Dunwich
Dunwich, view down St. James Street; to the right is the local museum
Dunwich is located in Suffolk
Dunwich
Dunwich
Location within Suffolk
Population183 (2011 census)
OS grid referenceTM475705
Civil parish
  • Dunwich
District
Shire county
Region
CountryEngland
Sovereign stateUnited Kingdom
Post townSAXMUNDHAM
Postcode districtIP17
Dialling code01728
PoliceSuffolk
FireSuffolk
AmbulanceEast of England
UK Parliament
List of places
UK
England
Suffolk
52°16′39″N 1°37′52″E / 52.27750°N 1.63111°E / 52.27750; 1.63111

Dunwich (/ˈdʌnɪ/) is a village and civil parish in Suffolk, England. It is in the Suffolk Coast and Heaths AONB around 92 miles (148 km) north-east of London, 9 miles (14 km) south of Southwold and 7 miles (11 km) north of Leiston, on the North Sea coast.

In the Anglo-Saxon period, Dunwich was the capital of the Kingdom of the East Angles, but the harbour and most of the town have since disappeared due to coastal erosion. At its height it was an international port similar in size to 14th-century London.[1] Its decline began in 1286 when a storm surge hit the East Anglian coast, followed by two great storms in February and December of 1287, until it eventually shrank to the village it is today. Dunwich is possibly connected with the lost Anglo-Saxon placename Dommoc.

The population of the civil parish at the 2001 census was 84,[2] which increased to 183 according to the 2011 Census,[3] though the area used by the Office of National Statistics for 2011 also includes part of the civil parish of Westleton. There is no parish council; instead there is a parish meeting.[4]

History

Former leper hospital, Norman window detail

Since the 15th century, Dunwich has frequently been identified with Dommoc – the original seat of the Anglo-Saxon bishops of the Kingdom of East Anglia established by Sigeberht of East Anglia for Saint Felix in c. 629–31.[5] Dommoc was the seat of the bishops of Dommoc until around 870, when the East Anglian kingdom was taken over by the initially pagan Danes. Years later, antiquarians would even describe Dunwich as being the "former capital of East Anglia".[6] However, many historians now prefer to locate Dommoc at Walton Castle, which was the site of a Saxon shore fort.[7]

The Domesday Book of 1086 describes it as possessing three churches.[8] At that time it had an estimated population of 3,000.[9]

On 1 January 1286, a storm surge reached the east edge of the town and destroyed buildings in it.[10] Before that, most recorded damage to Dunwich was loss of land and damage to the harbour.[11]

This was followed by two further surges the next year, the South England flood of February 1287 and St. Lucia's flood in December. There was a fierce storm in 1328.[10] Another large storm in 1347 swept some 400 houses into the sea.[12] The Grote Mandrenke around 16 January 1362 finally destroyed much of the remainder of the town.[13]

Seal of Dunwich, cast (French National Archives, Paris)

Most of the buildings that were present in the 13th century have disappeared, including all eight churches, and Dunwich is now a small coastal village. The remains of a 13th-century Franciscan priory (Greyfriars) and the Leper Hospital of St James can still be seen.[14] A popular local legend says that, at certain tides, church bells can still be heard from beneath the waves.[15]

Characterizing the fate of the town as the loss of "a busy port to ... 14th century storms that swept whole parishes into the sea"[16] is inaccurate. It appears[17] that the port developed as a sheltered harbour where the Dunwich River entered the North Sea. Coastal processes including storms caused the river to shift its exit 2.5 miles (4 km) north to Walberswick, at the River Blyth. The town of Dunwich lost its raison d'etre and was largely abandoned. Sea defences were not maintained and coastal erosion progressively invaded the town.

As a legacy of its previous significance, the parliamentary constituency of Dunwich retained the right to send two members to Parliament until the Reform Act 1832 and was one of Britain's most notorious rotten boroughs.[18]

By the mid-19th century, the population had dwindled to 237 inhabitants and Dunwich was described in 1844 as a "decayed and disfranchised borough".[19] A new church, St James, was built in 1832 after the abandonment of the last of the old churches, All Saints', which had been without a rector since 1755. All Saints' Church fell into the sea between 1904 and 1919, the last major portion of the tower succumbing on 12 November 1919.[20] In 2005 historian Stuart Bacon stated that recent low tides had shown that shipbuilding had previously occurred in the town.[21]

