The Laws of the Game[1] (LOTG) are the codified rules of association football. The laws mention the number of players a team should have, the game length, the size of the field and ball, the type and nature of fouls that referees may penalize, the offside law, and many other laws that define the sport. During a match, it is the task of the referee to interpret and enforce the Laws of the Game.

There were various attempts to codify rules among the various types of football in the mid-19th century. The extant Laws date back to 1863 where a ruleset was formally adopted by the newly formed Football Association. Over time, the Laws have been amended, and since 1886 they have been maintained by the International Football Association Board.

The Laws are the only rules of association football FIFA permits its members to use.[2] The Laws currently allow some minor optional variations which can be implemented by national football associations, including some for play at the lowest levels, but otherwise almost all organized football worldwide is played under the same ruleset. Within the United States, Major League Soccer used distinct ruleset during the 1990s[3] and National Federation of State High School Associations and the National Collegiate Athletic Association still use rulesets that are comparable, but different than the Laws. [4]

Laws of the Game

The Laws of the Game (LOTG) consist of seventeen individual laws, each law containing several rules and directions:[1]

Permitted variations

All high-level association football is played according to the same laws. The Laws permit some variation for youth, veterans, disability and grassroots football, such as shortening the length of the game and the use of temporary dismissals.[1]

Presentation and interpretation

In 1997, a major revision dropped whole paragraphs and clarified many sections to simplify and strengthen the principles. These laws are written in English Common Law style and are meant to be guidelines and goals of principle that are then clarified through practice, tradition, and enforcement by the referees.

The actual law book had long contained 50 pages more of material, organized in numerous sections, that included many diagrams but were not officially part of the main 17 laws. In 2007, many of these additional sections along with much of the material from the FIFA Questions and Answers (Q&A), were restructured and put into a new "Additional Instructions and Guidelines for the Referee" section. In the 2016/2017 revision of the Laws, the material from this section was folded into the Laws themselves.

Referees are expected to use their judgement and common sense in applying the laws; this is colloquially known as "Law 18".[5]

Jurisdiction and change management

The laws are administered by the International Football Association Board (IFAB). They meet at least once a year to debate and decide any changes to the text as it exists at that time. The meeting in winter generally leads to an update to the laws on 1 July of each year that take effect immediately. The laws govern all international matches and national matches of member organizations.[6] A minimum of six of the eight seat IFAB board needs to vote to accept a rule change. Four seats are held by FIFA to represent their 200+ member Nations, with the other four going to each of the British associations (the FA representing England, the SFA representing Scotland, FAW representing Wales and the IFA representing Northern Ireland), meaning that no change can be made without FIFA's approval, but FIFA cannot change the Laws without the approval of at least two of the British governing bodies.[6]

History

See also: History of association football

Further information: Kick-off (association football) § History, Dropped-ball § History, Scoring in association football § History, Determining the Outcome of a Match (association football) § History, Offside (association football) § History, Free kick (association football) § History, Penalty kick (association football) § History, Throw-in § History, Goal kick § History, and Corner kick § History

Pre-1863

In the nineteenth century, the word "football" could signify a wide variety of games in which players attempted to move a ball into an opponent's goal. The first published rules of "football" were those of Rugby School (1845), which permitted extensive handling, quickly followed by the Eton field game (1847), which was much more restrictive of handling the ball. Between the 1830s and 1850s, a number of sets of rules were created for use at Cambridge University — but they were generally not published at the time, and many have subsequently been lost. The first detailed sets of rules published by football clubs (rather than a school or university) were those of Sheffield FC (written 1858, published 1859) which codified a game played for 20 years until being discontinued in favour of the Football Association code, and those of Melbourne FC (1859) which are the origins of Australian rules football. By the time the Football Association met in late 1863, many different sets of rules had been published, varying widely on such questions as the extent to which the ball could be handled, the treatment of offside, the amount of physical contact allowed with opponents, and the height at which a goal could be scored.

1863 rules

An early draft of the original hand-written 'Laws of the Game' drawn up on behalf of The Football Association by Ebenezer Cobb Morley in 1863 on display at the National Football Museum, Manchester.
An early draft of the original hand-written 'Laws of the Game' drawn up on behalf of The Football Association by Ebenezer Cobb Morley in 1863 on display at the National Football Museum, Manchester.

