Pemalang Regency
Kabupaten Pemalang
Other transcription(s)
 • Hanacarakaꦥꦸꦂꦮꦺꦴꦑꦺꦂꦠꦺꦴ
Cabbage farm with the peak of Mount Slamet in the background in Camara hamlet of Batursari village, Pemalang.
Cabbage farm with the peak of Mount Slamet in the background in Camara hamlet of Batursari village, Pemalang.
Coat of arms of Pemalang Regency
Pemalang IKHLAS

(Indah, Komunikatif, Hijau, Lancar, Aman, Sehat)

(Lovely, Communicative, Green, Smooth, Safe, Healthy)
Location within Central Java
Location within Central Java
Pemalang Regency is located in Java
Pemalang Regency
Pemalang Regency
Location in Java
Pemalang Regency is located in Indonesia
Pemalang Regency
Pemalang Regency
Location in Indonesia
Coordinates: 6°53′26″S 109°22′51″E / 6.89056°S 109.38083°E / -6.89056; 109.38083
Province Central Java
 • RegentH. Mukti Agung Wibowo, S.H.,M.M.
 • Total1,115.30 km2 (430.62 sq mi)
 (mid 2023 estimate)
 • Total1,523,622
 • Density1,400/km2 (3,500/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+7 (WIB)
Area code0284
Vehicle registrationG

Pemalang Regency is a regency (Indonesian: kabupaten) on the north coast of Central Java province in Indonesia. Its capital is the town of Pemalang. The regency is bordered by the Java Sea in the north, in the east by Pekalongan Regency, by Purbalingga Regency in the south, and by Tegal Regency in the west. It covers an area of 1,115.30 km2, and it had a population of 1,261,353 at the 2010 Census[2] and 1,471,489 at the 2020 Census;[3] the official estimate as at mid 2023 was 1,523,622 (comprising 772,034 males and 751,588 females).[1]


Pre Mataram

Archaeological evidence demonstrates settlement in Pemalang during prehistoric times. The findings of the punden and baths in the north-west of the District Moga. Ganesha statue, phallus, graves and tombstones in the village Keropak. Besides archaeological evidence that suggests the existence of an Islamic cultural elements can also be connected such as the grave of Sheikh Maulana Maghribi in Comal Kawedanan. There is also the grave of Rohidin, Sayyid uncle of Sunan Ampel Ngali who had a mission to convert the local population.

Pemalang's existence in the 16th century can be attributed to van Goens Rijkloff records and data in the book of W. Fruin Mees stated that in 1575 Pemalang is one of 14 independent regions in Java, led by a prince or a king. In a later development, and Panembahan Seda Senopati Panembahan Krapyak of Mataram conquered these areas, including Pemalang. Since then, Pemalang has become vassals of the Mataram area ruled by princes or vassal kings.

Pemalang and Kendal in the period before the 17th century was an area that was more important than Tegal, Pekalongan and Semarang, because of the highway linking the northern coast to the hinterland of Central Java (Mataram) that crosses Pemalang and Wiradesa, regarded as the oldest road connecting the two regions.

As the population of rural settlements that have regularly appeared in the early centuries AD to the period of the 14th and 15th centuries, and then growing rapidly in the 16th century, which increased during the development of Islam in Java under a kingdom of Demak, Cirebon and then Mataram.

At that time Pemalang have successfully established traditional governance in the years around 1575. Figure origins of Pajang named Prince Benawa. The Prince is King Jipang origin who succeeded his father who had died, Sultan Adiwijaya.

The position of the king was preceded by a bitter feud between him and Aria Pangiri.

Prince Benawa only ruled for one year. He died – -local belief states that Prince Benawa died in Pemalang, and was buried in the village Penggarit (now the Heroes Cemetery Penggarit).

Duchy subordinate to Mataram

Pemalang into administrative territorial unit steady since R. Mangoneng, Pangonen or Mangunoneng became ruler Pemalang region centered on Hamlet Oneng, Bojongbata village in about 1622. During this period Pemalang is apanage of Prince Purbaya of Mataram. According to some sources Mangoneng R is a figure that local leaders supporting the policy of Sultan Agung. A character who is very anti- VOC. Thus Mangoneng can be seen as a leader, soldier, warrior and hero of the nation in the fight against the Dutch colonization in the 17th century is the struggle against the Dutch under the banner of Sultan Agung of Mataram.

