Developer(s)Eucalyptus Systems, Inc.
Initial release1.0 – May 29, 2008; 15 years ago (2008-05-29)
Stable release
4.4.3 (April 30, 2018; 6 years ago (2018-04-30)) [±]
Written inJava, C
Operating systemLinux, can host Linux and Windows VMs
PlatformHypervisors (KVM, Xen, VMware)
TypePrivate and hybrid cloud computing
LicenseGPLv3 (only),[1] with Proprietary relicensing.

Eucalyptus is a paid and open-source computer software for building Amazon Web Services (AWS)-compatible private and hybrid cloud computing environments, originally developed by the company Eucalyptus Systems. Eucalyptus is an acronym for Elastic Utility Computing Architecture for Linking Your Programs To Useful Systems.[2] Eucalyptus enables pooling compute, storage, and network resources that can be dynamically scaled up or down as application workloads change.[3] Mårten Mickos was the CEO of Eucalyptus.[4] In September 2014, Eucalyptus was acquired by Hewlett-Packard and then maintained by DXC Technology. After DXC stopped developing the product in late 2017, AppScale Systems forked the code and started supporting Eucalyptus customers.


The software development had its roots in the Virtual Grid Application Development Software project, at Rice University and other institutions from 2003 to 2008.[5] Rich Wolski led a group at the University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB), and became the chief technical officer at the company headquartered in Goleta, California before returning to teach at UCSB.[6]

Eucalyptus software was included in the Ubuntu 9.04 distribution in 2009. The company was formed in 2009 with $5.5 million in funding by Benchmark Capital to commercialize the software.[7]

The co-founders of Eucalyptus were Rich Wolski (CTO), Dan Nurmi, Neil Soman, Dmitrii Zagorodnov, Chris Grzegorczyk, Graziano Obertelli and Woody Rollins (CEO). Eucalyptus Systems announced a formal agreement with Amazon Web Services in March 2012.

Hewlett-Packard acquired Eucalyptus in September 2014, although by the end of 2016 its public cloud offering HPE Helion was shut down.[8] Eucalyptus team was transferred to the HPE Enterprise Services division, which split away from HPE and merged with Computer Sciences Corporation forming DXC Technology on April 1, 2017.[9] DXC chose to stop development and support of Eucalyptus in 2017, prompting AppScale Systems, led by members of the Eucalyptus founding team, to fork the code. AppScale Systems started commercially supporting and developing the software, which was renamed AppScale ATS, since late 2017.

Software architecture

Eucalyptus commands can manage either Amazon or Eucalyptus instances. Users can also move instances between a Eucalyptus private cloud and the Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud to create a hybrid cloud. Hardware virtualization isolates applications from computer hardware details.[10]

Eucalyptus architecture overview

Eucalyptus uses the terminology:[11]


Eucalyptus has six components:[12][13]

Eucalyptus components

Amazon Web Services compatibility

Eucalyptus Compatibility with Amazon Web Services

Organizations can use or reuse AWS-compatible tools, images, and scripts to manage their own on-premises infrastructure as a service (IaaS) environments. The AWS API is implemented on top of Eucalyptus, so tools in the cloud ecosystem that can communicate with AWS can use the same API with Eucalyptus. In March 2012, Amazon Web Services and Eucalyptus announced details of the compatibility between AWS and Eucalyptus. As part of this agreement, AWS will support Eucalyptus as they continue to extend compatibility with AWS APIs and customer use cases. Customers can run applications in their existing data centers that are compatible with Amazon Web Services such as Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) and Amazon Simple Storage Service (S3).[3]

In June, 2013, Eucalyptus 3.3 was released, featuring a new series of AWS-compatible tools. These include:

Eucalyptus 3.3 is also the first private cloud platform to support Netflix's open source tools – including Chaos Monkey, Asgard, and Edda – through its API fidelity with AWS. [15][16]


The Eucalyptus User Console provides an interface for users to self-service provision and configure compute, network, and storage resources. Development and test teams can manage virtual instances using built-in key management and encryption capabilities. Access to virtual instances is available using familiar SSH and RDP mechanisms. Virtual instances with application configuration can be stopped and restarted using encrypted boot from EBS capability.

IaaS service components Cloud Controller, Cluster Controller, Walrus, Storage Controller, and VMware Broker are configurable as redundant systems that are resilient to multiple types of failures. Management state of the cloud machine is preserved and reverted to normal operating conditions in the event of a hardware or software failure.

Eucalyptus can run multiple versions of Windows and Linux virtual machine images. Users can build a library of Eucalyptus Machine Images (EMIs) with application metadata that are decoupled from infrastructure details to allow them to run on Eucalyptus clouds. Amazon Machine Images are also compatible with Eucalyptus clouds. VMware Images and vApps can be converted to run on Eucalyptus clouds and AWS public clouds.

Eucalyptus user identity management can be integrated with existing Microsoft Active Directory or LDAP systems to have fine-grained role based access control over cloud resources.

Eucalyptus supports storage area network devices to take advantage of storage arrays to improve performance and reliability. Eucalyptus Machine Images can be backed by EBS-like persistent storage volumes, improving the performance of image launch time and enabling fully persistent virtual machine instances. Eucalyptus also supports direct-attached storage.

Eucalyptus 3.3 offers new features for AWS compatibility. These include resource tagging, which allows application developers and cloud administrators to assign customizable metadata tags to resources such as firewalls, load balancers, Web servers, and individual workloads to better identify them. Eucalyptus 3.3 also supports an expanded set of instance types to more closely align to instance types in Amazon EC2.

