This is a list of people who made transformative breakthroughs in the creation, development and imagining of what computers could do.
Achievement date 
Person  Achievement 

1977  Adleman, Leonard  Ingenious contribution and making publickey cryptography useful in practice. 
1944  Aiken, Howard  Conceived and codesigned the Harvard Mark I. 
830~  AlKhwarizmi  The term algorithm is derived from the algorism, the technique of performing arithmetic with Hindu–Arabic numerals popularised by alKhwarizmi in his book On the Calculation with Hindu Numerals.^{[1]}^{[2]}^{[3]} 
1970, 1989  Allen, Frances E.  Developed bit vector notation and program controlflow graphs; first female IBM Fellow (1989); first female recipient of the ACM's Turing Award (2006). 
1939  Atanasoff, John  Built the first electronic digital computer, the Atanasoff–Berry Computer, though it was neither programmable nor Turingcomplete. 
1822, 1837  Babbage, Charles  Originated the concept of a programmable generalpurpose computer; designed the Analytical Engine and built a prototype for a less powerful mechanical calculator. 
1973  Bachman, Charles  Outstanding contributions to database technology.^{[4]} 
1954, 1963  Backus, John  Led the team that created FORTRAN (Formula Translation), the first practical highlevel programming language, and formulated the Backus–Naur form that described the formal language syntax. 
850~  Banū Mūsā  Three brothers who wrote the Book of Ingenious Devices, describing what appears to be the first programmable machine, an automatic flute player.^{[5]} 
1960–1964  Baran, Paul  One of two independent inventors of the concept of digital packet switching used in modern computer networking including the Internet.^{[6]}^{[7]} Published a series of briefings and papers about dividing information into "message blocks" and sending them over distributed networks (1960–1964).^{[8]}^{[9]} 
1874  Baudot, Émile  French telegraphic engineer; patented the Baudot code, the first means of digital communication.^{[10]} The modem speed unit baud is named after him. 
1960s  Bauer, Friedrich L.  Proposed the stack for expression evaluation, with Edsger W. Dijkstra. Influential in establishing computer science as an independent discipline of science; coined the term software engineering. Contributed to numerical analysis, fundamentals of interpretation and translation of programming languages, systematics of program development, program transformation, and cryptology. 
1953  Bellman, Richard E.  American applied mathematician who introduced dynamic programming (1953) 
2018  Bengio, Yoshua; Hinton, Geoffrey; Lecun, Yann  Conceptual and engineering breakthroughs that have made deep neural networks a critical component of computing^{[11]} 
1989, 1990  BernersLee, Tim  Invented the World Wide Web and sent the first HTTP communication between client and server.^{[12]} 
1995  Blum, Manuel  Contributions to the foundations of computational complexity theory and its application to cryptography and program checking^{[13]} 
1966  Böhm, Corrado  Theorized of the concept of structured programming. 
1847, 1854  Boole, George  Formalized Boolean algebra, the basis for digital logic and computer science. 
1947  Booth, Kathleen  Invented the first assembly language. 
1969, 1978  Brinch Hansen, Per  Developed the RC 4000 multiprogramming system, which introduced the concept of an operating system kernel and the separation of policy and mechanism; effectively the first microkernel architecture.^{[14]} Codeveloped the monitor with Tony Hoare, and created the first monitor implementation.^{[15]} Implemented the first form of remote procedure call in the RC 4000,^{[14]} and was first to propose remote procedure calls as a structuring concept for distributed computing.^{[16]} 
1959, 1995  Brooks, Fred  Manager of IBM System/360 and OS/360 projects; author of The Mythical ManMonth. 
1908  Brouwer, Luitzen Egbertus Jan  Founded intuitionistic logic, which later came to prevalent use in proof assistants. 
1954  Burks, Arthur  Proposed Reverse Polish Notation with Don Warren and Jesse Wright in 1954, unaware of Konrad Zuse's earlier use of postfix notation in his Z3 in 1941, and later independently reinvented by Friedrich L. Bauer and Edsger W. Dijkstra for use with stacks. 
