Leopard seal[1]
Temporal range: 5–0 Ma
Early Pliocene – Recent
At the Antarctic Sound, near Brown Bluff, Tabarin Peninsula
Size compared to a 1.82 m (6ft) human
Scientific classification Edit this classification
Domain: Eukaryota
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Carnivora
Clade: Pinnipedia
Family: Phocidae
Subfamily: Monachinae
Tribe: Lobodontini
Genus: Hydrurga
Gistel, 1848
H. leptonyx
Binomial name
Hydrurga leptonyx
(Blainville, 1820)
Hydrurga leptonyx range map
  • homei (Lesson, 1828)
  • leptonyz (de Blainville, 1820)

The leopard seal (Hydrurga leptonyx), also referred to as the sea leopard,[3] is the second largest species of seal in the Antarctic (after the southern elephant seal). Its only natural predator is the orca.[4] It feeds on a wide range of prey including cephalopods, other pinnipeds, krill, fish, and birds, particularly penguins. It is the only species in the genus Hydrurga. Its closest relatives are the Ross seal, the crabeater seal and the Weddell seal, which together are known as the tribe of Lobodontini seals.[5][6] The name hydrurga means "water worker" and leptonyx is the Greek for "thin-clawed".


French zoologist Henri Marie Ducrotay de Blainville described the leopard seal in 1820.


The skull of the leopard seal

The leopard seal has a distinctively long and muscular body shape when compared to other seals. The overall length of adults is 2.4–3.5 m (7.9–11.5 ft) and their weight is in the range 200 to 600 kilograms (440 to 1,320 lb), making them the same length as the northern walrus but usually less than half the weight.[7][8] Females are larger than males by up to 50%.[9]

It is perhaps best known for its massive jaws, which allow it to be one of the top predators in its environment.[10] The front teeth are sharp like those of other carnivores, but their molars lock together in a way that allows them to sieve krill from the water in the manner of the crabeater seal. The coat is counter-shaded with a silver to dark gray blend and a distinctive spotted "leopard" coloration pattern dorsally and a paler, white to light gray color ventrally.[10] The whiskers are short and clear.

As "true" seals, they do not have external ears or pinnae, but possess an internal ear canal that leads to an external opening.[11] Their hearing in air is similar to that of a human, but scientists have noted that leopard seals use their ears in conjunction with their whiskers to track prey under water.[11]


Leopard seal with a male Antarctic fur seal on the shores of Livingston Island

Leopard seals are pagophilic ("ice-loving") seals, which primarily inhabit the Antarctic pack ice between 50˚S and 80˚S. Sightings of vagrant leopard seals have been recorded on the coasts of Australia, New Zealand (where individuals have been seen even on the foreshores of major cities such as Auckland,[12] Dunedin[13] and Wellington[14]), South America, and South Africa.[11] In August 2018, an individual was sighted at Geraldton, on the west coast of Australia. Higher densities of leopard seals are seen in West Antarctica than in other regions.[15][16]

Most leopard seals remain within the pack ice throughout the year and remain solitary during most of their lives with the exception of a mother and her newborn pup.[17][11][18] These matrilineal groups can move further north in the austral winter to sub-antarctic islands and the coastlines of the southern continents to provide care for their pups.[11] While solitary animals may appear in areas of lower latitudes, females rarely breed there. Some researchers believe this is due to safety concerns for the pups.[19] Lone male leopard seals hunt other marine mammals and penguins in the pack ice of antarctic waters. The estimated population of this species ranges from 220,000 to 440,000 individuals, putting leopard seals at "least concern".[11] Although there is an abundance of leopard seals in the Antarctic, they are difficult to survey by traditional audiovisual techniques[20] as they spend long periods of time vocalizing under the water’s surface during the austral spring and summer, when audiovisual surveys are carried out. This habit of submarine vocalizing makes leopard seals naturally suited for acoustic surveys, as are conducted with cetaceans, allowing researchers to gather most of what is known about them.[21]


A leopard seal displaying its teeth.