In about 1652, Sunan Ingabehi Subajaya Amangkurat II lifted into the Regent Pemalang after Amangkurat II established rule in Mataram throne after uprising Trunajaya extinguished with the help of the VOC in 1678.

Diponegoro War

According to the Dutch in 1820 Pemalang then ruled by a regent named Mas Tumenggung Suralaya. At this time Pemalang has been closely associated with the character Kanjeng Swargi or Kanjeng Pontang. A regent involved in the war Diponegoro. Swargi Kanjeng is also known as Gusti Sepuh, and during the war he managed to flee to the Netherlands Sigeseng or Kendaldoyong. Tomb of Gusti Sepuh can be identified as the tomb of Kanjeng Swargi or Reksodiningrat. In times of year reign between 1823 and 1825 i.e. during Reksadiningrat Regents. Note Netherlands said that the persistent assist the Dutch in the Diponegoro war in the North Coast area of Java just – regent regent Tegal, Kendal and rods without mentioning Regent Pemalang.

Meanwhile, in another part of the book P.J.F. Louw, entitled De Java Oorlog van 1825 -1830 reported that Van den Resident Poet organize some good lineup of Tegal, Pemalang and Bradford to defend themselves from Diponegoro in September 1825 until the end of January 1826. Involvement in helping the Dutch Pemalang this can be attributed with the Dutch statement stating Duke Reksodiningrat only officially recorded as regent until 1825 Pemalang. deployment and probable events that occur after the Pemalang Reksodiningrat Duke joins forces which resulted in the Dutch Diponegoro stop Regent Reksodiningrat.

In 1832 the Regent Pemalang Mbahurekso is Raden Tumenggung Sumo Negoro. At that time due to the success of abundant prosperity of agriculture in the area of Pemalang. As is known Pemalang is the producer of rice, coffee, tobacco and peanuts. In a report published at the beginning of the 20th century, stated that Pemalang a Karisidenan department and the District of Pekalongan. Pemalang section divided into two Pemalang and Randudongkal. And all district is divided into 5 districts. So thus Pemalang a district name, district and Onder Karisidenan District of Pekalongan, Central Java Province.

First of all district center located in the village of Oneng. Although there are no remnants of this district, but still found another clue. Instructions in the form of a hamlet named Oneng which can still be found today in the village of Bojongbata. While all district centers are both confirmed to be in Ketandan. The remains of the building can still be seen today is around Ketandan Clinic (Department of Health). The third district is the center of the current district (all district near Town Square Pemalang). The district is now also the rest of the buildings built by the Dutch colonial. Which subsequently went through several rehab and renovation of buildings up to forms joglo as typical building in Central Java.

Dutch colonial period and beyond

Thus all 0f the regency had been established as an administrative entity after the Dutch colonial administration. In biokratif all district administration also continue to be addressed. From the colonial bureaucratic forms that smells feudalistic bureaucracy towards more in line with developments in the present.


New order


In 1966, after the 30 September Movement ended and the 11 March Order was passed, based on the Decree (SK) of the Governor of the Central Java Region Number 204 of 1965 dated 24 August 1965, all Administrative divisions in Indonesia in all districts and municipalities in Central Java comprised as many as 347 units, including Pemalang Regency with as many as 9 districts (Indonesian: kecamatan), as an amalgamation of the existing royal districts. So at that time in Pemalang Regency nine districts had been formed, as a combination of the 18 former sultanate's districts. In 1966 the Pemalang Level II Region with a population of 1,248,851 people (in 1965) and an area of 199,215 hectares or 1,992.15 km2 still covered 3 kawedanaan (a level soon abolished), 9 districts (kecamatan), and 124 new style villages (as a combination of 355 traditional former sultanate villages). In the same year, the construction period in Pemalang Regency had started. The first construction in 1967 was carried out on the construction of bridges, village roads, schools, waterways, irrigation canals, and markets, as well as widening of village roads, repair / renovation of bridges, roads, markets, schools, train stations and irrigation networks. In 1967, Pemalang train station began to be renovated.


