Overtime or extra time is an additional period of play specified under the rules of a sport to bring a game to a decision and avoid declaring the match a tie or draw where the scores are the same. In some sports, this extra period is played only if the game is required to have a clear winner, as in single-elimination tournaments where only one team or players can advance to the next round or win the tournament.
The rules of overtime or extra time vary between sports and even different competitions. Some may employ "sudden death", where the first player or team who scores immediately wins the game. In others, play continues until a specified time has elapsed, and only then is the winner declared. If the contest remains tied after the extra session, depending on the rules, the match may immediately end as a draw, additional periods may be played, or a different tiebreaking procedure such as a penalty shootout may be used instead.
The terms overtime and in overtime (abbreviated "OT" or "IOT") are primarily used in North America, whereas the terms extra time and after extra time (abbreviated "a.e.t.") are usually used in other continents.
In association football knockout competitions or competition stages, teams play an extra 30 minutes, called extra time, when the deciding leg (or replay of a tie) has not produced a winner by the end of normal or full-time. It follows a short break (traditionally 5 minutes) where players remain on or around the field of play and comprises two 15-minute periods, with teams changing ends in between. Although the Laws of the Game state that extra time is one of the approved methods to decide a winner, competitions are not bound to adopt extra time, and each competition is free to choose any method designated in the Laws of the Game to decide a winner.
In a one-off tie or deciding replay, level scores nearly always go to extra time. In games played over two legs (such as the UEFA Champions League or FIFA World Cup qualification) or even at lower levels (such as the English Football League play-offs), teams only play extra time in the second leg where the aggregate score – then normally followed by an away goals rule – has not produced a winner first. Ties in the FA Cup used to be decided by as many replays as necessary until one produces a winner within normal time rather than have any extra time or shootouts though, nowadays, replays are limited to just the one with the second going to extra time if teams are still level. Equally, CONMEBOL has historically never used extra time in any of the competitions it directly organises, such as the Copa Libertadores. Today, it uses extra time only in the final match of a competition. The score in games or ties resorting to extra time are often recorded with the abbreviation a.e.t. (after extra time) usually accompanying the earlier score after regulation time.
Ties that are still without a winner after extra time are usually broken by kicks from the penalty spot, commonly called a penalty shootout. In the late 1990s and early 2000s, many international matches tried to reduce this by employing the golden goal (also called "sudden death") or silver goal rules (the game ending if a team has the lead after the first 15-minute period of extra time), but competitions have not retained these.
In NCAA college soccer rules, all matches that remain tied after ninety minutes have an overtime period. A sudden death golden goal rule is applied, with the game ending as soon as an overtime goal is scored. If neither team scores in the two ten-minute halves, the match ends in a draw unless it is a conference or national championship tournament match. A playoff game tied after two overtime periods then moves to a penalty kick shoot-out with the winner determined by the teams alternating kicks from the penalty mark.
High school rules vary depending on the state and conference, but most will have a sudden-death overtime procedure wherein the game ends upon scoring a golden goal, although in some instances the overtime will go until completion with the team in the lead after time expires (i.e., silver goal rules) declared the winner. The overtime period length may vary, but it is commonly 10 minutes long. Depending on the state, if the game is still tied at the end of the first overtime:
See also: List of NFL tied games
The NFL introduced overtime for any divisional tiebreak games beginning in 1940, and for championship games beginning in 1946. The first postseason game to be played under these rules was the 1958 NFL Championship Game between the Baltimore Colts and New York Giants (the "Greatest Game Ever Played").
In 1974, the NFL adopted sudden death overtime for regular season and preseason games. If the score is tied after regulation time has expired, one additional period is played. Until the 2016 season, the period was 15 minutes in all games. Since 2017, it is 10 minutes for regular season games (up to 1973 and since 2021, no overtime in preseason). The captains meet with the officials for a coin toss, and then one side kicks off to the other, as at the start of a game. Under the original regular season format used through 2011, whoever scored first during the extra period won the game. Additionally, during regular season games, fourth quarter timing rules were in effect throughout the period, including a two-minute warning if necessary. In the regular season, if the overtime period is completed without either side scoring, the game ends in a tie.
Because there cannot be a tie in the playoffs, the teams would switch ends of the field and start multiple 15-minute overtime periods until one side scored, and all clock rules were as if a game had started over. Should a tie remain after overtime, this procedure repeats in true sudden death thereafter. Therefore, if a game was still tied with two minutes to go in any even overtime, there would be a two-minute warning (but not during the first overtime period as in the regular season). If it was still tied at the end of double overtime, the team that lost the overtime coin toss would have the option to kick or receive, or to choose which direction to play; at the end of quadruple overtime, there is a new coin toss, and play continues.