Acoustic behavior

Leopard seals are very vocal underwater during the austral summer.[21] The male seals produce loud calls (153 to 177 dB 1 μPa at 1 m) for many hours each day.[22] While singing the seal hangs upside down and rocks from side to side under the water. Their back is bent, the neck and cranial thoracic region (the chest) is inflated and as they call their chest pulses. The male calls can be split into two categories: vocalizing and silencing; vocalizing is when they are making noises underwater, and silencing noted[clarification needed] as the breathing period at the air surface.[23] Adult male leopard seals have only a few stylized calls, some are like bird or cricket-like trills yet others are low haunting moans.[24] Scientists have identified five distinctive sounds that male leopard seals make, which include: the high double trill, medium single trill, low descending trill, low double trill, and a hoot with a single low trill. These cadences of calls are believed to be a part of a long range acoustic display for territorial purposes, or to attract a potential mate.[23]

The leopard seals have age-related differences in their calling patterns, just like birds. The younger male seals have many different types of variable calls, but the mature male seals have only a few, highly stylized calls.[25] Each male leopard seal produces these individual calls, and can arrange their few call types into individually distinctive sequences (or songs).[26] The acoustic behavior of the leopard seal is believed to be linked to their breeding behaviour. In male seals, vocalizing coincides with the timing of their breeding season, which falls between November and the first week of January; captive female seals vocalize when they have elevated reproductive hormones.[24] Conversely, a female leopard seal can attribute[clarification needed] calls to their environment as well; however, usually it is to gain the attention of a pup, after getting back from a forage for food.

Breeding habits

A mother leopard seal with her pup.

Since leopard seals live in an area difficult for humans to survive in, not much is known on their reproduction and breeding habits. However, it is known that their breeding system is polygynous, meaning that males mate with multiple females during the mating period. Females reach sexual maturity between the ages of three and seven, and can give birth to a single pup during the summer on the floating ice floes of the Antarctic pack ice; males reach sexual maturity around the age of six or seven years.[8] Mating occurs from December to January, shortly after the pups are weaned when the female seal is in estrus.[27] In preparation for the pups, the females dig a circular hole in the ice as a home for the pup. A newborn pup weighs around 66 pounds and are usually with their mother for a month, before they are weaned off. The male leopard seal does not participate in taking care of the pup, and goes back to its solitary lifestyle after the breeding season.[11] Most leopard seal breeding is on pack ice.[28]

Five research voyages were made to Antarctica in 1985, 1987 and 1997–1999 to look at leopard seals.[28] They sighted seal pups from the beginning of November to the end of December, and noticed that there was about one pup for every three adults, and they also noticed that most of the adults were staying away from other adults during this season, and when they were seen in groups they showed no sign of interaction.[29] Leopard seal pups mortality rate within the first year is close to 25%.[30]

Vocalization is thought to be important in breeding, since males are much more vocal around this time. Mating takes place in the water, and then the male leaves the female to care for the pup, which the female gives birth to after an average gestation period of 274 days.[27]

Research shows that on average, the aerobic dive limit for juvenile seals is around 7 minutes, which means that during the winter months juvenile leopard seals do not eat krill, which is a major part of older seals' diets, since krill is found deeper during this time.[31] This might occasionally lead to co-operative hunting. Co-operative hunting of leopard seals on Antarctic fur seal pups has been witnessed, which could be a mother helping her older pup, or could also be female-male couple interactions, to increase their hunting productivity.[32]

Foraging behavior

Video of a leopard seal swimming and looking for emperor penguins in Antarctica, from Watanabe et al., Activity Time Budget during Foraging Trips of Emperor Penguins
A leopard seal attacking an emperor penguin

The only natural predator of leopard seals is the orca.[4] The seal's canine teeth are up to 2.5 cm (1 in) long.[33] It feeds on a wide variety of creatures. Young leopard seals usually eat mostly krill, squid and fish. Adult seals probably switch from krill to more substantial prey, including king, Adélie, rockhopper, gentoo, emperor and chinstrap penguins, and less frequently, Weddell, crabeater, Ross, and young southern elephant seals. Leopard seals are also known to take fur seal pups.[34]

Around the sub-Antarctic island of South Georgia, the Antarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus gazella) is the main prey. Antarctic krill, southern elephant seal pups and petrels such as the diving petrel and the cape petrel have also been taken as prey.[35] Vagrant leopard seals in New Zealand have been observed preying on chondrichthyans; elephantfish, ghost sharks, and spiny dogfish were recorded as prey items. Additionally, this population of leopard seals and those in Australia were noted to bear wounds from chimaeriforms and stingrays respectively.[36]