Eucalyptus 3.3 also includes a new Maintenance Mode that allows cloud administrators to perform maintenance on Eucalyptus clouds with zero downtime to instances or cloud applications. It also includes new user console features such as a Magic Search Bar, and an easy option to allow users to change their password.[15][17]

Eucalyptus 3.4, released on October 24, 2013, added new features including improved image management and migration tools, capabilities for warm upgrades, a hybrid cloud user console to manage both Eucalyptus and AWS resources, Identity and Access Management (IAM) roles, and improved High Availability (HA) capabilities.[18]

Faststart demonstration configurations that allow you to set up your own private cloud quickly with as few steps as possible are available.[19]

Release history

Version Date
Eucalyptus 5.1.0 May 10, 2021
Eucalyptus 5.0.0 Dec 15, 2020
Eucalyptus 4.4.5 Dec 28, 2018
Eucalyptus 4.4.4 Jul 9, 2018
Eucalyptus 4.4.3 Apr 30, 2018
Eucalyptus 4.4.2 Aug 30, 2017
Eucalyptus 4.4.1 May 9, 2017
Eucalyptus 4.4.0 March 7, 2017
Eucalyptus 4.3.1 December 14, 2016
Eucalyptus 4.3.0 August 9, 2016
Eucalyptus 4.2.2 April 28, 2016
Eucalyptus 4.2.1 December 7, 2015
Eucalyptus 4.2.0 October 22, 2015
Eucalyptus 4.1.2 July 29, 2015
Eucalyptus 4.1.1 May 11, 2015
Eucalyptus 4.1.0 January 29, 2015
Eucalyptus 4.0.2 October 20, 2014
Eucalyptus 4.0.1 August 13, 2014
Eucalyptus 4.0 May 30, 2014
Eucalyptus 3.4.2 February 24, 2014
Eucalyptus 3.4 October 24, 2013
Eucalyptus 3.3 June 18, 2013
Eucalyptus 3.2 December 19, 2012
Eucalyptus 3.1 June 27, 2012
Eucalyptus 3.0 February 8, 2012
Eucalyptus 2.0 August 2010
Eucalyptus 1.6 November 2009


  1. ^ "Eucalyptus Open Source Software License Agreement". Archived from the original on 2013-01-29. Retrieved 2013-02-12.
  2. ^ "EUCALYPTUS - Elastic Utility Computing Architecture for Linking Your Programs to Useful Systems: Velocity - O'Reilly Conferences, 06/23/2008 - 06/24/2008,Burlingame, CA". Archived from the original on 2015-10-04. Retrieved 2014-04-15.
  3. ^ a b "Amazon Web Services (AWS) and Eucalyptus Partner to Bring Additional Compatibility Between AWS and On-premises IT Environments". News release. Eucalyptus Systems. March 22, 2012. Archived from the original on May 18, 2013. Retrieved June 1, 2013.
  4. ^ "Interview: I was CEO of MySQL, am CEO of Eucalyptus". Archived from the original on 2014-06-27. Retrieved 2014-06-10.
  5. ^ Nurmi, Daniel; Wolski, Rich; Grzegorczyk, Chris; Obertelli, Graziano; Soman, Sunil; Youseff, Lamia; Zagorodnov, Dmitrii (2009). "The Eucalyptus Open-Source Cloud-Computing System". 2009 9th IEEE/ACM International Symposium on Cluster Computing and the Grid. pp. 124–131. CiteSeerX doi:10.1109/CCGRID.2009.93. ISBN 978-1-4244-3935-5. S2CID 12106817. Retrieved June 1, 2013.
  6. ^ "Rich Wolski". Faculty web page. University of California, Santa Barbara. Retrieved June 1, 2013.
  7. ^ Cade Metz (April 29, 2009). "Ubuntu's Koala food hits open-source supermarket: Eucalyptus in a can". The Register. Retrieved June 3, 2013.
  8. ^ Juha Saarinen (October 22, 2015). "HP to kill off Helion public cloud". IT News. Retrieved June 25, 2017.
  9. ^ "CSC Announces Merger with Enterprise Services Segment of Hewlett Packard Enterprise to Create Global IT Services Leader". Retrieved July 18, 2018.
  10. ^ "Eucalyptus Enterprise Software". NIST Combined Synopsis/Solicitation. NIST. April 9, 2012. Retrieved June 1, 2013.
  11. ^ Jonathan Gershater (August 24, 2012). "Examining Excellent Eucalyptus". Cloud Computing Journal. Archived from the original on August 6, 2013. Retrieved June 1, 2013.
  12. ^ Md. Imran Hossain Shaon (November 26, 2011). "Eucalyptus and it's [sic] components". shaon's Blog. Retrieved June 1, 2013.
  13. ^ Yohan Wadia (2012). "The Eucalyptus Open-Source Private Cloud". cloudbook. Archived from the original on May 27, 2013. Retrieved June 1, 2013.
  14. ^ "Amazon CloudWatch – Monitoring service for AWS cloud resources and the applications".
  15. ^ a b "What's New In Eucalyptus 3.3". Eucalyptus Systems web site. Archived from the original on July 6, 2013. Retrieved July 15, 2013.
  16. ^ "New Eucalyptus Features Boost Hybrid Clouds for AWS". Data Center Knowledge. April 29, 2013. Retrieved July 15, 2013.
  17. ^ "Eucalyptus Adds Netflix Tools, Amazon Options". InformationWeek. May 2, 2013. Retrieved July 15, 2013.
  18. ^ "Eucalyptus Systems Introduces New AWS-compatible Private Cloud Software Enabling DevOps to Reduce Costs". Eucalyptus Systems web site. Archived from the original on October 31, 2013. Retrieved October 23, 2013.
  19. ^ Garnaat, Mitch (2011). Python and AWS Cookbook. O'Reilly Media, Inc. p. 8. ISBN 9781449305444.