In March 2010, NFL owners voted to amend overtime rules for postseason games; the changes were extended to the regular season in 2012. The changes preserved sudden death with one notable exception: if the team that receives the opening kickoff scores a field goal, the team that initially kicked off gets one possession to tie or win the game; any other score on the opening possession ends the game immediately. In postseason games, if both teams are still tied after the first overtime, the procedure is repeated (but in true sudden death hereafter) until a winner is declared; in regular-season games, if the score is tied after 10 minutes, the game ends. No 2010 postseason game went into overtime, so the first overtime game played after the implementation of this rule came in the wild-card round in 2011. Incidentally, this was also the shortest overtime in NFL history; Pittsburgh Steelers kicker Shaun Suisham kicked off and the ball went out of the back of the end zone, resulting in a touchback and no time off the clock. Tim Tebow, then with the Denver Broncos, threw an 80-yard touchdown pass on the first play to Demaryius Thomas to give the Broncos the win in only 11 seconds.
The first time the "first possession field goal" rule was enforced occurred on 9 September 2012, the first week of the season, in a game between the Minnesota Vikings and Jacksonville Jaguars. Minnesota's Blair Walsh kicked a 38-yard field goal on the Vikings' first drive. When Jacksonville regained possession, they failed to gain a first down, losing possession and the game on a failed fourth-down conversion. The first overtime in which both teams scored occurred on 18 November 2012, in a game between the Houston Texans and Jacksonville Jaguars; the Texans won 43–37. The first overtime game that ended in a tie after both teams scored in overtime occurred on 24 November 2013, when the Minnesota Vikings and Green Bay Packers played to a 26–all tie. On 5 February 2017, a Super Bowl went into overtime for the first time ever, with the New England Patriots defeating the Atlanta Falcons, 34–28; the Patriots scored a touchdown on their initial possession, so the Falcons never received the ball in overtime.
In 2021, the NFL eliminating playing overtime for preseason games.
The Arena Football League and NFL Europe used a variant in which each team is guaranteed one possession. Whoever is leading after one possession won the game; if the teams remain tied after one possession, the game went to sudden death. This procedure was used by the United Football League in its inaugural 2009 season. This included both games of all semifinals series. All overtime periods thereafter were true sudden death periods.
The short-lived World Football League, for its inaugural 1974 season (the same year the NFL established sudden death in the regular season), used a fifteen-minute quarter of extra time, divided into two halves. It was not sudden death.
The New York Pro Football League, a 1910s-era league that eventually had several of its teams join the NFL, used the replay to settle ties in its playoff tournament. The replay was used in the 1919 tournament to decide the championship between the Buffalo Prospects and the Rochester Jeffersons. The teams had played to a tie on Thanksgiving; Buffalo won the replay 20–0 to win the championship.
In college (since the 1996 season) and high school football, as well as the Canadian Football League (since the 1986 season) and the short-lived Alliance of American Football, an overtime procedure is used to determine the winner. This method is sometimes referred to as a "Kansas Playoff", or "Kansas Plan" because of its origins for high school football in that state. A brief summary of the rules:
On two occasions, just two plays were required to determine an overtime winner in an NCAA football game: on 26 September 2002, when Louisville defeated Florida State 26–20 and on 27 September 2003, when Georgia Tech defeated Vanderbilt 24–17.
It is possible for a college game to end after a single play in overtime if the team on defense secures a turnover and returns it for a touchdown: on 9 September 2005, Ohio defeated Pittsburgh 16–10 on an 85-yard interception return by Dion Byrum on the third play of overtime. It is also possible for the defense to get a safety on the first play of overtime (which would also end the game), but this would require the offense to lose 75 yards on the play, which is extremely unlikely (such a scenario is attested in regular play from scrimmage in college football but never in an overtime period).
As of 2016, the Tennessee Volunteers have competed in the most overtime college football games, totalling 19.
The development of this "Kansas System" was implemented in 1970. The original Kansas System had each team start on the 10-yard line. Throughout the state that first year, seventy games went into overtime with one game requiring five overtime periods to determine a winner. After the system was reviewed positively by the majority of state's coaches and administrators, Kansas State High School Activities Association leadership presented the system to the National Federation of State High School Associations, who approved giving state associations the option of using the overtime system for two years. Two years later the overtime system became a permanent option for state associations use.