When hunting penguins, the leopard seal patrols the waters near the edges of the ice, almost completely submerged, waiting for the birds to enter the ocean. It kills the swimming bird by grabbing the feet, then shaking the penguin vigorously and beating its body against the surface of the water repeatedly until the penguin is dead. Previous reports stating the leopard seal skins its prey before feeding have been found to be incorrect. Lacking the teeth necessary to slice its prey into manageable pieces, it flails its prey from side to side tearing and ripping it into smaller pieces. Krill meanwhile, is eaten by suction, and strained through the seal's teeth, allowing leopard seals to switch to different feeding styles. Such generalization and adaptations may be responsible for the seal's success in the challenging Antarctic ecosystem.[37]

Physiology and research

Leopard seals' heads and front flippers are extremely large in comparison to other phocids. Their large front flippers are used to steer themselves through the water column making them extremely agile while hunting. They use their front flippers similarly to sea lions (otariids)[38] and leopard seal females are larger than males.[8] They are covered in a thick layer of blubber that helps to keep them warm while in the cold temperatures of the Antarctic. This layer of blubber also helps to streamline their body making them more hydrodynamic. This is essential when hunting small prey items such as penguins because speed is necessary. Scientists take blubber thickness, girth, weight, and length measurements of leopard seals to learn about their average weight, health, and population as a whole.[39] These measurements are then used to calculate their energetics which is the amount of energy and food it takes for them to survive as a species. They also have incredible diving capabilities. This information can be obtained by scientists by attaching transmitters to the seals after they are tranquilized on the ice. These devices are called satellite-linked time depth recorders (SLDRs) and time-depth recorders (TDRs). Scientists attach this device usually to the head of the animal and it records depth, bottom time, total dive time, date and time, surface time, haul out time, pitch and roll, and total number of dives.[40] This information is sent to a satellite where scientists from anywhere in the world can collect the data, allowing them to learn more about leopard seals diet and foraging habits. With this information, scientists are able to calculate and better understand their diving physiology. They are primarily shallow divers but they do dive deeper than 80 meters in search for food.[40] They are able to complete these dives by collapsing their lungs and re-inflating them at the surface. This is possible by increasing surfactant which coats the alveoli in the lungs for re-inflation. They also have a reinforced trachea to prevent collapse at great depth pressures.[41]

Relationships with humans

Leopard seals are large predators presenting a potential risk to humans. However, attacks on humans are rare. Most human perceptions of leopard seals are shaped by historic encounters between humans and leopard seals that occurred during the early days of Antarctic exploration.[42] Examples of aggressive behaviour, stalking and attacks are rare, but have been documented.[43] A large leopard seal attacked Thomas Orde-Lees (1877–1958), a member of Sir Ernest Shackleton's Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition of 1914–1917, when the expedition was camping on the sea ice.[44] The "sea leopard", about 12 ft (3.7 m) long and 1,100 lb (500 kg), chased Orde-Lees on the ice. He was saved only when another member of the expedition, Frank Wild, shot the animal.[45]

In 1985, Canadian-British explorer Gareth Wood was bitten twice on the leg when a leopard seal tried to drag him off the ice and into the sea. His companions managed to save him by repeatedly kicking the animal in the head with the spiked crampons on their boots.[44][43] On 26 September 2021, near the dive site Spaniard Rock at Simon's Town, South Africa, three spear-fishermen encountered a leopard seal while spearing approximately 400 m offshore. The seal attacked them and, while they were swimming back to shore, disarmed them of their flippers and spearguns and kept harassing the men over the course of half an hour, inflicting multiple bite and puncture wounds.[46]

In 2003, biologist Kirsty Brown of the British Antarctic Survey was killed by a leopard seal while conducting research snorkeling in Antarctica. This was the first recorded human fatality attributed to a leopard seal.[44][43] Brown was part of a team of four researchers taking part in an underwater survey at South Cove, near the U.K.'s Rothera Research Station. Brown and another researcher, Richard Burt, were snorkeling in the water. Burt was snorkeling at a distance of 15 metres (nearly 50 feet) from Brown when the team heard a scream and saw Brown disappear deeper into the water. She was rescued by her team, but they were unable to resuscitate her. It was later revealed that the seal had held Brown underwater for around six minutes at a depth of up to 70 meters (230 ft), drowning her. Furthermore, she suffered a total of 45 separate injuries (bites and scratches), most of which were concentrated around her head and neck. As Brown was snorkeling at the time, she may have even seen the seal approaching her.