1930  Bush, Vannevar  Analogue computing pioneer; originator of the Memex concept, which led to the development of Hypertext 
1951  Caminer, David  With John Pinkerton, developed the LEO computer, the first business computer, for J. Lyons and Co 
1974  Catmull, Edwin  Computer generated imagery (CGI) and 3D graphics pioneer who developed texture mapping, the CatmullClark subdivision surface algorithm (with Jim Clark), and the CatmullRom spline (with Raphael Rom. Former vice president of Industrial Light & Magic and cofounder of and former president of Pixar 
1978  Cerf, Vint  With Bob Kahn, designed the Transmission Control Protocol and Internet Protocol (TCP/IP), the primary data communication protocols of the Internet and other computer networks 
1956  Chomsky, Noam  Made contributions to computer science with his work in linguistics. Developed Chomsky hierarchy, directly impacting programming language theory and other branches of computer science. 
1936  Church, Alonzo  Made fundamental contributions to theoretical computer science, specifically in the development of computability theory in the form of lambda calculus. Independently of Alan Turing, formulated what is now known as the ChurchTuring Thesis and proved that firstorder logic is undecidable. 
1962  Clark, Wesley A.  Designed LINC, the first functional computer scaled down and priced for individual users (1963). Many of its features are considered prototypes of essential elements of personal computers. 
1981  Clarke, Edmund M.  Developed model checking and formal verification of software and hardware, with E. Allen Emerson. 
1987  Cocke, John  Significant contributions to compiler design and theory, the architecture of large systems, and the development of reduced instruction set computers (RISC) 
1970  Codd, Edgar F.  Proposed and formalized the relational model of data management, the theoretical basis of relational databases 
1971  Conway, Lynn  Superscalar architecture with multipleissue outoforder dynamic instruction scheduling 
1967  Cook, Stephen  Formalized the notion of NPcompleteness, inspiring a great deal of research in computational complexity theory 
1965  Cooley, James  With John W. Tukey, created the fast Fourier transform 
1944  Coombs, Allen  Designed and built the Mark II Colossus computers; superseded the Mark I version (which was the world's first digital, electronic computing device) 
1989  Corbató, Fernando J.  Pioneering work organizing the concepts and leading the development of the generalpurpose, largescale, timesharing and resourcesharing computer systems CTSS and Multics 
1964 – 1996  Cray, Seymour  Designed a series of computers that were the fastest in the world for decades; and founded Cray Research, which built many of them; credited with creating the supercomputer industry 
1978, 1993  Cutler, David N.  Major pioneer of operatingsystem design through his work at Digital Equipment Corporation and Microsoft, where he was lead engineer of the VMS and Windows NT kernels (respectively) 
1962  Dahl, OleJohan  With Kristen Nygaard, invented the protoobject oriented language SIMULA 
1965  Davies, Donald  One of two independent inventors of the concept of digital packet switching used in modern computer networking including the Internet.^{[6]}^{[17]} Conceived of and named the concept for data communication networks (1965–66).^{[18]}^{[19]} Many of the widearea packetswitched networks of the 1970s, including ARPANET, were similar "in nearly all respects" to his original 1965 design.^{[20]} 
1976  Diffie, Whitfield  Fundamental contributions to modern cryptography. Diffie and Hellman's groundbreaking 1976 paper "New Directions in Cryptography"^{[21]} introduced the ideas of publickey cryptography and digital signatures, the foundation of security protocols used on the Internet today.^{[22]} 
1968  Dijkstra, Edsger W.  Made advances in algorithms; pioneered and coined the term structured programming; invented the semaphore; famously suggested that the GOTO statement should be considered harmful 
1918  Eccles, William and Jordan, Frank Wilfred  Patented the Eccles–Jordan trigger circuit,^{[23]} the socalled "bistable flipflop", a building block of all digital memory cells. Built from vacuum tubes, their concept was essential for the success of the Colossus codebreaking computer. 
