Edmund Gettier
Edmund Lee Gettier III

October 31, 1927
DiedMarch 23, 2021 (aged 93)
EraContemporary philosophy
RegionWestern philosophy
SchoolAnalytic philosophy
Doctoral advisorNorman Malcolm
Main interests
Notable ideas
Gettier problem

Edmund Lee Gettier III (/ˈɡɛtiər/; (October 31, 1927 – March 23, 2021)[1][2] was an American philosopher and Professor Emeritus at the University of Massachusetts Amherst. He is best known for his short 1963 article "Is Justified True Belief Knowledge?", which has generated an extensive philosophical literature trying to respond to what became known as the Gettier problem.


Edmund Lee Gettier III was born on October 31, 1927 in Baltimore, Maryland.[3]

Gettier obtained his B.A. from Johns Hopkins University in 1949. He earned his PhD in philosophy from Cornell University in 1961 with a dissertation on “Bertrand Russell’s Theories of Belief” written under the supervision of Norman Malcolm.[3][4]

Gettier taught philosophy at Wayne State University from 1957 until 1967[3] where colleagues included Alvin Plantinga. and Héctor-Neri Castaneda.[5]

He then became professor of philosophy at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst, teaching there until his retirement in 2001.[3]

Gettier's fame rests on a three-page article, published in Analysis in 1963. that remains one of the most famous in recent philosophical history. In the same, Gettier challenges the "justified true belief" definition of knowledge that dates back to Plato's Theaetetus, but is discounted at the end of that very dialogue. This account was accepted by most philosophers at the time, most prominently the epistemologist Clarence Irving Lewis and his student Roderick Chisholm. Gettier's article offered counter-examples to this account in the form of cases such that subjects had true beliefs that were also justified, but for which the beliefs were true for reasons unrelated to the justification. Some philosophers, however, thought the account of knowledge as justified true belief had already been questioned in a general way by the work of Wittgenstein. (Later, a similar argument was found in the papers of Bertrand Russell.[6])


Gettier problem

Main article: Gettier problem

Gettier provides several examples of beliefs that are both true and justified, but that we should not intuitively term knowledge. Cases of this sort are now termed "Gettier (counter-)examples". Because Gettier's criticism of the justified true belief model is systemic, other authors have imagined increasingly fantastical counterexamples. For example: I am watching the men's Wimbledon Final, and John McEnroe is playing Jimmy Connors, it is match point, and McEnroe wins. I say to myself: "John McEnroe is this year's men's champion at Wimbledon". Unbeknownst to me, however, the BBC were experiencing a broadcasting fault and so had broadcast a tape of last year's final, when McEnroe also beat Connors. I had been watching last year's Wimbledon final, so I believed that McEnroe had bested Connors. But at that same time, in real life, McEnroe was repeating last year's victory and besting Connors! So my belief that McEnroe bested Connors to become this year's Wimbledon champion is true, and I had good reason to believe so (my belief was justified) — and yet, there is a sense in which I could not really have claimed to "know" that McEnroe had bested Connors because I was only accidentally right that McEnroe beat Connors — my belief was not based on the right kind of justification.

Gettier inspired a great deal of work by philosophers attempting to recover a working definition of knowledge. Major responses include:

A 2001 study by Weinberg, Nichols, and Stich suggests that the effect of the Gettier problem varies by culture. In particular, people from Western countries seem more likely to agree with the judgments described in the story than do those from East Asia.[8] Subsequent studies were unable to replicate these results.[9]

Selected works

See also


  1. ^ GRABOWSKI, KYLE (April 11, 2021). "Greg Carvel built UMass hockey into a program to be proud of". Daily Hampshire Gazette. Retrieved April 13, 2021. Edmund Gettier, who was a philosophy professor at UMass for 35 years and passed away two weeks ago.
  2. ^ Weinberg, Justin (2021-04-12). "Edmund Gettier (1927-2021)". Daily Nous. Retrieved 2021-04-13.
  3. ^ a b c d Greco, John (2010), "Gettier, Edmund Lee, III", The Dictionary of Modern American Philosophers, Continuum, doi:10.1093/acref/9780199754663.001.0001/acref-9780199754663-e-365, ISBN 978-0-19-975466-3, retrieved 2021-04-13
  4. ^ "Doctoral Dissertations, 1961". The Review of Metaphysics. 15 (1): 200. 1961. ISSN 0034-6632.
  5. ^ Robert C. Sleigh, Jr. (1988). "KNOWING EDMUND GETTlER" (PDF). In Austin, David F. (ed.). Philosophical Analysis. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands. ISBN 978-1-4020-3150-2.
  6. ^ Russell, Bertrand (1912). The Problems of Philosophy. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 131f. Citation taken from Kratzer, Angelika (2002). "Facts: Particulars of Information Units?". Linguistics and Philosophy. 25 (5–6): 655–670. doi:10.1023/a:1020807615085. S2CID 170763145., p. 657.
  7. ^ McGinn, Colin (1984). "The Concept of Knowledge". Midwest Studies in Philosophy. 9: 529–554. doi:10.1111/j.1475-4975.1984.tb00076.x. reprinted in McGinn, Colin (1999). Knowledge and Reality: Selected Essays. Oxford: Clarendon Press. pp. 7–35. ISBN 978-0-19-823823-2.
  8. ^ Weinberg, J.; Nichols, S.; Stich, S. (2001). "Normativity and Epistemic Intuitions". Philosophical Topics. 29 (1): 429–460. doi:10.5840/philtopics2001291/217.
  9. ^ Nagel, J. (2012). "Intuitions and Experiments: A Defense of the Case Method in Epistemology". Philosophy and Phenomenological Research. 85 (3): 495–527. doi:10.1111/j.1933-1592.2012.00634.x.