In a report read at the inquiry into Brown's death, Professor Ian Boyd from the University of St Andrews stated that the seal may have mistaken her for a fur seal, or may have been frightened by her presence and attacked in defence; Professor Boyd claimed that leopard seal attacks on humans were extremely rare, but warned that they may potentially become more common due to increased human presence in Antarctica. The coroner recorded the cause of death as “accidental” and “caused by drowning due to a leopard seal attack”.[47]

Leopard seals have shown a predilection for attacking the black, torpedo-shaped pontoons of rigid inflatable boats, leading researchers to equip their craft with special protective guards to prevent them from being punctured.[43][48] On the other hand, Paul Nicklen, a National Geographic magazine photographer, captured pictures of a leopard seal bringing live, injured, and then dead penguins to him, possibly in an attempt to teach the photographer how to hunt.[49][50]


From a conservation standpoint, the only known predators of the leopard seals are orcas and sharks. Because of their limited subpolar distribution in the Antarctic, they may be at risk as polar ice caps diminish with global warming. In the wild, leopard seals can live up to 26 years old.[51] Leopard seal hunting is regulated by the Antarctic Treaty and the Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Seals (CCAS).[30]

Notes and references

  1. ^ Wilson, Don E.; Seeder, Dee Ann M., eds. (2005). "Species: Hydrurga leptonyx". Mammal species of the world : a taxonomic and geographic reference (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0.
  2. ^ Hückstädt, L. (2015). "Hydrurga leptonyx". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2015: e.T10340A45226422. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2015-4.RLTS.T10340A45226422.en. Retrieved 20 February 2022.
  3. ^ "Leopard seal". Encyclopedia Britannica. 1998.
  4. ^ a b "Leopard seals". Australian Antarctic Division. Retrieved 14 August 2017.
  5. ^ Wilson, Don E.; Reeder, DeeAnn M., eds. (2005). "Family: Phocidae". Mammal species of the world : a taxonomic and geographic reference (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0.
  6. ^ Berta, Annalisa (2009). "Pinnipedia: Overview". In Perrin, W. F.; Würsig, B.; Thewissen, J. G. M. (eds.). Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals (2nd ed.). Academic Press. pp. 878–85. ISBN 978-0-12-373553-9.
  7. ^ Nowak, Ronald M (2003). Walker's Marine Mammals of the World. Johns Hopkins University Press: Baltimore, MD.
  8. ^ a b c "Leopard Seals, Hydrurga leptonyx". Marine Bio.
  9. ^ Kienle, Sarah S. (17 August 2022). "Plasticity in the morphometrics and movements of an Antarctic apex predator, the leopard seal". Frontiers.
  10. ^ a b "Marine Species Identification Portal : Leopard seal - Hydrurga leptonyx". species-identification.org. Retrieved 2018-03-19.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g "Leopard seal | TravelWild Expeditions". TravelWild Expeditions. Retrieved 2018-04-18.
  12. ^ "Leopard seal". www.doc.govt.nz. Retrieved 2020-02-24.
  13. ^ MacLean, Hamish (2019-01-19). "Leopard seal sightings in New Zealand on the rise". Otago Daily Times Online News. Retrieved 2020-02-24.
  14. ^ "Antarctic Leopard seal turns up on Wellington's Lyall bay beach".
  15. ^ Southwell, C.; Bengtson, J.; Bester, M.; Schytte Blix, A.; Bornemann, H.; Boveng, P.; Cameron, M.; Forcada, J.; Laake, J.; Nordøy, E.; Plötz, J.; Rogers, T.; Southwell, D.; Steinhage, D.; Stewart, B.S.; Trathan, P (2012). "A review of data on abundance, trends in abundance, habitat use and diet of ice-breeding seals in the Southern Ocean". CCAMLR Science. 19: 1–26.
