Left to right: IEC Type 1, NACS, IEC Type 2

IEC 61851 is an international standard for electric vehicle conductive charging systems, parts of which are currently still under development(written 2017). IEC 61851 is one of the International Electrotechnical Commission's group of standards for electric road vehicles and electric industrial trucks and is the responsibility of IEC Technical Committee 69 (TC69).[1]

Standard documents

IEC 61851 consists of the following parts, detailed in separate IEC 61851 standard documents:

IEC 61851-1

IEC 61851-1 defines four modes of charging:

IEC 61851-1 charging modes[8][9][10]
Mode Diagram Limits Supply & Interface RCD Protection Applications Notes
Phases Current Voltage
EV connected directly to AC grid
16A 250V AC, non-dedicated No electric bikes & scooters Direct connection of vehicle to conventional electrical outlets. Not allowed in the US, Israel, and England; prohibited for public charging by Italy; restricted in Switzerland, Denmark, Norway, and Germany.
16A 480V
EV connected to AC grid through cable incorporating RCD protection
32A 250V AC, non-dedicated Yes "slow AC" Requires control box between vehicle and electrical outlet incorporating RCD protection. Prohibited for public charging by Italy; restricted in US, Canada, Switzerland, Denmark, France, and Norway. Typical portable / "emergency" charger.
32A 480V
EVSE connected to AC grid, supplies EV using tethered cable or socket-outlet with bidirectional communication
32A 250V AC, dedicated (IEC 62196-2) Yes "slow and quick AC" EVSE permanently connected to electrical grid; includes RCD protection and bidirectional (EVSE/EV) communication. Typical public AC charger installation. Tethered (cable permanently attached) & untethered (dedicated socket outlet only) configurations.
32A 480V
EVSE rectifies AC grid & supplies DC power to EV using tethered cable with bidirectional communication
200A 400V DC, dedicated (IEC 62196-3) Yes "fast DC" Current conversion handled by EVSE, not EV.


  1. ^ IEC Technical Committee 69
  2. ^ IEC 61851-1
  3. ^ IEC 61851-21-1
  4. ^ "IEC 61851-21-2:2018 | IEC Webstore".
  5. ^ IEC 61851-23
  6. ^ IEC 61851-24
  7. ^ IEC 61851-25
  8. ^ "Charging modes (IEC-61851-1)". Circutor. Retrieved 10 August 2021.
  9. ^ Ferrari, Lorenzo. "Charging modes for electric vehicles". Daze Technology. Retrieved 10 August 2021.
  10. ^ "Guide to Electric Vehicle Infrastructure" (PDF). Association for the British Electrotechnical Industry (BEAMA). May 2012. Retrieved 23 August 2022.

See also