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Human Chain for Basque Self-determination, 2014

A human chain is a form of demonstration in which people link arms or hands as a show of political solidarity.

The chains can involve thousands of people, with the world record being claimed in 2020 by Bihar, India, which was estimated to include 51.7 million people across 18,000 kilometres (11,000 mi), to support the government's efforts towards environment conservation and eradication of social evils.[1]

List of notable human chains

Date Event Location Number of participants Purpose
December 1982 Embrace the Base RAF Greenham Common Newbury, Berkshire, England 30,000 (women) Protested siting of American nuclear missiles in West Germany.
1 April 1983 14-mile (23 km) human chain Greenham to Aldermaston and the ordnance factory at Burghfield 70,000 (40,000 – 80,000) Protested siting of American nuclear missiles in West Germany.
May 25, 1986 Hands Across America United States 5,000,000 Charitable event to raise money to fight hunger and homelessness.
August 23, 1989 Baltic Way Estonia; Latvia; Lithuania 2,000,000 Called for the end of the Soviet occupation of the Baltic countries, and for the restoration of the independence of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania.
January 21, 1990 Reunion Day LvivKyiv, Ukrainian SSR (now Ukraine) 450,000 (according to Soviet militsiya); 3,000,000 (according to organizers)[2] Marking the 71st anniversary of the Act Zluky, an agreement unifying the Ukrainian People's Republic and the West Ukrainian National Republic.
August 1997 XII World Youth Day, 1997 Paris, France 400,000 A 36 km ring surrounding Paris facing outwards, symbolically calling for peace.
16 May 1998 Jubilee 2000 Human Chain Birmingham, UK 70,000 – 100,000 The first Chain demonstration by Jubilee 2000, a coalition of church and faith groups, overseas development agencies and others at the G8 Summit in Birmingham, UK, to highlight the indebted poverty of many poor countries and the need for the G8, World Bank and IMF to act to remit that debt. The Chain surrounded Birmingham city center including the International Convention Center.
September 8, 1999 Protest against violence in East Timor Lisbon 300,000+ A 20 km ring connecting the United Nations delegation and the embassies of Russia, China, UK, France and the US in Lisbon, calling for the end of violence in East Timor.[3]
February 28, 2004 228 Hand-in-Hand Rally Taiwan 1,000,000+ ( 2,000,000+ according to organizers) Commemoration of the February 28 Incident and protest of People's Republic of China missiles aimed at Taiwan.
July 25, 2004 Israeli Chain Gush Katif (Jewish communities adjacent to the Gaza Strip, Israel), to the Western Wall, Jerusalem (90 kilometers) 130,000 (according to police) Opposing Prime Minister Ariel Sharon's Disengagement Plan which involves dismantling of Jewish communities and settlements of Gush Katif.
December 11, 2004 'No Confidence' campaign to the BNP-led alliance government Teknaf to Tentulia, Bangladesh 5,000,000+ and The participants were supporters of 14 opposition parties led by the Bangladesh Awami League to express their 'No Confidence' campaign to the BNP-led alliance government and to demand fresh polls.[4] It was 1,050 km (652.4 miles) long.
May 1, 2006 Great American Boycott New York City. (Manhattan, Queens, Brooklyn Bronx) 12,000 (according to CNN )[5] Protesting H.R. 4437, a bill in Congress to toughen immigration checks.
February 25, 2008 Gaza Chain Gaza 20,000 [6] Protesting Israeli blockade of Gaza
September 1, 2008 "Stop Russia" campaign[7] Georgia 1,000,000 (according to the Georgian authorities)[8] Protesting Russian military intervention
October 24, 2008 2009 Tamil protests in India[9] Chennai, India 100,000 – 150,000 Protesting the violence against Tamils in Sri Lanka and the Sri Lankan Civil War.
December 13, 2008 "Mumbai citizens form human chain to protest attacks"[10] Mumbai, India 60,000 Protesting Against the terror attacks that took place in Mumbai on the 26th of November 2008
January 28, 2009 2009 Tamil protests in Canada[11] Toronto, Canada 20,000 Protesting the violence against Tamils in Sri Lanka and the Sri Lankan Civil War.
June 9, 2009 Green Chain, Iran's Presidential Election