In 1863, some football clubs followed the example of Rugby School by allowing the ball to be carried in the hands, with players allowed to "hack" (kick in the shins) opponents who were carrying the ball. Other clubs forbade both practices. During the FA meetings to draw up the first version of the laws, there was an acrimonious division between the "hacking" and "non-hacking" clubs. An FA meeting of 17 November 1863 discussed this question, with the "hacking" clubs predominating.[7] The first draft of the Football Association's laws, drawn up by FA's secretary Ebenezer Cobb Morley, reflected this preference, containing many features that would today be considered closer to rugby than association football.[original research?]

A further meeting was scheduled in order to finalise ("settle") the laws.[8] At this crucial 24 November meeting, the "hackers" were again in a narrow majority. During the meeting, however, Morley brought the delegates' attention to a recently published set of football laws from Cambridge University which banned carrying and hacking. Discussion of the Cambridge rules, and suggestions for possible communication with Cambridge on the subject, served to delay the final "settlement" of the laws to a further meeting, on 1 December.[9][10] A number of representatives who supported rugby-style football did not attend this additional meeting,[11] resulting in hacking and carrying being banned.[10]

Francis Campbell of Blackheath, the most prominent "hacking" club, accused FA President Arthur Pember, Morley, and their allies of managing the 24 November meeting improperly in order to prevent the "pro-hacking" laws from being adopted.[12] Pember strongly denied such an "accusation of ungentlemanly conduct". The verdicts of later historians have been mixed: Young accuses Campbell of "arrogance",[13] while Harvey supports Campbell's allegations, accusing the non-hackers of a "coup" against the pro-hacking clubs.[14] Blackheath, along with the other "hacking" clubs, would leave the FA as a result of this dispute.

The final version of the FA's laws was formally adopted and published in December 1863. Some notable differences from the modern game are listed below:

At its meeting on 8 December 1863, the FA agreed that, as reported in Bell's Life in London, John Lillywhite would publish the Laws.[15] The first game to be played under the new rules was a 0–0 draw between Barnes and Richmond.[15] Adoption of the laws was not universal among English football clubs. The Sheffield Rules continued to be used by many. Additionally, in preference of a more physical game with greater emphasis on handling of the ball, several decided against being part of the FA in its early years and would later form the Rugby Football Union in 1871.[16]

IFAB created

Minor variations between the rules used in England (the jurisdiction of the Football Association) and the other Home Nations of the United Kingdom, Scotland, Wales and Ireland, led to the creation of the International Football Association Board to oversee the rules for all the home nations. Their first meeting was in 1886.[17] Before this, teams from different countries had to agree to which country's rules were used before playing.

FIFA adoption

When the international football body on the continent FIFA was founded in Paris in 1904, it immediately declared that FIFA would adhere to the rules laid down by the IFAB. The growing popularity of the international game led to the admittance of FIFA representatives to the IFAB in 1913. Up until 1958, it was still possible for the British associations to vote together to impose changes against the wishes of FIFA. This changed with the adoption of the current voting system whereby FIFA's support is necessary, but not sufficient, for any amendment to pass.[6]

Notable amendments

Notable amendments to the rules include:[16][18]

From 1866 to 1883, the laws provided for a tape between the goalposts
From 1866 to 1883, the laws provided for a tape between the goalposts
When first introduced in 1891, the penalty was awarded for offences within 12 yards of the goal-line.
When first introduced in 1891, the penalty was awarded for offences within 12 yards of the goal-line.

Titles of the laws

The 1938 rewriting of the laws introduced the scheme of 17 named laws that has lasted until today, with only minor alterations. The history of the numbering and titles of the laws since 1938 is shown in the table below:

Law 1938 1996 1997 2016
1 The Field of Play
2 The Ball
3 Number of Players The Number of Players The Players
4 Players' Equipment The Players' Equipment
5 Referees The Referee
6 Linesmen Assistant Referees The Assistant Referees The Other Match Officials
7 Duration of the Game The Duration of the Match
8 The Start of Play The Start and Restart of Play
9 Ball In and Out of Play The Ball In and Out of Play
10 Method of Scoring The Method of Scoring Determining the Outcome of a Match
11 Off-Side Offside
12 Fouls and Misconduct
13 Free-Kick Free Kicks
14 Penalty-Kick The Penalty Kick
15 Throw-In The Throw-In
16 Goal-Kick The Goal Kick
17 Corner-Kick The Corner Kick