In 1981, based on the Decree of the Minister of Home Affairs number 140-502 of 1980 dated 22 September 1980 through the Decree of the Governor of the First Level Region of Central Java number 133-514 of 1980 dated 8 December 1980 and the Regional Regulation of the Province of Central Java Number 9 In 1981 on 10 March 1981, in Pemalang Regency, fourteen urban village were formed, namely by changing the status of some villages to a kelurahan, namely six villages in Pemalang district, four villages in Taman district, two villages in Comal district, one village in Moga district, and one village in Petarukan district, all of which were designated as kelurahan.


In further developments, in addition to changing the status of fourteen villages to that of kelurahan in 1984, based on the Decree of the Minister of Home Affairs number 138-210 of 1982 and Decree (SK) of the Governor of the First Level Region of Central Java number 150–216 in 1983, to be precise in Pemalang Regency, five district representative bodies were formed, namely representatives of Comal District (based in Lewokan), representatives of Moga District (which is based in Warungpring), representatives of Petarukan District (which is based in Langenharjo), representatives of Belik District (which is based in Kawangan / Kendalrejo), and representatives of Randudongkal District (based in Randusari).

Anniversary and Sesanti

As a top penghomatan Kabupten Pemalang the history of the formation of local governments have agreed to give the attribute Anniversary Pemalang. It is always to commemorate the birth history of all district also to provide the nuanced values of patriotism and the values of heroism as a mirror of the people of all district.

One alternative determination anniversary all district was at the time a statement of Prince Diponegoro to levy war against the Dutch Colonial, which is dated 20 July 1823. However, based on the discussion of experts set up by the team all district, the so Pemalang is dated 24 January 1575, or coincide with POND Thursday 1st of Shawwal 1496 Hijri Je 982. The decision was further stipulated in Local Regulation regency of all district No. 9 of 1996 on the anniversary of all district. In 1575 to form the Solar sengkala realized Lunguding Word Wangsiting Gusti having literal meaning: wisdom, speech / Sabdo, teachings, messages, Lord, to have a value of 5751. While 1496 Je realized by Candra sengkala Tawakal Ambuko Wahananing Manunggal that have meaning literally surrender, open, vehicle / container / tools for, unity / together with having the value 6941.

As for all district Sesanti is Pancasila Kaloka Panduning Nagari, with five basic literal meaning, famous / well-known, the guidelines / guidance, country / region to have a value of 5751.


The northern part of the regency is lowland, while the southern part is mountainous, with the peak of Mount Slamet (on the border with Tegal and Purbalingga), the highest mountain in Central Java. The Comal River is the largest, emptying into the Java Sea (Edge Pemalang).

The regency capital is located at the northwest tip of the regency, directly adjacent to the Tegal Regency. Pemalang is on the coastal road between Semarang and Surabaya Jakarta. In addition there is a provincial road that connects Pemalang with Purbalingga. One of the famous tourist attractions is the beach Pemalang thistle.

The regency lies in Central Java province, located on the northern coast of Java. Geographically the regency is located between 109° 17'30" – 109° 40'30" E and 6° 52'30" – 7° 20'11" S.

From Semarang (Central Java provincial capital), this regency is approximately 135 km to the west, or if reached by land vehicles takes approximately 3–4 hours. The whole regency has an area of 1,115.30 km2, with the following boundaries:

Thus the whole regency has a strategic position, both in terms of trade and government.

The regency has a varied topography. The northern part of the regency is a coastal area with an altitude ranging from 1 to 5 metres above sea level. The central part is a fertile lowland with an altitude of 6 to 15 metres above sea level; and the southern highlands and mountains are lush with cool air at an altitude varying from 16 to 925 metres above sea level. The region is crossed by two major rivers – the Waluh River and the Comal River. Most of the region is a fertile watershed.


Pemalang has a tropical monsoon climate (Am) with moderate to little rainfall from June to October and heavy to very heavy rainfall from November to May.

Climate data for Pemalang
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 30.0
Daily mean °C (°F) 26.3
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) 22.7
Average rainfall mm (inches) 466

Administrative districts

Pemalang Regency consists of fourteen districts (kecamatan), tabulated below with their areas and their populations at the 2010 Census[2] and the 2020 Census,[3] together with the official estimates as at mid 2023.[1] The districts are further divided into 222 villages (211 rural desa and 11 urban kelurahan). The administrative centre of government is in the Pemalang District. In addition to Pemalang, other significant district towns are Comal, Petarukan, Ulujami, Randudongkal and Moga.