Another type of overtime system was once used by the California Interscholastic Federation. Known as the "California tiebreaker", it was used in high school football from 1968 through the 1970s and '80s. The California tiebreaker starts with the ball placed at the 50-yard line, and the teams run four plays each (a coin toss decides who gets to go first), alternating possession at the spot of the ball after every play. If no one manages to score (field goals aren't allowed), then the team that's in its opponents' territory at the conclusion of the eight plays is awarded one point and declared the winner. When the California tiebreaker was finally phased out, it was replaced by the Kansas tiebreaker.
In basketball, if the score is tied at the end of regulation play, the teams play multiple five-minute overtime periods until a winner is decided. In levels below collegiate/Olympic play, an overtime period is half the length of a standard quarter, i.e., four minutes for high school varsity. The alternating possession rule is used to start all overtime periods under international rules for full-court basketball, while a jump ball is used under high school and NCAA rules, with the arrow reset based on the results of the jump ball to start each overtime. The (Women's) National Basketball Association, which use a quarter-possession rule to start periods after the opening jump, also use a jump ball. The entire overtime period is played; there is no sudden-death provision. All counts of personal fouls against players are carried over for the purpose of disqualifying players. If the score remains tied after an overtime period, this procedure is repeated.
As many as six overtime periods have been necessary to determine a winner in an NBA game.
In exhibition games (non-competitive play), it is upon the discretion of the coaches and organizers if an overtime is to be played especially if it is a non-tournament game (a one-off event).
Starting in the 2009–10 season, Euroleague Basketball, the organizer of the EuroLeague and EuroCup, introduced a new rule for two-legged ties that eliminated overtime unless necessary to break a tie on aggregate. The rule was first used in the 2009–10 EuroCup quarterfinals (which consist of two-legged ties), although no game in that phase of the competition ended in a regulation draw. Euroleague Basketball extended this rule to all two-legged ties in its competitions, including the EuroLeague, in 2010–11. One game in the qualifying rounds of that season (the only phase of the EuroLeague that uses two-legged ties), specifically the second leg of the third qualifying round tie between Spirou Charleroi and ALBA Berlin, ended in a draw after regulation. No overtime was played in that game because Spirou had won the first leg, and the two-legged tie. Although other competitions use two-legged ties at various stages, the FIBA Europe competitions are the only ones known to use overtime only if the aggregate score after the second game is tied.
A rule change in the FIBA rules effective 1 October 2017 (Article D.4.2) permits drawn games at the end of either leg of the two-legged tie. The definition states, "If the score is tied at the end of the first game, no extra period shall be played."
In The Basketball Tournament, a 64-team single-elimination tournament held each summer in the U.S. with a $2 million winner-take-all prize, no overtime is played since 2018. Games employ the "Elam Ending", named after its creator, Ball State University professor Nick Elam, with the idea of making sure the game always ends on a basket. Upon the first dead ball (time-out, foul, violation) with 4 minutes or less remaining in the fourth period, the game clock is turned off (though the shot clock remains active). A target score is set at the current lead score plus eight points (originally seven, but changed for the 2019 edition), and the first team to reach or surpass the target wins. The NBA All-Star Game also uses the Elam Ending since 2020. The fourth period has no game clock, but the shot clock is active. Instead, a target score is set at the leading score after three periods plus 24 points; the first team to reach that score by any legal basket (field goal, three-pointer, or free throw) wins the game.
In 3x3 basketball, a formalized version of the half-court three-on-three game, ties after a 10-minute game are settled by continuing play with no game clock (only the shot clock) until one team scores two additional points: baskets made outside the arc being worth two points and all others being worth one point. The 21-point rule, under which a regulation game ends once either team has reached 21 points, does not apply during overtime; a tie at 20 must go to 22. The team that did not get first possession in the game gets first possession in overtime (as jump balls are not used in 3x3). Individual personal foul counts are not kept at any time during the game; all personal fouls are recorded against the team, and team fouls carry over to overtime.
Main article: Overtime (ice hockey)
Ties are common in ice hockey due to the game's low-scoring nature. If the score is tied at the end of regulation play, certain leagues play overtime.
When a tie needs to be broken in handball, two straight 5-minute overtimes are played. If the teams are still tied after that, this overtime procedure is repeated once more; a further draw will result in a penalty shootout.
Main article: Extra innings
Baseball and softball are unique among the popular North American team sports in that they do not use a game clock. However, if the regulation number of innings are complete (normally nine in baseball and seven in softball) and the score is even, extra innings are played to determine a winner. Complete innings are played, so if a team scores in the top half of the inning, the other team has the chance to play the bottom half of the inning; they will extend the game by tying the score again and win if they take the lead before their third out. The longest professional baseball game ever played, a 1981 minor league baseball game between the Pawtucket Red Sox and the Rochester Red Wings required 33 innings and over eight hours to complete. The Red Wings had scored in the top half of the 21st inning, but Pawtucket tied the game in the bottom half, extending the game.
