|Admin. region||Lower Bavaria|
|• Lord mayor (2020–26)||Alexander Putz (CSU)|
|• Total||65.7 km2 (25.4 sq mi)|
|Elevation||445 m (1,460 ft)|
|• Density||1,100/km2 (3,000/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+01:00 (CET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+02:00 (CEST)|
Landshut (German: [ˈlantshuːt] (listen); Bavarian: Landshuad) is a town in Bavaria in the south-east of Germany. Situated on the banks of the River Isar, Landshut is the capital of Lower Bavaria, one of the seven administrative regions of the Free State of Bavaria. It is also the seat of the surrounding district and has a population of more than 70,000. Landshut is the largest city in Lower Bavaria, followed by Passau and Straubing, and Eastern Bavaria's second biggest city after Regensburg.
Owing to its characteristic coat of arms, the town is also called "City of the three Helmets" (German: Dreihelmestadt). The town is popularly known for is picturesque gothic old town the Landshut Wedding a full-tilt medieval festival. The cityscape is dominated by the St. Martin's Basilica and Trausnitz Castle high above the old town.
Due to its proximity and easy access to Munich and the Franz Josef Strauss International Airport, Landshut became a powerful and future-oriented investment area. The town is strongly industrialized (e.g. BMW plant, ebm-papst, Schott electronics), has Eastern Bavaria's lowest unemployment rate and is among the richest towns in Bavaria.
Landshut lies in the Alpine foothills. The River Isar runs through the city and splits in two in the city centre. Most of the built-up area lies on the flat terraced deposits of the river. The Isar divides the town into three areas: the northern part above the river belongs the Isar-Danube hill country, the Mühleninsel in the city center lies between both arms of the Isar, and the southern part below the river belongs to the Isar-Inn hill country. The southern part of the town is delimited by a chain of hills, some of which rise steeply, of which the Hofberg, where the Trausnitz Castle is located, forms the highest point in the city area at a height of 505 meters above sea level.
Landshut is situated between Munich (70 kilometers southwest) and Regensburg (70 kilometers to the north). Other nearby towns are Straubing (75 km not-east), Deggendorf (75 km to the east), and Passau at the German-Austrian border (120 km to the east). The town's spread is limited to the north by Ergolding, to the north-west by Altdorf, and to the south by Kumhausen, which form part of the built-up area of around 100'000 people, but are not incorporated into Landshut proper.
The town and Trausnitz Castle were founded in 1204 by Duke Louis I, when a settlement developed around the castle. Landshut was a Wittelsbach residence by 1231, and in 1255, when the duchy of Bavaria was split in two, Landshut also became the capital of Lower Bavaria. Duke Henry XVI was the first of the three 'rich dukes' who ruled Bayern-Landshut in the 15th century. The wedding of Duke George with the Polish Princess Royal Jadwiga Jagiellon in 1475 was celebrated in Landshut with one of the most splendid festivals of the Middle Ages (Landshut Wedding). After his death and the Landshut War of Succession, Bavaria-Landshut was reunited with Bavaria-Munich.
Between 1537–1543, after his visit to Italy, Louis X, Duke of Bavaria built the Landshut Residence, the first Renaissance palace constructed north of the Alps. It was after Palazzo Te in Mantua. William V, Duke of Bavaria ordered to upgrade Trausnitz Castle from a gothic fortification into a Renaissance complex when he lived in Landshut as crown prince for ten years until 1579. Afterwards Landshut lost most of its importance until the University of Ingolstadt was moved to Landshut in 1800. However, in 1826 the university was transferred to Munich.
During the Thirty Years' War, the city was taken and plundered by Swedish forces three times, (1632, 1634 and 1648).
Napoleon fought and won the Battle of Landshut in 1809 against an Austrian army as part of the War of the Fifth Coalition.
During World War II, a subcamp of Dachau concentration camp was located in the city to provide slave labour for local industry. The city was taken by US troops on April 29, 1945.
The U.S. Army maintained facilities in Landshut, including Pinder Kaserne and a dependent housing area, until 1968.
Since the opening of Munich Airport close to Landshut in 1992, the town has become an attractive business location.
|Largest groups of foreign residents|
The town is of architectural importance because of its predominantly Gothic architecture within the historic town centre, especially Trausnitz Castle and the Church of Saint Martin featuring the world's tallest brick tower. Among other Gothic architecture are the churches of St. Jodok and Holy Spirit, but also the Town Hall and the Ländtor, the only still existing gate of the medieval fortification.
Landshut is also known for a festival celebrated every four years called the Landshuter Hochzeit, commemorating the 1475 marriage of George of Bavaria and Jadwiga Jagiellon.
The Renaissance era produced in particular the decorated inner courtyard of the Trausnitz Castle and the ducal Landshut Residence in the inner town. Baroque churches are represented by the Jesuit church St. Ignatius, the Dominican church St. Blasius and the church of St. Joseph. Also the medieval churches of the Seligenthal convent and of the Cistercians were redesigned in baroque style. Many old middle-class houses of the past in the Old Town still represent the history of the town from the Gothic times to the Neo-Classicism.
There are regular regional train connections to Munich, Prague, Regensburg, Munich Airport, Passau, Salzburg, Rosenheim, Nuremberg and Hof.
The most successful professional team in the city is ice hockey team EV Landshut, playing currently in the Second Division.
The other professional team in the city is motorcycle speedway team Landshut Devils, who are based at the Ellermühle Speedway Stadium.
The local association football team is SpVgg Landshut with both men's and women's teams previously having reached the top state division.
There are also two nuclear power plants located 14 km away from Landshut, Isar I (Inactive) and Isar II (active until 2022).
Landshut is twinned with:
The Cathedral of St. Martin with its bell tower
The Church of St. Jodok
The Landshut Wedding and the Church of the Holy Spirit
Church of the Holy Ghost, Gothic porch
The Trausnitz Castle
Landshut city view
Alstadt St, the pedestrian area