In broad terms, the population can be described in three geographical areas. In the three coastal districts in the northwest of the regency (Pemalang, Taman and Petarukan) spread over 250.63 km2 there were 578,748 inhabitants (38% of the regency's population) as at mid 2023. In the northeastern districts (Ampeldaging, Cornal and Ulujami) with an area of 140.39 km2 there were 290,970 inhabitants (19%) in mid 2023. The remaining eight districts in the centre and south of the regency, covering 724.28 km2, there were 653,904 inhabitants (43%) in mid 2023.[1]

Ministry of
Home Affairs
(Kode Wilayah)
Name of
mid 2023
Urban villages
Rural villages
Status List of villages
33.27.01 Moga 41.40 62,432 72,816 75,383 10 Villages
  • Banyumudal
  • Gendowang
  • Kebanggan
  • Mandiraja
  • Moga
  • Pepedan
  • Plakaran
  • Sima
  • Walangsanga
  • Banyumudal
33.27.14 Warungpring 26.31 37,874 43,785 45,213 6 Villages
  • Cibuyur
  • Datar
  • Karangdawa
  • Mereng
  • Pakembaran
  • Warungpring
33.27.02 Pulosari 87.52 54,301 61,773 63,490 12 Villages
  • Batursari
  • Cikendung
  • Clekatakan
  • Gambuhan
  • Gunungsari
  • Jurangmangu
  • Karangsari
  • Nyalembeng
  • Pagenteran
  • Penakir
  • Pulosari
  • Siremeng
33.27.03 Belik 124.54 102,374 118,638 122,593 12 Villages
  • Badak
  • Belik
  • Beluk
  • Bulakan
  • Gombong
  • Gunungjaya
  • Gunungtiga
  • Kalisaleh
  • Kuta
  • Mendelem
  • Sikasur
  • Simpur
33.27.04 Watukumpul 129.02 63,578 75,891 79,097 15 Villages
  • Bodas
  • Bongas
  • Cawet
  • Cikadu
  • Gapura
  • Jojogan
  • Majakerta
  • Majalangu
  • Medayu
  • Pagelaran
  • Tambi
  • Tlagasana
  • Tundagan
  • Watukumpul
  • Wisnu
33.27.05 Bodeh 85.98 53,017 62,096 64,364 19 Villages
  • Babakan
  • Bodeh
  • Cangak
  • Gunungbatu
  • Jatingarang
  • Jatiroyom
  • Jraganan
  • Karangbrai
  • Kebandaran
  • Kebandungan
  • Kelangdepok
  • Kesesirejo
  • Kwasen
  • Longkeyang
  • Muncang
  • Parunggalih
  • Pasir
  • Payung
  • Pendowo
33.27.06 Bantarbolang 139.19 69,889 85,145 89,270 17 Villages
  • Banjarsari
  • Bantarbolang
  • Glandang
  • Karanganyar
  • Kebon Gede
  • Kuta
  • Lenggerong
  • Pabuaran
  • Paguyangan
  • Pedagung
  • Pegiringan
  • Purana
  • Sambeng
  • Sarwodadi
  • Sumurkidang
  • Suru
  • Wanarata
33.27.07 Randudongkal 90.32 94,666 110,553 114,494 18 Villages
  • Banjaranyar
  • Gembyang
  • Gongseng
  • Kalimas
  • Kalitorong
  • Karangmoncol
  • Kecepit
  • Kejene
  • Kreyo
  • Lodaya
  • Mangli
  • Mejagong
  • Penusupan
  • Randudongkal
  • Rembul
  • Semaya
  • Semingkir
  • Tanahbaya
33.27.08 Pemalang 101.93 172,907 200,868 207,711 7 13 Villages
  • Banjarmulya
  • Bojongnangka
  • Danasari
  • Kramat
  • Lawangrejo
  • Mengori
  • Pagongsoran
  • Saradan
  • Sewaka
  • Sungapan
  • Surajaya
  • Tambakrejo
  • Wanamulya
Urban villages
  • Bojongbata
  • Kebondalem
  • Mulyoharjo
  • Paduraksa
  • Pelutan
  • Sugihwaras
  • Widuri
33.27.09 Taman 67.41 157,570 187,459 195,189 2 19 Villages
  • Asemdoyong
  • Banjaran
  • Banjardawa
  • Cibelok
  • Gondang
  • Jebed Selatan
  • Jebed Utara
  • Jrakah
  • Kabunan
  • Kaligelang
  • Kedungbanjar
  • Kejambon
  • Pedurungan
  • Pener
  • Penggarit
  • Sitemu
  • Sokawangi
  • Taman
  • Wanarejan Utara
Urban villages
  • Beji
  • Wanarejan Selatan
33.27.10 Petarukan 81.29 143,412 169,272 175,848 1 19 Villages
Urban village
33.27.11 Ampelgading 53.30 64,589 74,701 77,146 16 Villages
  • Ampelgading
  • Banglarangan
  • Blimbing
  • Cibiyuk
  • Jatirejo
  • Karangtalok
  • Karangtengah
  • Kebagusan
  • Kemuning
  • Losari
  • Sidokare
  • Sokawati
  • Tegalsari Barat
  • Tegalsari Timur
  • Ujunggede
  • Wonogiri
33.27.12 Comal 26.54 86,467 94,540 96,055 1 17 Villages
  • Ambokulon
  • Gandu
  • Gedeg
  • Gintung
  • Kandang
  • Kauman
  • Kebojongan
  • Klegen
  • Lowa
  • Pecangakan
  • Purwosari
  • Sarwodadi
  • Sidorejo
  • Sikayu
  • Susukan
  • Tumbal
  • Wonokromo
Urban village
  • Purwoharjo
33.27.13 Ulujami 60.55 98,277 113,952 117,769 18 Villages
  • Ambowetan
  • Blendung
  • Botekan
  • Bumirejo
  • Kaliprau
  • Kertosari
  • Ketapang
  • Limbangan
  • Mojo
  • Padek
  • Pagergunung
  • Pamutih
  • Pesantren
  • Rowosari
  • Samong
  • Sukorejo
  • Tasikrejo
  • Wiyorowetan
TOTAL 1,115.30 1,261,353 1,471,489 1,523,622 11 211