Marine archaeology

Beach at Dunwich

The Dunwich 2008 project funded by English Heritage and the Esmée Fairbairn Foundation was intended to collate all reliable historic mapped data on the same co-ordinate system and combine this with aerial photography and an underwater survey.[22][23] New digital maps were produced by Prof. David Sear of Southampton University, marine archaeologist Stuart Bacon and the Geodata Institute. The survey also used multibeam and sidescan sonar to map the seafloor across the entire area of the town. These surveys identified a series of ruins that were confirmed by divers who recovered stones with lime mortar still attached. The lime mortar matched nearly perfectly with medieval mortar in existing churches on the coast. In 2009 Wessex Archaeology working with Professor Sear, captured the highest resolution sidescan images of the town site including the ruins found in 2008. Further work in 2010 with BBC Oceans and the BBC One Show used novel acoustic imaging cameras (dual-frequency identification sonar – DIDSON) to film the ruins through the turbid water. These clearly showed the jumble of ruined blocks and worked stone associated with medieval church and chapel sites. A large survey and updating of the mapped data was commissioned by English Heritage in 2011 and reported in 2012. This compiled all previous survey data and enhanced the historical map and coastal pilot charts for the site. The results have produced the most comprehensive survey of the Dunwich town site – the largest medieval underwater site in Europe. Data from these surveys including maps and images explaining the different technologies are displayed in Dunwich Museum which is accredited by the Museum Archives Libraries Council. Details of Dunwich's 800-year battle to protect against coastal erosion are also displayed in the museum and it is hoped more work will be done in future.[23] A database of references to Dunwich "designed to aid academic researchers, family historians and students" is available online.[24]

In June 2011, at the invitation of Prof David Sear and the Dunwich Town Trust the Anglo-Saxon and medieval archaeology of Dunwich was the subject of an episode of archaeological television programme Time Team.[25]

Further work to explore new sites using DIDSON and diver surveys and a campaign of land-based archaeology is scheduled for 2013–15 funded by the "Touching the Tide" Heritage Lottery Fund Landscape Partnership Scheme. This work hopes to confirm the date of the town ditches and roads and explore the record of environmental change in the marsh sediments. Altogether this work has identified the ruins of St Peter's and St Nicholas's churches, a chapel most probably St Katherine's, and ruins associated with Blackfriars friary and the town hall. The location of the Knight's Templar Church and All Saints' Church are known from the digital mapping but remain buried beneath an inner sandbank. The early town is buried under between 1 and 3 metres (9.8 ft) of sand to the east of the ruins found by Bacon and these later surveys.[26] As a result, it was found that Dunwich had been a substantial port in Saxon times.[27]

Churches and other notable structures

Remains of Greyfriars Priory
Ruins of All Saints' Church in Dunwich, here in a postcard of 1904

RAF Dunwich

During the Second World War, RAF Dunwich was one of the Chain Home Low stations which provided low-level radar cover for the central East Anglian coast.[32]

Bicycle ride

The annual Dunwich Dynamo through-the-night bicycle ride ends on Dunwich beach.

In popular culture and literature

The poet Algernon Swinburne wrote By the North Sea following visits to Dunwich in 1875 and 1877.[33]

The novel Red Eve by H Rider Haggard has several scenes set in fourteenth century Dunwich. The title character, Eve Clavering, is a member of a Dunwich family whose properties have been partly destroyed by the sea.[34]

In the novel "An Affair of Dishonour" by William De Morgan the Battle of Solebay is viewed from the shore by characters living at a manor house said to be remote "since the sea swallowed up the township of which it was a suburb".[35]

P. D. James's 1967 novel Unnatural Causes is partly set in Dunwich.[36]

The last track on Brian Eno's 1982 album Ambient 4: On Land is called Dunwich Beach, Autumn, 1960.[37]

Al Stewart's 1993 song "The Coldest Winter in Memory" includes the lines[38]

By the lost town of Dunwich
The shore was washed away
They say you hear the church bells still
As they toll beneath the waves

W. G. Sebald's 1995 novel The Rings of Saturn features a visit by the author to Dunwich in the course of his walking tour of Suffolk in 1992.[39]

British Progressive Rock band The Future Kings of England recorded a track called Dunwich for their 2007 album The Fate of Old Mother Orvis.[40]

Mark Fisher and Justin Barton's essay On Vanishing Land references the sunken city, the surrounding area and the Eno album from where it takes its name.[41]