1943, 1951  Eckert, J. Presper  With John Mauchly, designed and built ENIAC, the first modern (all electronic, Turingcomplete) computer; and UNIVAC I, the first commercially available computer 
1981  Emerson, E. Allen  Developed model checking and formal verification of software and hardware, with Edmund M. Clarke 
1963  Engelbart, Douglas  Best known for inventing the computer mouse, with Bill English; pioneer of human–computer interaction whose Augment team developed hypertext, networked computers, and precursors to GUIs 
1971  Faggin, Federico  Designed the first commercial microprocessor, Intel 4004 
1994  Feigenbaum, Edward  Pioneering the design and construction of largescale artificial intelligence systems, demonstrating the practical importance and potential commercial impact of artificial intelligence technology^{[24]} 
1974  Feinler, Elizabeth  Lead team that defined a simple text file format for Internet host names, which became the Domain Name System; her group became the naming authority for the toplevel domains of .mil, .gov, .edu, .org, and .com 
1943  Flowers, Tommy  Designed and built the Mark I Colossus computer, the world's first programmable, digital, electronic, computing devices 
1978  Floyd, Robert W.  Had a clear influence on methodologies for the creation of efficient and reliable software; helped to found these important subfields of computer science: theory of parsing, semantics of programming languages, automatic program verification, automatic program synthesis, and analysis of algorithms^{[25]} 
1994  Floyd, Sally  Founded the field of Active Queue Management; coinvented Random Early Detection, used in almost all Internet routers 
1879  Frege, Gottlob  Extended Aristotelian logic with firstorder predicate calculus independently of Charles Sanders Peirce, a crucial precursor in computability theory; also relevant to early work on artificial intelligence, logic programming 
1985  Furber, Stephen Sophie Wilson 
Lead the creation of the ARM 32bit RISC microprocessor^{[26]} 
1958, 1961, 1967  Ginsburg, Seymour  Proved "don'tcare" circuit minimization does not necessarily yield optimal results; proved that the ALGOL programming language was contextfree (linking formal language theory to the problem of compiler writing); invented AFL Theory 
1931  Gödel, Kurt  Proved that Peano arithmetic could not be both logically consistent and complete in firstorder predicate calculus. Church, Kleene, and Turing developed the foundations of computation theory based on corollaries to Gödel's work. 
1989  Goldwasser, Shafi  Invented zeroknowledge proofs with Micali and Rackoff; she and Micali received the Turing Award (2012) for this and other work. 
2011  Graham, Susan L.^{[undue weight? – discuss]}  Awarded the 2009 IEEE John von Neumann Medal for "contributions to programming language design and implementation and for exemplary service to the discipline of computer science" 
1953  Gray, Frank  Physicist and researcher at Bell Labs, developed the reflected binary code (RBC) or Gray code.^{[27]} Gray's methodologies are used for error detection and correction in digital communication systems, such as QAM in digital subscriber line networks. 
1974, 2005  Gray, Jim  Innovator in database systems and transaction processing implementation 
1986, 1990  Grosz, Barbara^{[undue weight? – discuss]}  Created the first computational model of discourse, establishing the field of research and influencing languageprocessing technologies; developed SharedPlans model for collaboration in multiagent systems 
1988, 2015  Gustafson, John  Proved the viability of parallel computing experimentally and theoretically; formulated Gustafson's Law; developed highefficiency formats for representing real numbers Unum and Posit 
1971  Hamilton, Margaret  Developed the concepts of asynchronous software, priority scheduling, endtoend testing, and humanintheloop decision capability, such as priority displays which then became the foundation for ultrareliable software design 
1950  Hamming, Richard  Created the fields of errorcorrecting code, Hamming code, Hamming matrix, the Hamming window, Hamming numbers, spherepacking (or Hamming bound), and the Hamming distance;^{[28]}^{[29]} established the concept of perfect code^{[30]}^{[31]} 
1956, 1958, 1974  Händler, Wolfgang  Pioneering work on automata theory, parallel computing, artificial intelligence, manmachine interfaces and computer graphics; one of the lead architects of the TR 4 supercomputer; invented Händler diagrams for logic function minimization; devised the Erlangen Classification System (ECS) for parallel computers 
2019  Hanrahan, Pat  Fundamental contributions to 3D computer graphics, with revolutionary impact on computergenerated imagery (CGI) in filmmaking and other applications 
1993  Hartmanis, Juris  Foundations for the field of computational complexity theory^{[32]} 
1981, 1995, 1999  Hejlsberg, Anders  Author of Turbo Pascal at Borland; chief architect of Delphi; designer and lead architect of C# at Microsoft 