  16. ^ Forcada, J.; Trathan, P.; Boveng, Boyd; I., Burns; J., Costa; D., Fedak; M., Rogers; T., Southwell, C. (2012). "Responses of Antarctic pack-ice seals to environmental change and increasing krill fishing". Biological Conservation. 149 (1): 40–50. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2012.02.002. S2CID 7892053.((cite journal)): CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  17. ^ Rogers, T.L.; Hogg, C. & Irvine, A. (2005). "Spatial movement of adult leopard seals (Hydrurga leptonyx) in Prydz Bay, Eastern Antarctica". Polar Biology. 28 (6): 456–463. doi:10.1007/s00300-004-0703-4. S2CID 22535400.
  18. ^ Meade, J.; Ciaglia, M.B.; Slip, D.J.; Negrete, J.; Márquez M.E.I., Rogers, T. (2015). "Spatial patterns in activity of leopard seals Hydrurga leptonyx in relation to sea ice". Marine Ecology Progress Series. 521: 265–275. Bibcode:2015MEPS..521..265M. doi:10.3354/meps11120. S2CID 87706193.((cite journal)): CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  19. ^ Taylor, Margot (2017-09-27). "Odds against St Kilda leopard seal pup". Otago Daily Times. Retrieved 2020-07-25.
  20. ^ Southwell, C.; Paxton, C.; Borchers, D.; Boveng, P. Rogers, T. & de la Mare, W. (2008). "Uncommon or cryptic? Challenges in estimating leopard seal abundance by conventional but state-of-the-art methods". Deep-Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers. 55 (4): 519–531. Bibcode:2008DSRI...55..519S. doi:10.1016/j.dsr.2008.01.005.((cite journal)): CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  21. ^ a b Rogers TL, Ciaglia MB, Klinck H, Southwell C (2013). "Density Can Be Misleading for Low-Density Species: Benefits of Passive Acoustic Monitoring". PLOS ONE. 8 (1): e52542. Bibcode:2013PLoSO...852542R. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0052542. PMC 3541380. PMID 23326339.
  22. ^ Rogers TL (2014). "Source levels of the underwater calls of a male leopard seal". The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 136 (4): 1495–1498. Bibcode:2014ASAJ..136.1495R. doi:10.1121/1.4895685. PMID 25324053.
  23. ^ a b Rogers, Tracey L.; Cato, Douglas H. (2002). "Individual Variation in the Acoustic Behaviour of the Adult Male Leopard Seal, Hydrurga leptonyx". Behaviour. 139 (10): 1267–1286. doi:10.1163/156853902321104154. JSTOR 4535987.
  24. ^ a b Rogers, T. L.; Cato, D. H. & Bryden, M. M. (1996). "Behavioral significance of underwater vocalizations of captive leopard seals, Hydrurga leptonyx". Marine Mammal Science. 12 (3): 414–427. doi:10.1111/j.1748-7692.1996.tb00593.x.
  25. ^ Rogers, T. L (2007). "Age-related differences in the acoustic characteristics of male leopard seals, Hydrurga leptonyx". The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 122 (1): 596–605. Bibcode:2007ASAJ..122..596R. doi:10.1121/1.2736976. PMID 17614516.
  26. ^ Rogers, Tracey L.; Cato, Douglas H. (2002). "Individual Variation in the Acoustic Behaviour of the Adult Male Leopard Seal, Hydrurga leptonyx". Behaviour. 139 (10): 1267–1286. doi:10.1163/156853902321104154. JSTOR 4535987.
  27. ^ a b "Reproduction - Encyclopedia of Life". Encyclopedia of Life. Retrieved 2018-05-15.
  28. ^ a b Southwell, Colin; Kerry, Knowles; Ensor, Paul; Woehler, Eric J.; Rogers, Tracey (2003). "The timing of pupping by pack-ice seals in East Antarctica". Polar Biology. 26 (10): 648–652. doi:10.1007/s00300-003-0534-8. S2CID 7565646.
  29. ^ Borsa, Philippe (1990). "Seasonal occurrence of the leopard seal, Hydrurga leptonyx, in the Kerguelen Islands". Canadian Journal of Zoology. 68 (2): 405–408. doi:10.1139/z90-059.
  30. ^ a b Administrator. "Leopard Seal". www.pinnipeds.org. Retrieved 2018-06-04.
  31. ^ Kuhn, Carey E.; McDonald, Birgitte I.; Shaffer, Scott A.; Barnes, Julie; Crocker, Daniel E.; Burns, Jennifer; Costa, Daniel P. (2005). "Diving physiology and winter foraging behavior of a juvenile leopard seal (Hydrurga leptonyx)". Polar Biology. 29 (4): 303–307. doi:10.1007/s00300-005-0053-x. S2CID 32195795.