2009 Iranian Election Protests
Tehran, Iran 18,000 – 30,000 In support of Mir-Hossein Mousavi[12][13]
October 2, 2009 Kerala CPM,
2009 ASEAN agreement Protest
Kerala, India 200,000 Protesting against the ASEAN and New Delhi free trade agreement
February 3, 2010 Telangana JAC,
Telangana Human Chain
Andhra Pradesh, India The people of Telangana formed a 500 kilometers-long human chain all along the National Highway number 7 from Adilabad on the northernmost tip of the region to Alampur on the borders of Kurnool district, to press their demand for forming a separate state.[14][15]
December 10, 2012 Human Chain for Human Rights. Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India 20,000 25 km long Human chain formed for Human Rights on Human Rights Day on December 10, 2012 by 20,000 tribal students of Kalinga Institute of Social Science (KISS) in Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India .[16][17]
September 11, 2013 Catalan Way Towards Independence Throughout Catalonia 1,600,000[18] 480 km long Human chain organized by the Assemblea Nacional Catalana for the independence of Catalonia.[19]
November 29, 2013 Pro-European Union protests / Against Russian intervention Various, largest from Ukraine to Subcarpathian Voivodeship. Also LithuaniaLatvia. 2,000,000+[20][21] Symbolic "linking" of Ukraine to the European Union[20]
June 8, 2014 Human Chain For The Right to Decide of the Basque Country Throughout Basque Country,[22] from Durango to Iruñea-Pamplona 150,000+ 123 km long Human chain organized by Gure Esku Dago for the Self-determination of the Basque Country.[22]
October 1, 2015 Madhesh Human Chain[23] Mechi to Mahakali, Hulaki Rajmarg, Nepal. 1,500,000+ The 2015 Human Chain for Madhesh Movement was an organised protest in Nepal for pressurizing the government of Nepal to withdraw the discriminatory policies being institutionalized in the constitution that came in effect on 20 September 2015. The Madheshis the residents and indigenous population of Madhesh, the southern plains of Nepal, created world record in creating 1155 km of human chain to draw attention of Nepal government.[24]
December 29, 2016 Kerala LDF,
2016 Indian Bank Note Demonetization Protest
Kerala, India 1,000,000+ (according to estimates made by the organizers) Protesting against the demonetization of ₹500 (US$7.40) and ₹1,000 (US$15) banknotes[25]
21 January 2017 Support for Total prohibition Bihar, India 20,000,000 The participants expressed support to implement and promote complete Prohibition of liquor and intoxicants in the territory of the State of Bihar and in favour of the law to be passed by Nitish Kumar Government by forming human chain of around 12,760 km across the state of Bihar.[26][27] It was of the length of 11,292 km (7,017 mi).
June 10, 2018 Human chain for Basque self-determination 2018 Basque Autonomous Community, Spain 175,000 Advocacy for a right of the Basques to decide their political status.
1 January 2019 Vanitha Mathil (Women's wall) Kerala, India 3,000,000 –5,000,000 (women) The women's wall was formed for a distance of around 620 kilometers from Kasargod to Thiruvananthapuram to uphold gender equality and protest against gender discrimination. .
August 23, 2019 Hong Kong Way Hong Kong 210,000 Advocacy for withdrawal of the extradition bill and for democratic elections. The chain was nearly 50 km (30 mi) and stretched through Hong Kong Island, Kowloon and the New Territories. It was held on the 30th anniversary of the Baltic Way Chain of Freedom, a peaceful gathering that called for independence from Soviet Union.
October 27, 2019 2019–20 Lebanese protests[28][29] Lebanon coastline 170,000 Symbolize the unity of the Lebanese protesters against austerity, political corruption and sectarianism. It ran from Tripoli to Tyre.
January 26, 2020 Manushya Maha Sringhala[30][31][32] Kerala state 6,000,000 – 7,500,000 A 700 km long human chain was formed on Republic Day, across the state of Kerala in India. The chain was organized by the ruling Communist Party of India (Marxist) led Left Democratic Front. The chain was formed to swear an oath to protect the Constitution of India and to demand the withdrawal of the Citizenship Amendment Act and non-implementation of the National Register of Citizens.