1976  Hellman, Martin  Fundamental contributions to modern cryptography. Diffie and Hellman's groundbreaking 1976 paper, "New Directions in Cryptography,"^{[21]} introduced the ideas of publickey cryptography and digital signatures, the foundation for security protocols on the Internet today^{[22]} 
2017  Hennessy, John L.  Pioneered a systematic, quantitative approach to the design and evaluation of computer architectures with enduring impact on the microprocessor industry 
2008, 2012, 2018  Hinton, Geoffrey  Popularized and enabled the use of artificial neural networks and deep learning, among the most successful tools in modern artificial intelligence efforts; received the Turing Award (2018) for conceptual and engineering breakthroughs that have made deep neural networks a critical component of computing^{[11]} 
1961, 1969, 1978, 1980  Hoare, C. A. R.  Developed the formal language Communicating Sequential Processes (CSP), Hoare logic for verifying program correctness, and Quicksort; fundamental contributions to the definition and design of programming languages 
1968  Holberton, Betty  Wrote the first mainframe sort merge on the Univac 
1889  Hollerith, Herman  Widely regarded as the father of modern machine data processing, his invention of the punched card tabulating machine marked the beginning of the era of semiautomatic data processing systems 
1986  Hopcroft, John  Fundamental achievements in the design and analysis of algorithms and data structures 
1952  Hopper, Grace  Pioneered work on the necessity for highlevel programming languages, which she termed automatic programming; wrote the AO compiler, which heavily influenced the COBOL language 
1997  Hsu Fenghsiung  Work leading to the creation of the Deep Thought chess computer; architect and principal designer IBM Deep Blue chess computer that defeated the reigning World Chess Champion, Garry Kasparov, in 1997 
1952  Huffman, David  Created Huffman coding 
1952  Hurd, Cuthbert  Helped IBM develop its first generalpurpose computer, the IBM 701 
1945, 1953  Huskey, Harry  Contributions to the design of early computers including ENIAC, EDVAC, Pilot ACE, EDVAC, SEAC, SWAC, and Bendix G15 (the latter described as the first personal computer, being operable by one person) 
1954, 1962  Iverson, Kenneth  Helped establish and taught the first graduate course in computer science (at Harvard); invented the APL programming language; contributions to interactive computing 
1801  Jacquard, Joseph Marie  Built and demonstrated the Jacquard loom, a programmable mechanized loom controlled by a tape constructed from punched cards 
1206  AlJazari  Invented programmable machines, including programmable humanoid robots,^{[33]} and the castle clock, an astronomical clock considered the first programmable analog computer^{[34]} 
1989  Kahan, William  Fundamental contributions to numerical analysis; foremost expert on floatingpoint computations; dedicated to "making the world safe for numerical computations" 
1978  Kahn, Bob  Designed the Transmission Control Protocol and Internet Protocol (TCP/IP), the primary data communication protocols of the Internet and other computer networks 
1952, 1953  Karnaugh, Maurice  Creator of the Karnaugh map, a variation on Edward Veitch's Veitch chart ; rediscovery of Allan Marquand's much earlier logical diagram used for logic function minimization 
1985  Karp, Richard M.  Contributions to algorithm theory, including the development of efficient algorithms for network flow and other combinatorial optimization problems; identified polynomialtime computability with the intuitive notion of algorithmic efficiency; contributed to the theory of NPcompleteness 
1973  Karpinski, Jacek  Developed the first differential analyzer using transistors; developed one of the first machinelearning algorithms for character and image recognition; invented of one of the first minicomputers, the K202 
1970~  Kay, Alan  Pioneered many ideas at the root of objectoriented programming languages; led the team that developed Smalltalk; made fundamental contributions to personal computing 
1972–1994  Kildall, Gary  Introduced the theory of dataflow analysis in optimizing compilers (global expression optimization, Kildall's method). Worked on instruction set emulators (INTERP), found an innovative software relocation method (page boundary relocation), and laid the foundation to the concepts of binary recompilation (XLT86). Developed the first highlevel programming language and compiler for microcomputers (PL/M) and the first mainstream operating system for microcomputers (CP/M). Invented the concept of a hardware abstraction layer called the BIOS, with both conceptually laying the foundation to all DOSbased operating systems on personal computers. Worked on diskette track buffering schemes, readahead algorithms, virtual disk drives, and file system caching. Developed the first computer interface for video disks and pioneered CDROM file systems, introducing the first encyclopedia for computers (The Electronic Encyclopedia). Pioneered a modular PBX communication system integrating landlines with mobile phones (Intelliphone) and to remotely connect with home appliances. 
