film A Walk in the Sun (1945).[42] As a nod to his longtime association with original Twilight Zone series, he served as narrator for the 1983 film based on the series.[36] He was a TV commercial voice for such clients as Bulova, Honda, Pioneer, Stokely-Van Camp, United Airlines, and Freakies breakfast cereal.[citation needed] He also provided the narration for the short film Works Of Calder, a 1949-50 film by Herbert Matter which featured a musical soundtrack by the composer John Cage.[43]

He supplied the narration for the 1974–75 ABC Saturday morning series Korg: 70,000 B.C.[44] and was the voice of Puff in the series of animated adaptations of the Peter, Paul, and Mary song Puff, the Magic Dragon.[45] In the mid-1950s, he was one of four narrators of the NBC and syndicated public affairs program, The Big Story (1949–58), which focused on courageous journalists. In 1991, he narrated a track on The Chieftains' album of traditional Christmas music and carols, The Bells of Dublin.[46]

He acted in the Kenny G music video of "Have Yourself a Merry Little Christmas", which was released in 1994. He played the main character, a projectionist at a movie theater.[47]

His last role before his death was the portrayal of both Hamilton Wofford and Covington Wofford characters in the 1996 video game Ripper by Take-Two Interactive.[48] Meredith was considered to play the Penguin's father in the 1992 Tim Burton film Batman Returns, but illness prevented him from appearing[19] and the role was taken by Paul Reubens.[49]

Personal life and death

Meredith was married four times. His first wife, Helen Derby Merrien Burgess — the daughter of American Cyanamid president Harry L. Derby — committed suicide in 1940, nearly five years after their divorce.[50] His next two wives, Margaret Perry and Paulette Goddard, were actresses; Goddard suffered a miscarriage in 1944. Meredith's last marriage, to Kaja Sundsten, lasted 46 years and produced two children, Jonathan (a musician) and Tala (a painter).[1]

Meredith was a lifelong Democrat and frequent donor to the party.[51] He wrote in his 1994 autobiography So Far, So Good that he had violent mood swings caused by cyclothymia, a form of bipolar disorder.[9]

On September 9, 1997, Meredith died at age 89 from complications of Alzheimer's disease and melanoma, and his remains were cremated.[2] Friend Adam West spoke at his memorial service.

Awards and honors

Meredith was twice nominated for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor, in 1976 for Rocky, and in 1975 for The Day of the Locust, for which he also received a Golden Globe Award nomination for Best Supporting Actor in a Motion Picture. That performance brought him a BAFTA Award nomination.[19]

Meredith won a Primetime Emmy Award for Supporting Actor in 1977 for Tail Gunner Joe,[52] and was nominated for the same award the next year for The Last Hurrah, a remake of the film starring Spencer Tracy.[53] He was nominated for Best Supporting Actor by the Academy of Science Fiction, Fantasy and Horror Films three times, in 1978, 1979, and 1982, and won the last two times, for Magic and Clash of the Titans.

In 1962, Meredith won a Best Supporting Actor award from the National Board of Review, for Advise & Consent,[54] and in 1985 he was nominated for a CableAce Award for his performance in Answers.

Meredith received a Special Tony Award in 1960 for directing A Thurber Carnival.[55]

For his contributions to the motion picture industry, Meredith has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame.[56] For his onstage contributions, he was inducted into the American Theater Hall of Fame.[57]

A 21-acre (8.5 ha) park was named for him in Pomona, New York, and he provided the funding to incorporate the village.[58]

In 1977, he received an honorary doctorate degree from Upper Iowa University in Fayette, Iowa.[59][60][61]