Major League Baseball games normally end in a tie only if the game is called off due to weather conditions. In the early decades of baseball (up to the 1920s), a game could also be called off due to nightfall, but this ceased to be a problem once stadiums began installing lights in the 1930s. Two Major League Baseball All-Star Games have ended in a tie; the second 1961 game was called due to rain with the teams tied 1-1 after the ninth inning, and the 2002 game was called after the eleventh inning after both teams had exhausted their supply of pitchers.
The exceptions to this are in Nippon Professional Baseball, Chinese Professional Baseball League, and the Korea Baseball Organization, where the game cannot go beyond 12 innings (in Japan Series, first 7 games only; no such limit thereafter). During the 2011 season the NPB had a game time limit of 3+1⁄2 hours during the regular season; ties are allowed to stand in the regular season and postseason ties are resolved in a full replay, extending a series if necessary. Extra innings are not played in KBO doubleheaders' first game.
In 2017, the Arizona League and Gulf Coast League served as testing grounds for the softball version of the World Baseball Softball Confederation extra-inning rule that places a runner on second base to start an extra inning of play. That rule also was followed by MLB as an experimental rule in 2020 and 2021.
Main article: Result (cricket) § Tiebreakers
Ties are allowed to stand in most forms of cricket, but should a winner be necessary (such as in tournament settings), the most commonly used tiebreaking method is the Super Over, which is a limited extra session of the game wherein each team plays an additional six balls (six plays, together known as an over) to determine the winner. Tied Super Overs may be followed by another Super Over in some matches, such as (since 2008) the knockout matches of International Cricket Council tournaments. The Super Over originates from Twenty20 cricket, and has been used several times in Twenty20 International games; its first use in a One-Day International was the 2019 Cricket World Cup Final, wherein the Super Over was tied, and the winner then had to be determined by boundary countback (a statistical tiebreaker). Following this event, the ICC changed the rules of its knockout matches so that tied matches continue until one team wins a Super Over.
In the past, a bowlout was used in which bowlers attempted to hit an unguarded wicket.
See also: Golden point
Rugby league games in some competitions are decided using overtime systems if scores are level at full-time (80 minutes). One extra time system is golden point, where any score (try, penalty goal, or field goal) by a team immediately wins the game. This entails a five-minute period of golden point time, after which the teams switch ends and a second five-minute period begins. Depending on the game's status, a scoreless extra time period ends the game as a draw, otherwise play continues until a winner is found.
In the knockout stages of rugby competitions, most notably the Rugby World Cup, two full-length extra time periods of 10 minutes each are played (with an interval of 5 minutes in between) if the game is tied after full-time. If scores are level after 100 minutes, the rules call for a period of sudden-death extra time to be played. Originally, this sudden-death period was 20 minutes, but is now 10 minutes. If the sudden-death extra time period results in no scoring, standard World Rugby rules call for a kicking competition to be used to determine the winner. Domestic leagues may use other tiebreakers; for example, playoff games in the French professional leagues that are level at the end of extra time use a set of tiebreakers before going to a kicking competition, with the first tiebreaker being tries scored.
However, no match in the history of the Rugby World Cup has gone past 100 minutes into a sudden-death extra time period.
In the sevens variant of rugby union, extra time is used only in knockout stages of competitions, such as the World Rugby Sevens Series and Rugby World Cup Sevens. Extra time begins one minute after the end of full-time, and is played in multiple 5-minute periods. Unlike the 15-man game, extra time in sevens is true sudden-death, with the first score by either team winning the match. If neither team has scored at the end of a period, the teams change ends. This procedure is repeated until one team scores.
The longest rugby league game at first class level is 104 minutes, during the 1997 Super League Tri-series final between NSW and QLD. Normal game time is 80 minutes, but with scores level a further 20 minutes was played. When the scores remained level after 100 minutes, golden point extra time was invoked, a Noel Goldthorpe field goal decided the game after 104 minutes. At a lower level, the 2015 Group 21 grand final lasted 128 minutes
The Isner–Mahut match at the 2010 Wimbledon Championships was a first round Men's Singles match, in which the American 23rd seed John Isner played French qualifier Nicolas Mahut. In total, the match took 11 hours, 5 minutes of play over three days, with a final score of 6–4, 3–6, 6–7(7), 7–6(3), 70–68 for a total of 183 games. It remains by far the longest match in tennis history, measured both by time and number of games. The final set alone was longer than the previous longest match.[circular reference]
The official longest tie-break on record, 50 points, came in the first round of Wimbledon in 1985 when Michael Mortensen and Jan Gunnarson defeated John Frawley and Victor Pecci 6–4, 6–4, 3–6, 7-6 (24). Of note is an even longer tie-break of 70 points, with Benjamin Balleret defeating Guillaume Couillard 7-6 (34), 6–1. The match, held in Plantation, FL in 2013, was only a qualifying match in a Futures event, the lowest level tournament in pro tennis. All matches in qualifying are played without any chair umpire or any lines people. Without any official scorecard, this record is not official.