  1. ^ "5 crore Bihar people form human chain over 18,000km long, break previous records - Times of India". The Times of India. 19 January 2020.
  2. ^ "- YouTube". Archived from the original on 2010-09-01.
  3. ^ "Mundo". Archived from the original on 2008-03-01.
  4. ^ "Longest human chain (length)". Guinness World Records. Retrieved 2019-06-28.
  5. ^ "Thousands march for immigrant rights – May 1, 2006". CNN. Retrieved 2010-09-01.
  6. ^ "Israeli anarchists commend Gaza rally against blockade". Ynetnews. Retrieved 2019-06-28.
  7. ^ Protesters wave the flag in 'Stop Russia' campaign. Financial Times. 2008-09-01.
  8. ^ Georgians stage mass protest Archived 2008-09-14 at the Wayback Machine. September 02, 2008.
  9. ^ Rain highlights depth of emotions in Tamil Nadu. Tamil Net. 2008-10-24.
  10. ^ Mumbai citizens form human chain to protest attacks. The Times of India. 2008-12-13.
  11. ^ Aulakh, Raveena (2009-01-28). "They are killing innocent people". Toronto Star. Toronto. Retrieved 2010-09-01.
  12. ^ "20 Km Human Chain in Tehran-June 8th". Archived from the original on 2021-12-12. Retrieved 2010-09-01 – via YouTube.
  13. ^ "BBC فارسی – ايران – زنجیره انسانی ۲۵ کیلومتری حامیان موسوی در تهران". 8 June 2009. Retrieved 2010-09-01.
  14. ^ "Pix: 'Longest human chain' formed for Telangana: News". 2010-02-03. Retrieved 2010-09-01.
  15. ^ "'Longest human chain' formed for Telangana". rediff news. February 2010.
  16. ^ "25 km Human chain formed". 10 December 2012.
  17. ^ "Human Chain Human Rights". Yahoo! News India.
  18. ^ "1.600.000 persones, com a mínim" (in Catalan). 11 September 2013.
  19. ^ "El recorregut de la cadena humana de l'Onze de Setembre ja és públic" (in Catalan). Vilaweb. Retrieved 1 July 2013.
  20. ^ a b Ukraine opposition demands leader resign after EU snub, Seven News (30 November 2013)
  21. ^ "A human chain in Vilnius showed support of Ukraine". The Lithuania Tribune. Archived from the original on 2014-03-13.
  22. ^ a b "Euskal kultura".
  23. ^ "JOIN MADHESH HUMAN CHAIN – 1ST OCTOBER, 1 PM @ HULAKI RAJMARG". Madhesi Youth. 2015-10-01. Retrieved 2019-06-28.
  24. ^ REPUBLICA. "My Republica – UDMF says it formed world's longest human chain to protest constitution". Archived from the original on 2015-10-12. Retrieved 2015-10-04.
  25. ^ PTI, Dec 29, 2016, 8.26pm IST (2016-12-29). "LDF's 'Human Chain' protest against demonetisation in Kerala". The Economic Times. Retrieved 2016-12-29.((cite web)): CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  26. ^ "Bihar forms world's largest human chain against alcoholism and liquor". The Indian Express. 2017-01-21. Retrieved 2019-06-28.
  27. ^ "Bihar prohibition and excise Act 2016" (PDF). Retrieved 2019-12-28.
  28. ^ "Lebanon protesters form human chain across the country". Al Jazeera. 27 October 2019. Retrieved 28 October 2019.
  29. ^ Elassar, Alaa (27 October 2019). "Protesters in Lebanon formed a human chain across the entire country". CNN. Retrieved 28 October 2019.
  30. ^ "620-km human chain formed in Kerala demanding withdrawal of CAA". [India Today]. 26 January 2020.
  31. ^ "Kerala protesters form human chain across the state". [Manorama]. 26 January 2020.
  32. ^ "7 million join Kerala human chain to protest against citizenship act". [India Today]. 26 January 2020.