Year Film Role Director Notes
1935 The Scoundrel Flop House Bum Charles MacArthur uncredited
1936 Winterset Mio Romagna Alfred Santell
1937 There Goes the Groom Dick Matthews Joseph Santley
1938 Spring Madness The Lippencott S. Sylvan Simon
1939 Idiot's Delight Quillery Clarence Brown
1939 Of Mice and Men George Milton Lewis Milestone
1940 Castle on the Hudson Steven Rockford Anatole Litvak
1940 Second Chorus Hank Taylor H. C. Potter
1940 The San Francisco Docks Johnny Barnes Arthur Lubin
1941 That Uncertain Feeling Alexander Sebastian Ernst Lubitsch
1941 Tom, Dick and Harry Harry Fred Fleck (assistant)
1941 The Forgotten Village Narrator Alexander Hammid
1942 Street of Chance Frank Thompson / Danny Nearing Jack Hively
1943 A Welcome to Britain Himself Army Service Forces training film, 1943; uncredited
1943 The Rear Gunner Pvt. L.A. Pee Wee Williams Ray Enright
1944 Our Country Himself
1944 Hymn of the Nations Narrator Alexander Hammid voice, uncredited
1944 Salute to France the American soldier
1944 Tunisian Victory American soldier Anthony Veiller voice
1944 Attack! Battle of New Britain Narrator
1945 The Story of G.I. Joe Ernie Pyle William A. Wellman
1945 A Walk in the Sun Narrator Lewis Milestone voice, uncredited
1946 The Diary of a Chambermaid Captain Mauger Jean Renoir
1946 Magnificent Doll James Madison Frank Borzage
1947 Mine Own Executioner Felix Milne Anthony Kimmins
1948 On Our Merry Way Oliver M Pease King Vidor
1949 Jigsaw Jack / Bartender Fletcher Markle uncredited
1949 A Yank Comes Back
1949 Golden Arrow Dick Gordon Parry
1949 The Man on the Eiffel Tower Joseph Heurtin Charles Laughton (uncredited)
1950 Works of Calder Narrator
1954 Screen Snapshots: Hollywood's Invisible Man Himself
1957 Joe Butterfly Joe Butterfly Jesse Hibbs
1957 Albert Schweitzer Narrator Jerome Hill voice
1958 The Kidnappers Louis Halliburton Philip Leacock
1958 Sorcerer's Village Narrator voice
1959 America Pauses for Springtime Himself
1959 America Pauses for the Merry Month of May Himself
1962 Advise and Consent Herbert Gelman Otto Preminger
1963 The Cardinal Father Ned Halley Otto Preminger
1965 In Harm's Way Commander Egan Powell Otto Preminger
1966 Madame X Dan Sullivan David Lowell Rich
1966 Batman The Penguin Leslie H. Martinson comics
1966 The Crazy Quilt Narrator voice
1966 A Big Hand for the Little Lady Doc Scully Fielder Cook as Burgess Meridith
1967 Torture Garden Dr. Diablo Freddie Francis
1967 Hurry Sundown Judge Purcell Otto Preminger Framework Story
1968 Stay Away, Joe Charlie Lightcloud Peter Tewksbury
1968 Skidoo The Warden Otto Preminger
1968 Dear Mr. Gable Narrator