1957  Kirsch, Russell Gray  Whilst working for the National Bureau of Standards (NBS), Kirsch used a recently developed image scanner to scan and store the first digital photograph.^{[35]} His scanned photo of his threemonthold son was deemed by Life magazine as one of the "100 Photographs That Changed The World." 
1961–1970s  Kleinrock, Leonard  Pioneered the application of queueing theory to model delays in message switching networks in his Ph.D. thesis in 1961–1962, published as a book in 1964.^{[36]} He later published several of the standard works on the subject. In the early 1970s, he applied queueing theory to model the performance of packet switching networks. This work played an influential role in the development of the ARPANET, the precursor to the Internet. He supervised many graduate students who worked on the communication protocols for internetworking which led to the Internet. His theoretical work on hierarchical routing in the late 1970s with student Farouk Kamoun remains critical to the operation of the Internet today. 
1936  Kleene, Stephen Cole  Pioneered work with Alonzo Church on the Lambda Calculus that first laid down the foundations of computation theory. 
1968, 1989  Knuth, Donald  Wrote The Art of Computer Programming and created TeX. Coined the term "analysis of algorithms" and made major contributions to that field, including popularizing Big O notation. 
19501960  Lamarr, Hedy  At the beginning of World War II, she and composer George Antheil developed a radio guidance system for Allied torpedoes that used spread spectrum and frequency hopping technology to defeat the threat of jamming by the Axis powers. Although the US Navy did not adopt the technology until the 1960s, the principles of their work are incorporated into Bluetooth and GPS technology and are similar to methods used in legacy versions of CDMA and WiFi. This work led to their induction into the National Inventors Hall of Fame in 2014. 
1974, 1978  Lamport, Leslie  Formulated algorithms to solve many fundamental problems in distributed systems (e.g. the bakery algorithm). Developed the concept of a logical clock, enabling synchronization between distributed entities based on the events through which they communicate. Created LaTeX. 
1992  Lampson, Butler W.  Development of distributed, personal computing environments and the technology for their implementation: workstations, networks, operating systems, programming systems, displays, security and document publishing. 
1951  Lebedev, Sergei Alekseyevich  Independently designed the first electronic computer in the Soviet Union, MESM, in Kiev, Ukraine. 
1670~  Leibniz, Gottfried  Made advances in symbolic logic, such as the Calculus ratiocinator, that were heavily influential on Gottlob Frege. He anticipated later developments in firstorder predicate calculus, which were crucial for the theoretical foundations of computer science. 
1960  Licklider, J. C. R.  Began the investigation of human–computer interaction, leading to many advances in computer interfaces as well as in cybernetics and artificial intelligence. 
1987  Liskov, Barbara  Developed the Liskov substitution principle, which guarantees semantic interoperability of data types in a hierarchy. 
1300~  Llull, Ramon  Designed multiple symbolic representations machines, and pioneered notions of symbolic representation and manipulation to produce knowledge—both of which were major influences on Leibniz. 
1852  Lovelace, Ada  An English mathematician and writer, chiefly known for her work on Charles Babbage's proposed mechanical generalpurpose computer, the Analytical Engine. She was the first to recognize that the machine had applications beyond pure calculation, and created the first algorithm intended to be carried out by such a machine. As a result, she is often regarded as the first to recognize the full potential of a "computing machine" and the first computer programmer. 
1909  Ludgate, Percy  Charles Babbage in 1843 and Percy Ludgate in 1909 designed the first two Analytical Engines in history. Ludgate's engine used multiplication as its basis (using his own discrete Irish logarithms), had the first multiplieraccumulator (MAC), was first to exploit a MAC to perform division, stored numbers as displacements of rods in shuttles, and had several other novel features, including for program control. 
1971  MartinLöf, Per  Published an early draft on the type theory that many proof assistants build on. 
1943, 1951  Mauchly, John  With J. Presper Eckert, designed and built the ENIAC, the first modern (all electronic, Turingcomplete) computer, and the UNIVAC I, the first commercially available computer. Also worked on BINAC (1949), EDVAC (1949), UNIVAC (1951) with Grace Hopper and Jean Bartik, to develop early stored program computers. 