All districts are mostly Javanese-speaking. In the west and south, inhabitants speak the Javanese dialects of Tegal and Banyumasan, while in the east (Petarukan, Comal, Ulujami, Ampelgading and Bodeh) they speak in the Javanese dialect of Pekalongan. In this regency there are also have many tribal people in the vicinity of Mount Slamet.


The following is List of Pemalang Regent from time to time.

No Photo Name Start Position End of Office vice-regent Information
1 R.A. Soemonegoro 1862
2 R.T. Reksonegoro 15 March 1862 June 1879[5]
3 R.T. Soero-adikoesoemo 21 June 1879[6] 24 March 1897[7]
4 R.T.A. Soeraningrat 7 April 1897[8] 21 January 1907[9]
5 R.M.A. Pandji Ariodinoto 8 March 1908[10] 24 January 1920[11] Moved to Cirebon Regents
6 - R.A.A. Soedoro Soero-adikoesoemo 18 January 1921[12] 6 October 1940[13]  
7 - R.T.A. Rahardjo Soero-adikoesoemo 10 September 1941[14] October 1945 Arrested and detained in Three Region Incident
Indonesian Government Period
8 R. Soepangat 20 October 1945
9 - K.H. Makmur 30 December 1945
10 - Soewarno 1947 1948  
11 - Mochtar 1 December 1949 1954  
12 - R.M. Soemardi 1954 1956  
13 - K. Machali 1957 1958  
14 - R.M. Soemartojo 1959 1966  
15 - Drs. Rivai Yusuf 1967 1972  
16 - Drs. Soedarmo 1973 1975  
17 - Yoesoef Achmadi 1975 1981  
18 - Slamet Haryanto, BA 1981 1991  
19 - Drs. Soewartono 1991 1996  
20 - Drs. H. Munir 1996 2000  
21 - H.M. Machroes, SH 2000 2010 H. Junaedi, SH, MH (2006–2011)
22 - H. Junaedi, SH, MH 2011 2016 Mukti Agung Wibowo,S.T.,M.Si.
23 Budhi Rahardjo 2016 2016 Appointed by the regent of Pemalang
24 H. Junaedi, SH, MH 2016 2021 Drs. Martono
25 Mukti Agung Wibowo, ST, 2021 2026 Mansur Hidayat, ST

Household industry


Just to the south of Pemalang, there is one large sugar mill named Sumberharjo sugar mill. Although not a popular tourist destination, the mill have many historical significance which regularly attract railfans from Britain or Europe: it is the last place where we can see Du Croo & Brauns steam locomotives in working order,[15] it is also the last sugarcane in Central Java who still operates its field lines (as in 2014 harvesting season),[16][17][18] and one of only two sugar mills in Java who regularly deployed their steam locomotives into the field lines (the other being Olean sugar mill in Situbondo, East Java).