1968 Debrief: Apollo 8 Narrator
1969 The Father Captain Ned
1969 Mackenna's Gold The Store Keeper J. Lee Thompson
1969 Hard Contract Ramsey Williams S. Lee Pogostin
1969 The Reivers Lucious / Narrator Mark Rydell voice
1970 There Was a Crooked Man... The Missouri Kid Joseph L. Mankiewicz
1970 The Yin and the Yang of Mr. Go The Dolphin Burgess Meredith also director
1971 Clay Pigeon Freedom Lovelace
1971 Such Good Friends Kalman Otto Preminger
1972 A Fan's Notes Mr. Blue Eric Till
1972 Beware! The Blob Old Hobo Larry Hagman uncredited
1972 Mineral King Narrator
1972 The Man Senator Watson Joseph Sargent
1974 Hay que matar a B. Hector
1974 Golden Needles Winters Robert Clouse
1975 The Day of the Locust Harry Greener John Schlesinger
1975 92 in the Shade Goldsboro Thomas McGuane
1975 The Master Gunfighter Narrator Frank Laughlin voice
1975 The Hindenburg Emilio Pajetta Robert Wise
1976 Circasia Clown
1976 Burnt Offerings Arnold Allardyce Dan Curtis
1976 Rocky Mickey Goldmill John G. Avildsen
1977 The Sentinel Charles Chazen Michael Winner
1977 Golden Rendezvous Van Heurden Ashley Lazarus
1978 The Manitou Dr. Snow William Girdler
1978 Foul Play Mr. Hennessey Colin Higgins
1978 The Great Bank Hoax Jack Stutz Joseph Jacoby
1978 Magic Ben Greene Richard Attenborough
1979 Rocky II Mickey Goldmill Sylvester Stallone
1980 When Time Ran Out Rene Valdez James Goldstone
1980 Final Assignment Zak Paul Almond
1981 The Last Chase Captain J.G. Williams Martyn Burke
1981 Clash of the Titans Ammon Desmond Davis
1981 True Confessions Msgr. Seamus Fargo Ulu Grosbard
1982 Rocky III Mickey Goldmill Sylvester Stallone
1983 Twilight Zone: The Movie Narrator voice, uncredited
1984 Wet Gold Sampson Dick Lowry Made for TV
1985 Santa Claus: The Movie Ancient Elf Jeannot Szwarc
1985 Rocky IV Mickey Goldmill (archival footage) Sylvester Stallone uncredited
1987 G.I. Joe: The Movie Golobulus Don Jurwich voice
1987 King Lear Don Learo Jean-Luc Godard uncredited
1988 Hot to Trot Don's Dad Michael Dinner voice, uncredited
1988 Full Moon in Blue Water The General Peter Masterson
1990 Oddball Hall Ingersol Jackson Hunsicker
1990 State of Grace Finn Phil Joanou
1990 Rocky V Mickey Goldmill John G. Avildsen Flashback
1993 Grumpy Old Men Grandpa Gustafson Donald Petrie
1994 Camp Nowhere Fein Jonathan Prince
1995 Tall Tale Old Man Jeremiah S. Chechik uncredited
1995 Across the Moon Barney
1995 Grumpier Old Men Grandpa Gustafson Howard Deutch Last role
2006 Rocky Balboa Mickey Goldmill (archival footage) Sylvester Stallone uncredited
2020 40 Years of Rocky: The Birth of a Classic Mickey Goldmill Derek Wayne Johnson archival footage