1958  McCarthy, John  Invented LISP, a functional programming language. 
1956, 2012  McCluskey, Edward J.  Fundamental contributions that shaped the design and testing of digital systems, including the first algorithm for digital logic synthesis, the QuineMcCluskey logic minimization method. 
1986  Meyer, Bertrand  Developed design by contract in the guise of the Eiffel programming language. 
2012  Micali, Silvio  For transformative work that laid the complexitytheoretic foundations for the science of cryptography and in the process pioneered new methods for efficient verification of mathematical proofs in complexity theory. 
1991  Milner, Robin  1) LCF, the mechanization of Scott's Logic of Computable Functions, probably the first theoretically based yet practical tool for machine assisted proof construction; 2) ML, the first language to include polymorphic type inference together with a typesafe exceptionhandling mechanism; 3) CCS, a general theory of concurrency. In addition, he formulated and strongly advanced full abstraction, the study of the relationship between operational and denotational semantics.^{[37]} 
1963  Minsky, Marvin  Cofounder of Artificial Intelligence Lab at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, author of several texts on AI and philosophy. Critic of the perceptron.

2008  Nakamoto, Satoshi  The anonymous creator or creators of Bitcoin, the first peertopeer digital currency. Nakamoto's 2008 whitepaper introduced the concept of the blockchain, a database structure that allows full trust in the decentralized and distributed public transaction ledger of the cryptocurrency.^{[38]} 
1934, 1938  Nakashima Akira  NEC engineer introduced switching circuit theory in papers from 1934 to 1936, laying the foundations for digital circuit design, in digital computers and other areas of modern technology. 
1960  Naur, Peter  Edited the ALGOL 60 Revised Report, introducing BackusNaur form 
1945  Neumann, John von  Formulated the von Neumann architecture upon which most modern computers are based. 
1956  Newell, Allen  Together with J. C. Shaw^{[39]} and Herbert Simon, the three cowrote the Logic Theorist, the first true AI program, in the first listprocessing language, which influenced LISP. 
1943  Newman, Max  Instigated the production of the Colossus computers at Bletchley Park. After the second world war he established the Computing Machine Laboratory at the University of Manchester where he created the project that built the world's first storedprogram computer, the Manchester Baby. 
1962  Nygaard, Kristen  With OleJohan Dahl, invented the protoobject oriented language SIMULA. 
1642  Pascal, Blaise  Invented the mechanical calculator. 
2017  Patterson, David  For pioneering a systematic, quantitative approach to the design and evaluation of computer architectures with enduring impact on the microprocessor industry. 
2011  Pearl, Judea  Fundamental contributions to artificial intelligence through the development of a calculus for probabilistic and causal reasoning.^{[40]} 
1952  Perlis, Alan  On Project Whirlwind, member of the team that developed the ALGOL programming language, and the first recipient of the Turing Award 
1985  Perlman, Radia  Invented the Spanning Tree Protocol (STP), which is fundamental to the operation of network bridges, while working for Digital Equipment Corporation. Has done extensive and innovative research, particularly on encryption and networking. She received the USENIX Lifetime Achievement Award in 2007, among numerous others. 
1964  Perotto, Pier Giorgio^{[undue weight? – discuss]}  Computer designer for Olivetti, designed one of the first electronic programmable calculators, the Programma 101^{[41]}^{[42]}^{[43]} 
1932  Péter, Rózsa  Published a series of papers grounding recursion theory as a separate area of mathematical research, setting the foundation for theoretical computer science. 
1995  Picard, Rosalind^{[undue weight? – discuss]}  Founded Affective Computing, and laid the foundations for giving computers skills of emotional intelligence. 
1996  Pnueli, Amir  Introducing temporal logic into computing science and for outstanding contributions to program and systems verification.^{[44]} 
1936  Post, Emil L.  Developed the Post machine as a model of computation, independently of Turing. Known also for developing truth tables, the Post correspondence problem used in recursion theory as well as proving what is known as Post's theorem. 