Since 2019, all 5th-set tiebreakers for men's (3rd-set for women's) are broken using the "super tiebreaker", with the first to reach 10 points winning the match; this began with the Australian Open. If the tiebreaker game deciding the match is tied at 9–all, whoever scores two straight points wins. At Wimbledon, when the deciding set is tied at 12–all, 7 points or two straight points after a 6–all tie wins. The U.S. Open & Olympics employs this at 6–all in deciding set. It would not apply to the French Open.
Length is in minutes unless otherwise specified.
|Sport||Competition||Length in minutes||Percent of length||Number of extra periods allowed||Sudden death?||If still tied at the end of the overtime period(s)||Applicable to|
|Overtime period||Entire match|
|Gridiron football||NFL regular season||10||60 (48 in NFHS)||17%||1||Modified sudden death||The match will end in a tie.||All matches|
|NFL playoffs||15||25%||Until winner is determined||Modified sudden death||Another overtime period will be played.|
|Untimed||N/A||2 (CFL regular season)
Until a winner is produced (NCAA, CFL playoffs, NFHS)
|Each team has one possession||Regular-season games in the CFL end in a tie after two overtime procedures (another overtime procedure is played during postseason games). In the NCAA and the NFHS, another overtime procedure is played; games can only end in a tie if inclement weather forces a game stoppage and curfew are in place.|
|Association football||universal||30||90||33%||1 (divided into 2 halves)||1992–2004 (golden goal)||The match will proceed to a best-of-5 penalty shootout, then sudden death penalty shootouts if still tied. The golden goal procedure is used in NCAA and NFHS matches only.||Decisive matches only|
|Australian rules football||AFL finals series||6||80||8%||Until winner is determined||No||Another overtime period will be played.||All matches|
|Basketball||NBA preseason||5||48||10%||Until winner is determined||Rarely used||Another overtime period will be played. Following the first overtime period, double overtime and thereafter could be sudden death due to time constraints (but only during preseason games and Summer League games).||Competitive matches only|
|NBA regular season/playoffs||No|
|FIBA 3x3||Untimed||10||N/A||1||Yes||A tie at the end of overtime is impossible. An overtime in 3x3 will end once either team has scored 2 points in overtime, equal to one basket from behind the "three-point" arc or any combination of two regular baskets and free throws.|
|NFHS||4||32||13%||Until winner is determined||No||Another overtime period will be played.|
FIBA World Cup
|Gaelic games (Gaelic football, hurling, camogie)||Senior inter-county Gaelic football and hurling||20||70||29%||1 (divided into 2 halves)||No||The match is replayed at a later date. In some competitions, a free-taking contest will decide the winner.||Knockout competitions only|
|All other games||20||60||33%||1 (divided into 2 halves)||No||The match is replayed at a later date. In some competitions, a free-taking contest will decide the winner.||Knockout competitions only|
|Ice hockey||North American professional regular season||5||60||8%||1||Yes||The match will proceed to a 3-on-3 shootout, then additional sudden-death shootout rounds if still tied.||Competitive matches only|
|Professional playoffs and regular season tiebreaker games||20||60||33%||Until winner is determined||Yes||Another overtime period will be played.||All matches|
|Team handball||universal||10||60||17%||2 (each divided into two halves)||No||The match will proceed to sudden-death penalty shootouts.||Certain matches only|
|Roller derby||WFTDA/MRDA rules||2||60||3%||Until winner is determined||No||Another overtime jam will be played.||All matches|
|Rugby league||Certain leagues||10||80||13%||1 (divided into two halves)||No||Either the match will end in a draw, or another overtime period will be played.||Certain matches only|
|Rugby sevens||universal||5||14[a 1]||36%[a 2]||Until winner is determined||Yes||Another overtime period will be played.||Decisive matches only|
|Rugby union||universal||20 (first)
|2 (first period divided into two halves)||Only during second extra time period||If the match remains tied after the first 20 minutes of extra time, 10 minutes of sudden-death extra time are played. If still level, the match will proceed to a kicking competition.||Decisive matches only|