The Lovecraft Investigations audio drama features Dunwich as a reference to the fictional Dunwich.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Secret streets of Britain's 'Atlantis' are revealed". ScienceDaily. Archived from the original on 20 October 2014. Retrieved 12 October 2014.
  2. ^ 2001 Census data Archived 3 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 2 January 2012.
  3. ^ "Parish population 2011". Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 18 September 2015.
  4. ^ "Dunwich Parish Meeting". Archived from the original on 28 February 2016. Retrieved 11 October 2015.
  5. ^ Bede, Ecclesiastical History, Book II, Ch.15 (accepitque sedem episcopatus in ciuitate Dommoc), who stipulates Felix's mission in relation to Sigeberht's rule.
  6. ^ Mee, Arthur. The King's England: Suffolk. pp. 124–128.
  7. ^ Richard Hoggett, (2010), The archaeology of the East Anglian conversion, pages 35–40. Boydell & Brewer
  8. ^ Gardner, Thomas (1754). An historical account of Dunwich, antiently a city, now a borough;: Blithburgh, formerly a town of note, now a village; Southwold, once a village, now a town-corporate; with remarks on some places contiguous thereto ... London: Printed for the author, and sold by him at Southwold, in Suffolk; and also by W. Owen, at Homer's Head near Temple-Bar. p. 6. Retrieved 18 November 2010. (Archived by Oxford University, 6 March 2009).
  9. ^ "Abandoned Communities...Dunwich". Abandonedcommunities.co.uk. Archived from the original on 17 November 2011. Retrieved 18 November 2011.
  10. ^ a b Simons, Paul (2008). Since Records Began. London: Collins. pp. 175–176. ISBN 978-0-00-728463-4.
  11. ^ "Dunwich – The search for Britain's Atlantis – Dunwich Coastal Change". Dunwich.org.uk. Archived from the original on 12 March 2015. Retrieved 12 October 2014.
  12. ^ Mortimer, Ian (2008). The Time Traveler's Guide to Medieval England. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, Inc. p. 28. ISBN 9781439112892.
  13. ^ "Dunwich underwater images show 'Britain's Atlantis'". BBC. 10 May 2013. Archived from the original on 23 April 2021. Retrieved 23 January 2014.
  14. ^ "All Saints, Dunwich". SuffolkChurches.co.uk. Archived from the original on 28 July 2010. Retrieved 19 November 2010.
  15. ^ Parker, Rowland (1979). Men of Dunwich: the story of a vanished town. Holt, Rinehart and Winston. p. 10. ISBN 9780030468018.
  16. ^ Alexandra Harris, Guardian Review, 15.02.14
  17. ^ Dunwich museum displays
  18. ^ Philbin, J Holladay (1965). Parliamentary Representation 1832 – England and Wales. New Haven: Yale University Press.
  19. ^ Leader, R. (1844). William White History, Gazetteer, and Directory of Suffolk. Sheffield.
  20. ^ "St James, Dunwich". SuffolkChurches.co.uk. Archived from the original on 18 May 2011. Retrieved 18 November 2010.
  21. ^ "Low Tide Reveals Lost City Find". BBC News. British Broadcasting Corporation. 10 October 2005. Archived from the original on 16 March 2006. Retrieved 9 March 2006.
  22. ^ "Underwater city could be revealed". BBC. 14 January 2008. Archived from the original on 14 February 2009. Retrieved 1 April 2011.
  23. ^ a b Dunwich museum plaques viewed 26 April 2012
  24. ^ "Dunwich Museum Research". Archived from the original on 20 June 2012. Retrieved 9 June 2012.
  25. ^ "Visualising Coastal Change at Dunwich". Time Team. Channel 4. Archived from the original on 12 February 2012. Retrieved 11 September 2012.
  26. ^ "Dunwich – The search for Britain's Atlantis – Publications". Dunwich.org.uk. Archived from the original on 15 October 2014. Retrieved 12 October 2014.
  27. ^ Whiteley, David (21 February 2016). "Dunwich: The storms that destroyed 'lost town'". BBC News. Archived from the original on 21 February 2016. Retrieved 22 February 2016.
  28. ^ a b c d e Simon Knott (September 2009). "All Saints, Dunwich with an account of Dunwich's other lost churches". The Suffolk Churches Site. Archived from the original on 28 September 2012. Retrieved 10 October 2012.
  29. ^ Item de denariis ... in iiijor puchis, Cxj li. xiiij s. vj d. qua' quos Robertus de Seffeld parsona ecclesie de Brampton se dicit posuisse ibidem ad custodiend': at Kew, The National Archives of the UK, E 358/18 rot. 3 dorse.
  30. ^ Comfort: The Lost City of Dunwich: Churches and Chapels, pp 99–102
  31. ^ Hinde, Thomas (1985). Thomas Hinde: 'The Domesday book: England's heritage, then and now'. Hutchinson. ISBN 9780091618308. Archived from the original on 7 April 2023. Retrieved 12 October 2014.
  32. ^ "Chain Home Low Stations". 11 Group Stations of the Battle of Britain. RAF. 16 February 2005. Archived from the original on 6 February 2008. Retrieved 1 April 2011.
  33. ^ Jobson, Allan (1963) Dunwich Story pp 37-38 Flood & Son, Lowestoft
  34. ^ "Red Eve, by H. Rider Haggard". Archived from the original on 1 May 2023. Retrieved 1 May 2023.
  35. ^ William de Morgan, An Affair of Dishonour. Heinemann, London, 1910. Chapters 7 and 8.
  36. ^ James, P. D. (1967). "Unnatural Causes (excerpt)". Random House.
  37. ^ "An exploration of Brian Eno's 'Ambient 4 : On Land'". Landscape. Archived from the original on 30 November 2023. Retrieved 16 October 2023.
  38. ^ "The Coldest Winter in Memory". Al Stewart.com. Archived from the original on 29 May 2023. Retrieved 16 October 2023.
  39. ^ "Daydreams and death rays: an odyssey through Sebald's Suffolk". The Guardian. 26 June 2019. Archived from the original on 31 October 2022. Retrieved 16 October 2023.
  40. ^ Woodger, Andrew (21 October 2010). "The Future Kings Of England aim to create atmospheres". BBC. Archived from the original on 6 March 2016. Retrieved 21 September 2014.
  41. ^ "Retracing Mark Fisher and Justin Barton's Eerie Pilgrimage". Frieze. 23 July 2019. Archived from the original on 5 March 2021. Retrieved 16 October 2023.

Sources

Further reading