1976  Rabin, Michael O.  The joint paper "Finite Automata and Their Decision Problems,"^{[45]} which introduced the idea of nondeterministic machines, which has proved to be an enormously valuable concept. Their (Scott & Rabin) classic paper has been a continuous source of inspiration for subsequent work in this field.^{[46]}^{[47]} 
1994  Reddy, Raj  Pioneering the design and construction of large scale artificial intelligence systems, demonstrating the practical importance and potential commercial impact of artificial intelligence technology.^{[24]} 
1967–2011  Ritchie, Dennis  With Ken Thompson, pioneered the C programming language and the Unix computer operating system at Bell Labs. 
1977  Rivest, Ron  Ingenious contribution and making publickey cryptography useful in practice. 
1958–1960  Rosen, Saul  Designed the software of the first transistorbased computer. Also influenced the ALGOL programming language. 
1975, 1985  Rubin, Philip  Developed pioneering computational speech synthesis systems for use in the experimental study of speech perception and production, including articulatory synthesis and sinewave synthesis. Also designed the HADES signal processing system, a predecessor of MATLAB. 
1910  Russell, Bertrand  Made contributions to computer science with his work on mathematical logic (example: truth function). Introduced the notion of type theory. He also introduced type system (along with Alfred North Whitehead) in his work, Principia Mathematica. 
1975  Salton, Gerard^{[undue weight? – discuss]}  A pioneer of automatic information retrieval, who proposed the vector space model and the inverted index. 
1962  Sammet, Jean E.  Developed the FORMAC programming language. She was also the first to write extensively about the history and categorization of programming languages in 1969, and became the first female president of the Association for Computing Machinery in 1974. 
1880, 1898  Sanders Peirce, Charles  Proved the functional completeness of the NOR gate. Proposed the implementation of logic via electrical circuits, decades before Claude Shannon. Extended Aristotelian logic with firstorder predicate calculus, independently of Gottlob Frege, a crucial precursor in computability theory. Also relevant to early work on artificial intelligence, logic programming. 
1976  Scott, Dana  The joint paper "Finite Automata and Their Decision Problems,"^{[45]} which introduced the idea of nondeterministic machines, which has proved to be an enormously valuable concept. Their (Scott & Rabin) classic paper has been a continuous source of inspiration for subsequent work in this field.^{[46]}^{[47]} 
1977  Shamir, Adi  Ingenious contribution and making publickey cryptography useful in practice. 
1937, 1948  Shannon, Claude  Founded information theory, and laid foundations for practical digital circuit design. 
1971  Shima Masatoshi  Designed the Intel 4004, the first commercial microprocessor,^{[48]}^{[49]} as well as the Intel 8080, Zilog Z80 and Zilog Z8000 microprocessors, and the Intel 8259, 8255, 8253, 8257 and 8251 chips.^{[50]} 
2007  Sifakis, Joseph  Developing model checking into a highly effective verification technology, widely adopted in the hardware and software industries.^{[51]} 
1956, 1957  Simon, Herbert A.  A political scientist and economist who pioneered artificial intelligence. Cocreator of the Logic Theory Machine and the General Problem Solver programs. 
1953  Spärck Jones, Karen^{[undue weight? – discuss]}  One of the pioneers of information retrieval and natural language processing. 
1972  Stallman, Richard  Stallman launched the GNU Project in September 1983 to create a Unixlike computer operating system composed entirely of free software. With this, he also launched the free software movement. 
1993  Stearns, Richard E.  Foundations for the field of computational complexity theory.^{[32]} 
1981  Stepanov, Alexander  Stepanov is one of the pioneers when it comes to Generic Programming and he is also the primary designer and implementer of the C++ Standard Template Library. 
1937, 1941  Stibitz, George R.  Father of modern digital computing and remote job entry. Coined the term "digital". Discovered the reflected binary code known as Gray code. Excess3 code is named after him as well (Stibitz code). 
1982  Stonebraker, Michael  Revolutionized the field of database management systems (DBMSs) and founded multiple successful database companies 
1979  Stroustrup, Bjarne  Invented C++ at Bell Labs 
1963  Sutherland, Ivan  Author of Sketchpad, the ancestor of modern computeraided drafting (CAD) programs and one of the early examples of objectoriented programming. 