Special food

One of Pemalang typical foods is Grombyang rice. The name of this food is quite unique. It is called Grombyang rice because the portion of the dressing is more than the rice and its side dishes so that when it is served in a small bowl it sounds grombyang-grombyang or wobbling like going to spill. When serving, the food consists of rice, slices of buffalo meat and soup which is served with buffalo satay in a small bowl.

Dekem rice cake concoction consisted of sliced rice cake, coconut milk yellow curry like, and sprinkled with coconut serundeng. [1] Lontong dekem usually served with satay.

Loso satay, signature dish from Pemalang, which is served with beef and spicy peanut sauce as its topping

Coto Tauto with fermented soybeans and buffalo meat

It is the traditional cake of Pemalang, Central Java. Kamir made of rice and wheat floor. The wheat Kamir made of mixed wheat floor, margarine, yeast, and sugar. However, the dough should be let overnight to have a perfect dough. While the rice Kamir is made of mixed rice floor, coconut milk, yeast, and sugar.


Is a famous tourist attraction Blendung Beach, Beach Water Park, thistle, and Cempaka Wulung upland Moga, waterfall bengkawah and cilating in belik, arugn jerang in tegalarja warungpring Arts and culture are well known Baritan, Kuntulan and Sintren Shopping on Pemalang Among other Pemalang Yogya department store, department store Bases, Sirandu Mall, Pemalang Permai Apartment, Plaza Pemalang (Matahari Department Store)

Famous people


  1. ^ a b c d Badan Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 28 February 2024, Kabupaten Pemalang Dalam Angka 2024 (Katalog-BPS 1102001.3327)
  2. ^ a b Biro Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2011.
  3. ^ a b Badan Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2021.
  4. ^ "Climate: Pemalang". Retrieved 13 November 2020.
  5. ^ "Gevonden in Delpher – De locomotief : Samarangsch handels- en advertentie-blad". (in Dutch). Retrieved 13 March 2021.
  6. ^ Regeerings-almanak voor Nederlandsch-Indie 1882. Batavia: Landsdrukkerij. 1881. p. 50.
  7. ^ "Gevonden in Delpher – Opregte Haarlemsche Courant". (in Dutch). Retrieved 13 March 2021.
  8. ^ Regeeringsalmanak voor Nederlandsch-Indie 1907. Batavia: Landsdrukkerij. 1907. p. 174.
  9. ^ "Gevonden in Delpher – Het vaderland". (in Dutch). Retrieved 13 March 2021.
  10. ^ "Gevonden in Delpher – Soerabaijasch handelsblad". (in Dutch). Retrieved 13 March 2021.
  11. ^ "Gevonden in Delpher – Het nieuws van den dag voor Nederlandsch-Indië". (in Dutch). Retrieved 13 March 2021.
  12. ^ "Gevonden in Delpher – Bataviaasch nieuwsblad". (in Dutch). Retrieved 13 March 2021.
  13. ^ "Gevonden in Delpher – De Indische courant". (in Dutch). Retrieved 13 March 2021.
  14. ^ "Gevonden in Delpher – De Indische courant". (in Dutch). Retrieved 13 March 2021.
  15. ^ "Sumberharjo ssugar mill". Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  16. ^ bagus70 (27 September 2014). "2014 JAVA STEAM AND SUGAR TOUR. DAY 6 (25th August 2014)". Mas Bagus Adventure. Retrieved 3 June 2020.((cite web)): CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  17. ^ bagus70 (1 October 2014). "2014 JAVA STEAM AND SUGAR TOUR. DAY 7 (26th August 2014)". Mas Bagus Adventure. Retrieved 3 June 2020.((cite web)): CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  18. ^ "Those were the days... Sumberharjo Sugar Mill". Retrieved 3 June 2020.