Punto guajiro or punto cubano – or simply punto – is a sung genre of Cuban music, a poetic art with music. It became popular in the western and central regions of Cuba in the 17th century,[1] and consolidated as a genre in the 18th century.[2] It has Andalusian and Canary Islands origins, and it integrated African elements in Cuba.[3][4]


Punto is played by a group with various types of guitar: the Spanish guitar, the Cuban tres, the laúd and the tiple. The punto refers to the use of a pick (punteando), rather than strumming (rasgueado). There are three percussion instruments: the clave, the güiro and the guayo (also a scraper, but of metal). Singers form themselves into teams, and improvise their lines. They sing, or chant, an unvarying melody, with intervals between stanzas to give the singers time to prepare the next verse.[5]

Early compositions were sometimes recorded in print, as were the names of some of the singer/composers.[6] Beginning around 1935, punto reached a peak of popularity on Cuban radio. Nothing was done to record their work, but as it happens, a stenographer, Aida Bode, was a fan of this genre, and she wrote down the verses as they were broadcast. Finally, in 1997, her transcriptions were published in book form.[7]

Celina González and Albita both sang punto in the first part of their careers, proving that the genre is still alive, though perhaps moribund in its original form. Celina has one of the great voices in popular music, and her supporting group Campo Alegre is outstanding. For aficionados, however, Indio Naborí (Sabio Jesús Orta Ruiz, b. 30 September 1922) is the greatest name in punto, for his decima poetry, which he wrote daily for the radio and newspapers. He is also a published author, with several collections of his poetry, much of which has a political nueva trova edge.[8]

Types of punto

Interpreters of the punto

This is a list of performers of the punto sufficiently notable to be mentioned in print.[10][11]

20th century


  1. ^ Roy, Maya 2002. Cuban music. Princeton & London.
  2. ^ [1] Article about punto cubano
  3. ^ Orovio, Helio 2004. Cuban music from A to Z. p171
  4. ^ Linares, María Teresa 1999. El punto cubano. La Habana.
  5. ^ Sublette, Ned 2004. Cuba and its music: from the first drums to the mambo. Chicago. p91
  6. ^ La lira criolla, guarachas, conciones, décimasy cantares de la guerra por un Vueltarribero. 2nd augmented edition, La Habana 1897.
  7. ^ Bode Henrnández, German 1997. Décimas rescatadas del aire y del olvido. La Habana. Sublette, Cuba and its music, p489-9, tells the story.
  8. ^ Indio Naborí and Ángel Valiente 1977. Décimas para la Historia. La controversia del siglo en verso improvisado. Las Palmas de Gran Canaria.
  9. ^ Orovio, Helio 1981. Diccionario de la música cubana: biografico y tecnico. Havana.. p314 (transl. contributor).
  10. ^ Linares, María Teresa 1999. El punto cubano. La Habana, Los intérpretes (p71).
  11. ^ Feijóo, Samuel 1977. Cuarteta y décima. La Habana.