1986  Tarjan, Robert  Fundamental achievements in the design and analysis of algorithms and data structures. 
1973  Thacker, Charles P.  Pioneering design and realization of the Xerox Alto, the first modern personal computer, and in addition for his contributions to the Ethernet and the Tablet PC. 
1972, 1973  Thi, André Truong Trong and François Gernelle^{[undue weight? – discuss]}  Invention of the Micral N, the earliest commercial, nonkit personal computer based on a microprocessor. 
1967  Thompson, Ken  Created the Unix operating system, the B programming language, Plan 9 operating system, the first machine to achieve a Master rating in chess, and the UTF8 encoding at Bell Labs and the Go programming language at Google. 
1993  Toh Chai Keong  Created mobile ad hoc networking; Implemented the first working wireless ad hoc network of laptop computers in 1998 using Linux OS, Lucent WaveLan 802.11 radios, and a new distributed routing protocol transparent to TCP/UDP/IP. 
1912, 1914  Torres Quevedo, Leonardo  In 1912, Leonardo Torres Quevedo built El Ajedrecista (the chess player), one of the first autonomous machines capable of playing chess. As opposed to the humanoperated The Turk and Ajeeb, El Ajedrecista was a true automaton built to play chess without human guidance. It played an endgame with three chess pieces, automatically moving a white king and a rook to checkmate the black king moved by a human opponent. In his work Essays on Automatics, published in 1914, Torres Quevedo formulates what will be a new branch of engineering: automation and designed an electromechanical version of Babbage's Analytical machine which included floatingpoint arithmetic. 
1991  Torvalds, Linus  Created the first version of the Linux kernel. 
1965  Tukey, John W.  With James Cooley, created the fast Fourier transform. He invented the term "bit".^{[52]} 
1936  Turing, Alan  Made several fundamental contributions to theoretical computer science, including the Turing machine computational model, the conceiving of the stored program concept and the designing of the highspeed ACE design. Independently of Alonzo Church, he formulated the ChurchTuring thesis and proved that firstorder logic is undecidable. He also explored the philosophical issues concerning artificial intelligence, proposing what is now known as Turing test. 
2010  Valiant, Leslie  Transformative contributions to the theory of computation, including the theory of probably approximately correct (PAC) learning, the complexity of enumeration and of algebraic computation, and the theory of parallel and distributed computing. 
1875, 1875  Verea, Ramón  Designed and patented the Verea Direct Multiplier, the first mechanical direct multiplier. 
1950~  Wang An  Made key contributions to the development of magnetic core memory. 
1955, 1960s, 1974  Ware, Willis  Codesigner of JOHNNIAC. Chaired committee that developed the Code of Fair Information Practice and led to the Privacy Act of 1974. Vicechair of the Privacy Protection Study Commission. 
1964, 1966  Weizenbaum, Joseph  One of the fathers of modern artificial intelligence. Creator of the ELIZA program using natural language processing to emulate conversations with a psychologist. 
1968  Wijngaarden, Adriaan van  Developer of the Wgrammar first used in the definition of ALGOL 68 
1949  Wilkes, Maurice  Built the first practical stored program computer (EDSAC) to be completed and for being credited with the ideas of several highlevel programming language constructs. 
1970  Wilkinson, James H.  Research in numerical analysis to facilitate the use of the highspeed digital computer, having received special recognition for his work in computations in linear algebra and "backward" error analysis.^{[53]} 
1970, 1978  Wirth, Niklaus  Designed the Pascal, Modula2 and Oberon programming languages. 
2000  Yao, Andrew  Fundamental contributions to the theory of computation, including the complexitybased theory of pseudorandom number generation, cryptography, and communication complexity. 
1955–1958  Zemanek, Heinz  Developed an early fully transistorized computer, the Mailüfterl. Crucial in the creation of the formal definition of the programming language PL/I. 
1938, 1945  Zuse, Konrad  Built the first digital freely programmable computer, the Z1. Built the first functional programcontrolled computer, the Z3 in 1941.^{[54]} The Z3 already used what later became known as Reverse Polish Notation, and it was proven to be Turingcomplete in 1998. Produced the world's first commercial computer, the Z4. Designed the first highlevel programming language, Plankalkül. 
~ Items marked with a tilde are circa dates.