Michael Kremer
Kremer in 2020
Michael Robert Kremer

(1964-11-12) November 12, 1964 (age 58)
New York City, U.S.[2]
Academic career
InstitutionsMassachusetts Institute of Technology
Harvard University
The University of Chicago
FieldDevelopment economics
Health economics
Alma materHarvard University (AB, AM, PhD)
Robert Barro
Edward Miguel[1]
Seema Jayachandran
AwardsNobel Prize in Economics (2019)
Information at IDEAS / RePEc

Michael Robert Kremer (born November 12, 1964)[2] is an American development economist who is University Professor in Economics And Public Policy at the University of Chicago.[3] He is the founding director of the Development Innovation Lab at the Becker Friedman Institute for Economics.[4] Kremer served as the Gates Professor of Developing Societies at Harvard University until 2020.[3] In 2019, he was jointly awarded the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economics, together with Esther Duflo and Abhijit Banerjee,[5] "for their experimental approach to alleviating global poverty."[6]

Early life and education

Michael Robert Kremer was born in 1964 to Eugene and Sara Lillian (née Kimmel) Kremer in New York City. His father, Eugene Kremer was the son of Jewish immigrants to the US from Austria-Poland. His mother, Sara Lillian Kremer was a professor of English literature, who specialized in American Jewish and Holocaust literature. Her parents were Jewish immigrants to the US from Poland.[7] He graduated from Harvard University (A.B. in Social Studies in 1985 and Ph.D. in economics in 1992).[3][8]


A postdoctoral fellow at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) from 1992 to 1993, Kremer was a visiting assistant professor at the University of Chicago in Spring 1993, and professor at MIT from 1993 to 1999. From 1999 to 2020, he was a professor at Harvard University. He joined the faculty at the University of Chicago as a professor in the Kenneth C. Griffin Department of Economics, the College, and the Harris School of Public Policy on September 1, 2020.[3][4]

Kremer has focused his research on poverty reduction, often as it relates to education economics and health economics.[9] Working with Abhijit Banerjee and Esther Duflo (with whom he shared the 2019 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economics), he helped establish the effectiveness of randomized controlled trials to test proposed antipoverty measures.[10] Describing Kremer's early use of pioneering experimental methods, Duflo said that Kremer "was there from the very beginning, and took enormous risks. [...] He is a visionary."[11]

Kremer is a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences,[12] a recipient of a MacArthur Fellowship (1997)[13] and a Presidential Faculty Fellowship, and was named a Young Global Leader by the World Economic Forum.[14] He is a research affiliate at Innovations for Poverty Action (IPA),[15] a New Haven, Connecticut-based research outfit dedicated to creating and evaluating solutions to social and international development problems. Kremer is a lifetime member of Giving What We Can, an effective altruism organization whose members pledge to give 10% of their income to effective charities.[16] He is founder and president of WorldTeach, a Harvard-based organization which places college students and recent graduates as volunteer teachers on summer and year-long programs in developing countries around the world. He is also co-founder of Precision Development (PxD), a non-profit organization that leverages the global emergence of the mobile phone to provide digital agronomic advisory services to smallholder farmers at scale.[17]

Kremer started the advance market commitment, which focuses on creating incentive mechanisms to encourage the development of vaccines for use in developing countries, and the use of randomized trials to evaluate interventions in the social sciences.[18] He created the well-known economic theory regarding skill complementarities called Kremer's O-Ring Theory of Economic Development.[19] In 2000, Kremer, along with Charles Morcom, published a study recommending that governments fight elephant poaching by stockpiling ivory and so that they can proactively flood the market if elephant populations decline too severely.[20]

In his widely cited paper "Population Growth and Technological Change: One Million B.C. to 1990", Kremer studied economic change over the last one million years.[21] He found that economic growth increased with population growth.

Kremer led a panel on the reformation of education systems at the International Growth Centre's Growth Week 2010.[22] In early 2021, he was appointed by the G20 to the High Level Independent Panel (HLIP) on financing the global commons for pandemic preparedness and response, co-chaired by Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala, Tharman Shanmugaratnam and Lawrence Summers.[23] They released a report on "A Global Deal for Our Pandemic Age" in July of that year.[24]


Personal life

Kremer is the husband of economist Rachel Glennerster.