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Adopted from Sheffield rules

References

  1. ^ a b c "Laws of the Game 21/22" (PDF). International Football Association Board.
  2. ^ "FIFA Statutes - July 2012 edition" (PDF). FIFA.com. FIFA. Each Member of FIFA shall play Association Football in compliance with the Laws of the Game issued by IFAB. Only IFAB may lay down and alter the Laws of the Game.
  3. ^ Maurer, Pablo. "How U.S. soccer experimented with 10 changes to the game before launching MLS". The Athletic. Retrieved 8 November 2021.
  4. ^ "A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF RULES AND LAWS" (PDF). National Federation of State High School Associations.
  5. ^ United States Soccer Federation Inc.; Michael Lewis (2000). Soccer for dummies. Foster City, CA: IDG Books Worldwide. ISBN 1118053575. Retrieved 5 June 2014.
  6. ^ a b c "The IFAB: How it works". FIFA. Archived from the original on 5 September 2015. Retrieved 19 April 2013.
  7. ^ Harvey (2005), pp. 135–139
  8. ^ "The Football Association". Bell's Life in London. 28 November 1863. p. 6.
  9. ^ "The Football Association". Bell's Life in London. 28 November 1863. p. 6. The PRESIDENT pointed out that the vote just passed to all intents and purposes annulled the business of the evening, whereupon Mr. ALCOCK said it was too late to proceed further, and moved that the meeting do adjourn till Tuesday next, 1 Dec., and it was so resolved.
  10. ^ a b "The Football Association". Supplement to Bell's Life in London. 5 December 1863. p. 1.
  11. ^ Harvey (2005), pp. 144-145
  12. ^ "The Football Association". Supplement to Bell's Life in London. 5 December 1863. p. 1. MR CAMPBELL: [...] When the last meeting was held for the express purpose [...] of settling the proposed laws, they ought to have gone on with the rules as proposed by the association, and not taken the course they did as to the Cambridge rules, but the resolution and amendments had been proposed and passed in the way they had been without being properly put to the meeting, because it was found that the "hacking" party were too strong
  13. ^ Young, Percy M. (1968). A History of British Football. London: Arrow Books. p. 136. ISBN 0-09-907490-7.
  14. ^ Harvey (2005), p. 144
  15. ^ a b "The History of The FA". The Football Association. Retrieved 6 June 2014.
  16. ^ a b "FIFA – History – the Laws – From 1863 to the Present Day". FIFA. Archived from the original on 5 September 2015. Retrieved 16 August 2018.
  17. ^ "The International FA Board (IFAB)". FIFA. Archived from the original on 17 February 2013. Retrieved 19 April 2013.
  18. ^ FIFA. "FIFA History of Football". Archived from the original on 4 June 2007. Retrieved 8 December 2011.
  19. ^ History of the Laws of the Game on FIFA.com
  20. ^ "Welcome to FIFA.com News - The new Laws of the Game - FIFA.com". www.fifa.com. Archived from the original on 20 October 2019.
  21. ^ "International Football Association Board | IFAB". 3 March 2018. Archived from the original on 21 July 2018. Retrieved 3 March 2018.
  22. ^ "Handball rules among those changed by Ifab for next season". BBC. 2 March 2019.
  23. ^ "Handball rules among those amended by International FA Board". Sky Sports. 2 March 2019. Retrieved 3 March 2019.
  24. ^ "Cartões para comissão técnica, mão e até cara ou coroa: veja 12 mudanças nas regras do futebol (Cards for the coaching staff, handball and even coin toss: see 12 changes on football rules) (In Portuguese)". Globoesporte.com. 13 March 2019. Retrieved 24 April 2019.
  25. ^ Harmsel, Jan ter (18 March 2019). "Laws of the Game changes 2019-2020". Dutch Referee Blog. Retrieved 26 April 2019.
Notes
  1. ^ pages 72-79 (pages 77-84 of the PDF)
  2. ^ Does not include Decisions of the International Board
  3. ^ Both laws are included in the minutes of the 1997 Annual General Meeting: 1996 laws are at pp. 7-105; 1997 laws are at pp. 106-146
Wikisource has original text related to this article: Laws from 1863 to 1927