  32. ^ Hiruki, Lisa M.; Schwartz, Michael K.; Boveng, Peter L. (1999). "Hunting and social behaviour of leopard seals (Hydrurga leptonyx) at Seal Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica". Journal of Zoology. 249 (1): 97–109. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.1999.tb01063.x.
  33. ^ Kindersley, Dorling (2005) [2001]. Animal. New York City: DK Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7894-7764-4.
  34. ^ "POV: Why Are Leopard Seals Eating Fur Seal Pups?". video.nationalgeographic.com. Archived from the original on August 10, 2015. Retrieved 2015-08-08.
  35. ^ Walker, T.R.; Boyd, I.L.; Mccafferty, D.J.; Huin, N.; Taylor, R.I.; Reid, K. (1998). "Seasonal occurrence and diet of leopard seals (Hydrurga leptonyx) at Bird Island, South Georgia". Antarctic Science. 10 (1): 75–81. Bibcode:1998AntSc..10...75W. doi:10.1017/S0954102098000108. S2CID 85575118.
  36. ^ Van Der Linde, Krista; Visser, Ingrid N.; Bout, Rick; Lalas, Chris; Shepherd, Lara; Hocking, David; Finucci, Brittany; Fyfe, Jim; Pinkerton, Matthew (2021). "Leopard Seals (Hydrurga leptonyx) in New Zealand waters predating on chondrichthyans". Frontiers in Marine Science. 8. doi:10.3389/fmars.2021.795358.
  37. ^ Yong, Ed (2012). "Leopard seals suck up krill like whales". Nature. doi:10.1038/nature.2012.11672. S2CID 87484971.
  38. ^ "Leopard Seals". NOAA Fisheries National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Alaska Fisheries Science Center. 27 January 2021.
  39. ^ Krause, Douglas J.; Hinke, Jefferson T.; Perryman, Wayne L.; Goebel, Michael E.; LeRoi, Donald J. (2017-11-29). "An accurate and adaptable photogrammetric approach for estimating the mass and body condition of pinnipeds using an unmanned aerial system". PLOS ONE. 12 (11): e0187465. Bibcode:2017PLoSO..1287465K. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0187465. PMC 5706667. PMID 29186134.
  40. ^ a b Krause, Douglas J.; Goebel, Michael E.; Marshall, Greg J.; Abernathy, Kyler (2016-02-24). "Summer diving and haul-out behavior of leopard seals (Hydrurga leptonyx) near mesopredator breeding colonies at Livingston Island, Antarctic Peninsula". Marine Mammal Science. 32 (3): 839–867. doi:10.1111/mms.12309. ISSN 0824-0469.
  41. ^ "Respiration and Diving Physiology" (PDF). Cetus UCSD.
  42. ^ Muir, Shona F.; Barnes, David K.A.; Reid, Keith (2006). "Interactions between humans and leopard seals". Antarctic Science. 18 (1): 61–74. Bibcode:2006AntSc..18...61M. doi:10.1017/S0954102006000058. S2CID 53648359.
  43. ^ a b c d Owen, James (August 6, 2003). "Leopard Seal Kills Scientist in Antarctica". National Geographic Society. Archived from the original on August 8, 2003. Retrieved 2007-12-10.
  44. ^ a b c Carrington, Damian (2003-07-24). Inquiry into fatal leopard seal attack begins. NewScientist.com. Retrieved on 2013-02-24.
  45. ^ Shackleton, Ernest (1998). South. New York, NY: The Lyons Press. p. 112. ISBN 1-55821-783-5.
  46. ^ "NSRI appeal to the public to be cautious around seals and sea animals in general". National Sea Rescue Institute. Retrieved 1 October 2021.
  47. ^ Gyford, Sue (2003-11-14). [1] Archived 2016-04-18 at the Wayback Machine. ecophotoexplorers.com. Retrieved on 2019-08-20
  48. ^ Briggs, Mike; Briggs, Peggy (2005). The Encyclopedia of World Wildlife. Parragon. p. 60. ISBN 978-1-40545-680-7.
  49. ^ National Geographic photographer's surprise encounter with deadly predator. dpreview.com (2012-10-18)
  50. ^ "How a Leopard Seal Fed Me Penguins". National Geographic. March 11, 2014. Archived from the original on February 28, 2021. Retrieved April 23, 2023.
  51. ^ "Leopard Seal - Seal Facts and Information". www.seals-world.com. Retrieved 2018-04-18.

General references