See also


  1. ^ Miguel, Edward Andrew (May 2000). The Political Economy of Education and Health in Kenya (PhD). Harvard University. Retrieved March 10, 2023.
  2. ^ a b "Michael Kremer – Facts – 2019". nobelprize.org. Nobel Prize Outreach AB. Retrieved March 10, 2023.
  3. ^ a b c d "Curriculum Vitae (Michael Kremer)" (PDF). University of Chicago. September 20, 2020. Retrieved November 28, 2020.
  4. ^ a b "Nobel-winning economist Michael Kremer to join UChicago faculty as University Professor". UChicago News. August 20, 2020. Retrieved March 10, 2023.
  5. ^ Wearden, Graeme (October 14, 2019). "Nobel Prize in Economics won by Banerjee, Duflo and Kremer". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved October 14, 2019.
  6. ^ "The Prize in Economic Sciences 2019" (PDF) (Press release). Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. October 14, 2019 – via nobelprize.org.
  7. ^ "Jewish Nobel Prize Winners in Economics". jinfo.org. Retrieved March 10, 2023.
  8. ^ Aggarwal-Schifellite, Manisha (October 14, 2019). "Michael Kremer wins Nobel in economics". The Harvard Gazette. Retrieved March 10, 2023.
  9. ^ Wiseman, Paul; Ljubojevic, Aleksandar; LeBlanc, Steve (October 14, 2019). "3 economists who study poverty win Nobel Prize". apnews.com. Associated Press. Retrieved March 10, 2023. The three winners, who have worked together, revolutionized developmental economics by pioneering field experiments that generate practical insights into how poor people respond to education, health care and other programs meant to lift them out of poverty.
  10. ^ Cho, Adrian (October 14, 2019). "Economics Nobel honors trio taking an experimental approach to fighting poverty". Science. doi:10.1126/science.aaz7975. S2CID 210377958. Retrieved March 10, 2023.
  11. ^ Smialek, Jeanna (October 14, 2019). "Nobel Economics Prize Goes to Pioneers in Reducing Poverty: Three professors, Abhijit Banerjee and Esther Duflo, both of M.I.T., and Michael Kremer of Harvard, were honored". The New York Times. Retrieved March 10, 2023.
  12. ^ "Michael Kremer". American Academy of Arts and Sciences. February 2023. Retrieved March 10, 2023.
  13. ^ "Michael Robert Kremer". macfound.org. MacArthur Foundation. January 1, 2005 [Originally published July 1, 1997]. Retrieved July 23, 2018.
  14. ^ "Michael Kremer - Agenda Contributor". World Economic Forum. Retrieved March 10, 2023.
  15. ^ "Michael Kremer". Innovations for Poverty Action. Retrieved March 10, 2023.
  16. ^ "Our members". givingwhatwecan.org. Giving What We Can. Retrieved March 10, 2023.
  17. ^ "Our Team". precisiondev.org. Precision Development (PxD). Retrieved March 10, 2023.
  18. ^ Kremer, Michael; Levin, Jonathan; Snyder, Christopher M. (May 1, 2020). "Advance Market Commitments: Insights from Theory and Experience". AEA Papers and Proceedings. 110: 269–273. doi:10.1257/pandp.20201017. ISSN 2574-0768.
  19. ^ Kremer, Michael (August 1993). "The O-Ring Theory of Economic Development". The Quarterly Journal of Economics. Oxford University Press. 108 (3): 551–575. doi:10.2307/2118400. JSTOR 2118400.
  20. ^ Kremer, Michael; Morcom, Charles (March 2000). "Elephants". American Economic Review. 90 (1): 212–234. doi:10.1257/aer.90.1.212. S2CID 219389100.
  21. ^ Kremer, Michael (August 1993). "Population Growth and Technological Change: One Million B.C. to 1990". The Quarterly Journal of Economics. Oxford University Press. 108 (3): 681–716. doi:10.2307/2118405. ISSN 0033-5533. JSTOR 2118405. S2CID 139085606.
  22. ^ "Growth Week 2010 – Summary" (PDF). London: International Growth Centre. August 2014 [Original event September 9–21, 2010].
  23. ^ "The G20 establishes a High Level Independent Panel on financing the Global Commons for Pandemic Preparedness and Response" (Press release). Ministry of Economy and Finance. January 27, 2021. Retrieved March 10, 2023.
  24. ^ Lucrezia Reichlin; Guntram Wolff; Jean-Claude Trichet; et al. (July 9, 2021), A Global Deal for Our Pandemic Age, Wikidata Q120681598
  25. ^ Johnson, Simon; Pollard, Niklas (October 14, 2019). "Trio wins economics Nobel for science-based poverty fight". Reuters. Retrieved March 10, 2023.
  26. ^ "Trio win Nobel Prize in economics for work on poverty". The Times of Israel. October 14, 2019. Retrieved March 10, 2023.
  27. ^ "Michael Kremer". Center for Global Development. Retrieved March 10, 2023.