Video games


Radio appearances

Program Episode Date Notes
Philip Morris Playhouse Night Must Fall October 24, 1941 Maureen O'Sullivan co-starred.[62]
Philip Morris Playhouse My Favorite Wife October 31, 1941 Madeleine Carroll co-starred[63]
Philip Morris Playhouse You Only Live Once November 28, 1941 [64]
Cavalcade of America Rain Fakers December 30, 1946 [65]
Theatre Guild on the Air The Sea Wolf April 27, 1952 [66]
Theatre Guild on the Air Black Chiffon May 10, 1953 [67]


  1. ^ a b c d e f g Gussow, Mel (September 11, 1997). "Burgess Meredith, 89, Who Was at Ease Playing Good Guys and Villains, Dies". The New York Times. Retrieved September 17, 2011.
  2. ^ a b "Burgess Meredith dies at 89". CNN. September 10, 1997. Retrieved September 17, 2011.
  3. ^ "Lakewood Lore – Burgess Meredith". Lkwdpl.org. September 10, 1997. Archived from the original on September 30, 2006. Retrieved September 17, 2011.
  4. ^ "24 X 7". Infoplease.com. Retrieved September 17, 2011.
  5. ^ Garfield, David (1980). "Appendix: Life Members of The Actors Studio as of January 1980". A Player's Place: The Story of The Actors Studio. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc. p. 279. ISBN 0-02-542650-8.
  6. ^ Garfield, David (1980). "Strasberg Takes Over: 1951–1955". A Player's Place: The Story of The Actors Studio. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc. p. 278. ISBN 0-02-542650-8. Aside from the original Robert Lewis group and those who came in with Mann and Meisner and were asked to remain, such individuals as Roscoe Lee Browne, Dane Clark, Tamra Daykarhanova, Rita Gam, Burgess Meredith, Sidney Poitier, Paula Strasberg, Anna Mizrahi Strasberg, and Franchot Tone have been voted directly into membership by the Studio's directorate or by Strasberg himself. In the early sixties, several actors who performed with The Actors Studio Theatre were similarly admitted
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  8. ^ "Overview for Burgess Meredith". Turner Classic Movies. Retrieved March 19, 2016.
  9. ^ a b "Burgess Meredith obituary". CNN. September 10, 1997.
  10. ^ Burgess Meredith genealogy Archived October 24, 2012, at the Wayback Machine by Robert Battle, hosted at freepages.rootsweb
  11. ^ Meredith's Lakewood memories are mostly unhappy Archived August 26, 2017, at the Wayback Machine Lakewood Sun Post December 7, 1995, by Dan Chabek
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  15. ^ Burgess Meredith at the Internet Broadway Database
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  18. ^ Templeton, Steve (2002). Elvis Presley: Silver Screen Icon. Johnson City, Tennessee: The Overmountain Press. p. 120. ISBN 1-57072-232-3.
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  20. ^ Canby, Vincent (November 22, 1976). "Film: 'Rocky,' Pure 30's Make-Believe". The New York Times. Retrieved September 23, 2016.
  21. ^ Canby, Vincent (May 28, 1982). "For 'Rocky III,' A Search For Problems". The New York Times. Retrieved September 23, 2016.
  22. ^ Maslin, Janet (November 27, 1985). "Screen: 'Rocky IV,' Vs. The U.S.S.R." The New York Times. Retrieved September 23, 2016.
  23. ^ Maslin, Janet (November 16, 1990). "Review/Film; Rocky, Buffeted by Fists and Life, Returns to His Roots". The New York Times. Retrieved September 23, 2016.
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  25. ^ "Picks and Pans Review: The Last Chase". People. January 25, 1982. Retrieved September 23, 2016.
  26. ^ Canby, Vincent (June 12, 1981). "'Clash Of The Titens' With Oliver As Zeus". The New York Times. Retrieved September 23, 2016.
  27. ^ Canby, Vincent (November 27, 1985). "Film: 'Santa Claus,' With Moore And Lithgow". The New York Times. Retrieved September 23, 2016.
  28. ^ "The Screen In Review; 'The Man on the Eiffel Tower,' From Novel by Simenon, Opens at the Criterion". The New York Times. January 30, 1950. Retrieved September 23, 2016.
  29. ^ Sweeney, Kevin (1999). James Mason: A Bio-bibliography. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press. p. 34. ISBN 0-313-28496-2.
  30. ^ Presnell, Don; McGee, Marty (2015). A Critical History of Television's The Twilight Zone, 1959-1964. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company. pp. 40, 65. ISBN 978-0-7864-3886-0.
  31. ^ Presnell & McGee 2015, pp. 5, 39, 40.
  32. ^ Presnell & McGee 2015, p. 88.
  33. ^ Presnell & McGee 2015, pp. 97, 98.
  34. ^ Presnell & McGee 2015, pp. 146, 147.
  35. ^ Skelton, Scott; Benson, Jim (1999). Rod Serling's Night Gallery: An After-hours Tour. Syracuse, New York: Syracuse University Press. p. 329. ISBN 0-8156-0535-8.
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  37. ^ Sanford, Bruce (2004). Libel and Privacy. Aspen Publishers. pp. 4–58. ISBN 0-7355-5297-5.
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  46. ^ Edwards, Gavin (November 30, 2019). "40 Essential Christmas Albums". Rolling Stone. Retrieved November 30, 2019.
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  49. ^ "Batman Returns". TCM. Retrieved February 22, 2013.
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  57. ^ "Theater Hall of Fame members".
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  59. ^ "Fayette County Leader from Fayette, Iowa on May 19, 1977 · Page 1".
  60. ^ westunion.advantage-preservation.com
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  63. ^ "Robinson-Zivic Fight". Harrisburg Telegraph. October 31, 1941. p. 19. Retrieved July 22, 2015 – via Newspapers.com. open access
  64. ^ "Johnny Presents". Harrisburg Telegraph. November 28, 1941. p. 19. Retrieved July 26, 2015 – via Newspapers.com. open access
  65. ^ "Radio's Golden Age". Nostalgia Digest. Vol. 40, no. 1. Winter 2014. pp. 40–41.
  66. ^ Kirby, Walter (April 27, 1952). "Better Radio Programs for the Week". The Decatur Daily Review. p. 48. Retrieved May 8, 2015 – via Newspapers.com. open access
  67. ^ Kirby, Walter (May 10, 1953). "Better Radio Programs for the Week". The Decatur Daily Review. p. 50. Retrieved June 27, 2015 – via Newspapers.com. open access