il manifesto
Quotidiano comunista
("Communist newspaper")
Front page of il manifesto on 20 April 2005, the day after the election of Pope Benedict XVI
TypeDaily newspaper
FormatBerliner
Owner(s)Il nuovo manifesto società cooperativa editrice
EditorAndrea Fabozzi
Founded1969; 55 years ago (1969)
Political alignmentSocialism[1][2][3]
Communism[4]
HeadquartersRome, Italy
Circulation11,324 (May 2016)[5]
ISSN0025-2158
Websiteilmanifesto.it

il manifesto[6] (Italian pronunciation: [il maːniˈfɛsto]; English: "The Manifesto") is an Italian-language daily newspaper published in Rome. While calling itself "communist" and broadly left-wing, it is not connected to any political party.[7]

History and profile

il manifesto was founded as a monthly review in 1969.[8] Its founders were a collection of left-wing journalists who engaged in the wave of critical thought and activity on the Italian left in that period. They included Luigi Pintor, Valentino Parlato, Lucio Magri, and Rossana Rossanda.[9] In April 1971, it became a daily.[10]

Although critical of the Italian Communist Party (PCI), it was popular with many party supporters who saw it as more lively and independent than the party newspaper l'Unità. The 1991 dissolution of the PCI that gave birth to the social-democratic Democratic Party of the Left was not followed by il manifesto, a paper that maintains positions closer to those of more left-wing parties, such as the Communist Refoundation Party, while remaining independent. il manifesto is known in Italy for its bitter and sarcastic headlines, puns, and clever choice of photographs. For example, the day of the election of Pope Benedict XVI, the first page of il manifesto featured a large photo of the newly elected pope along with the title "the German shepherd". Throughout its history, eminent Italian literary personalities have contributed to the newspaper such as the satirical poet Stefano Benni, the novelist Erri De Luca, and the novelist, philosopher, and linguist Umberto Eco. Additionally, it has included the satirical drawings of Vauro. For several years throughout the 1970s and 2000s, Parlato served as the editor-in-chief of the daily.[11] From 2010 to 2023, its director included Norma Rangeri.[12]

On 21 December 2000, the newspaper's office in Rome was the target of a bomb attack by Andrea Insabato, a neo-fascist with past ties to the Nuclei Armati Rivoluzionari and Terza Posizione. Insabato was seriously injured when the bomb detonated prematurely, and he was the attack's only casualty.[13] One of its reporters, Giuliana Sgrena, was kidnapped by Iraqi insurgents in February 2005 and released on 4 March of that same year. A controversy erupted when the rescue of Sgrena resulted in the shooting of her rescue vehicle by American troops and the killing of an Italian security agent.[14]

Financial problems

By the late 2000s, state aid to media in Italy was dropping and il manifesto began to operate at a loss. It was owned by a cooperative of journalists until entering legal liquidation in February 2012.[9] Despite this, it continued to publish. The cooperative announced a subscription campaign to buy back the brand,[9] which was successful in July 2016.[15]

Circulation

il manifesto had a circulation of 24,728 copies in 2008,[16][17] 22,140 copies in 2009, and 18,978 copies in 2010.[17] Its circulation fell to 10,516 by 2014.[18]

Editors-in-chief

References

  1. ^ https://www.versobooks.com/en-gb/blogs/news/5231-il-manifesto-fifty-years-of-an-italian-communist-daily
  2. ^ https://lefteast.org/rossana-rossanda
  3. ^ https://isreview.org/issue/67/what-do-we-want-everything/index.html
  4. ^ Conway, Kyle; Davier, Lucile (24 April 2019). Journalism and Translation in the Era of Convergence. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company. p. 57. ISBN 978-90-272-6255-4. Retrieved 27 June 2023 – via Google Books.
  5. ^ "Ads: tirature e diffusioni di quotidiani, settimanali (maggio 2016) e mensili (aprile 2016)".
  6. ^ "28 agosto 2020". il manifesto (in Italian). Retrieved 28 August 2020.
  7. ^ il manifesto (5 November 2015). "il manifesto is an Italian national daily newspaper". Medium. Retrieved 28 August 2020.
  8. ^ "Austerity threatens Europe's Left press". Revolting Europe. 12 January 2012. Retrieved 1 July 2015.
  9. ^ a b c Dominique Vidal (December 2014). "Buying back 'il manifesto'". Le Monde diplomatique. Retrieved 30 November 2014.
  10. ^ Gino Moliterno, ed. (2005). Encyclopedia of Contemporary Italian Culture (PDF). London and New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-203-74849-2. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 January 2015. Retrieved 11 January 2015.
  11. ^ Clyde Haberman (24 April 1989). "Newspaper Deal in Italy Stirs Debate over Press Freedom". The New York Times. Rome. Retrieved 7 June 2015.
  12. ^ "Il collettivo del manifesto". Il manifesto. Archived from the original on 27 March 2015. Retrieved 22 May 2016.
  13. ^ "Goodbye, Il Manifesto". libcom.org. 22 December 2012. Retrieved 17 August 2020.
  14. ^ "Bush repeats Italian death regret". CNN. 7 April 2005. Retrieved 30 November 2014.
  15. ^ "Il manifesto, i giornalisti ricomprano la testata. "Siamo tornati padroni di un giornale indipendente e autogestito"". il Fatto Quotidiano. 15 July 2016. Retrieved 1 August 2016.
  16. ^ "Data for average newspaper circulation in 2008". Archived 22 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Accertamenti Diffusione Stampa.
  17. ^ a b "National Newspapers". International Federation of Audit Bureaux of Circulations. Retrieved 6 March 2015.
  18. ^ "Diffusione stampa: quotidiani e settimanali a febbraio, mensili a gennaio (Ads, gennaio e febbraio 2014)".